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Title: Mesoscale convective systems over the Amazon basin: The GoAmazon2014/5 program

Abstract

The Green Ocean Amazon (GoAmazon2014/5) scientific program focused on the influence of aerosols and surface fluxes on tropical cloud formation. This major research effort gathered high-quality environmental data over the central Amazon basin during 2014 and 2015. The present work is a contribution to the GoAmazon2014/5 investigations with an emphasis on the behaviour of the most important mechanism of precipitation over the tropics: mesoscale convective systems (MCSs). To provide a background, MCSs' tracks obtained from infrared satellite images over the entire Amazon basin in 2014–2015 are compared with climatological values. We report the number of MCSs and precipitation in the basin is about 50% lower than compared to the climatology for 2000–2013. We argue that the below average occurrence of MCSs during the GoAmazon2014/5 program can be explained, at least in part, by the effects of positive anomalies in sea surface temperature over the equatorial Pacific Ocean, negative moisture transport toward the Amazon basin, and by the anticyclonic phase of the mode of interannual and intraseasonal variability over South America. Special attention is given to the 99 MCSs that occurred over the GoAmazon2014/5 site. The impact of MCSs on the meteorological variables over the GoAmazon2014/5 sites is examined, and themore » contribution of MCSs to rainfall over that region is estimated to be about 70% of the total. Finally, the synoptic and thermodynamic conditions related to the MCSs' genesis and dissipation are discussed. It is suggested that in days with reduced MCS genesis over the GoAmazon2014/5 region, the ventilation over the continent by easterly winds from the relative cold South Atlantic Ocean favours convection at locations near the ocean as compared to those inland.« less

Authors:
ORCiD logo [1];  [1];  [2];  [1];  [3]
  1. Univ. of Sao Paulo (Brazil). Inst. of Astronomy, Geophysics and Atmospheric Sciences
  2. Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States)
  3. Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States). Cloud Processes Research Group
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA); National Science Foundation (NSF); Coordination for the Improvement of Higher Education Personnel (CAPES) (Brazil); São Paulo Research Foundation (FAPESP) (Brazil); Brazilian National Council for Scientific and Technological Development (CNPq)
OSTI Identifier:
1599555
Alternate Identifier(s):
OSTI ID: 1559352
Report Number(s):
[LLNL-JRNL-769922]
[Journal ID: ISSN 0899-8418; 961109]
Grant/Contract Number:  
[AC52-07NA27344; 1547912; 16/2014; 2014/50848-9; 465501/2014-1; 2016/10557-0]
Resource Type:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
International Journal of Climatology
Additional Journal Information:
[ Journal Volume: 39; Journal Issue: 15]; Journal ID: ISSN 0899-8418
Publisher:
Royal Meteorological Society
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
54 ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES; 58 GEOSCIENCES; Amazon basin; GoAmazon2014/5; mesoscale convective systems

Citation Formats

Rehbein, Amanda, Ambrizzi, Tercio, Mechoso, Carlos Roberto, Espinosa, Sergio Alejandro Ibarra, and Myers, Timothy Albert. Mesoscale convective systems over the Amazon basin: The GoAmazon2014/5 program. United States: N. p., 2019. Web. doi:10.1002/joc.6173.
Rehbein, Amanda, Ambrizzi, Tercio, Mechoso, Carlos Roberto, Espinosa, Sergio Alejandro Ibarra, & Myers, Timothy Albert. Mesoscale convective systems over the Amazon basin: The GoAmazon2014/5 program. United States. doi:10.1002/joc.6173.
Rehbein, Amanda, Ambrizzi, Tercio, Mechoso, Carlos Roberto, Espinosa, Sergio Alejandro Ibarra, and Myers, Timothy Albert. Tue . "Mesoscale convective systems over the Amazon basin: The GoAmazon2014/5 program". United States. doi:10.1002/joc.6173.
@article{osti_1599555,
title = {Mesoscale convective systems over the Amazon basin: The GoAmazon2014/5 program},
author = {Rehbein, Amanda and Ambrizzi, Tercio and Mechoso, Carlos Roberto and Espinosa, Sergio Alejandro Ibarra and Myers, Timothy Albert},
abstractNote = {The Green Ocean Amazon (GoAmazon2014/5) scientific program focused on the influence of aerosols and surface fluxes on tropical cloud formation. This major research effort gathered high-quality environmental data over the central Amazon basin during 2014 and 2015. The present work is a contribution to the GoAmazon2014/5 investigations with an emphasis on the behaviour of the most important mechanism of precipitation over the tropics: mesoscale convective systems (MCSs). To provide a background, MCSs' tracks obtained from infrared satellite images over the entire Amazon basin in 2014–2015 are compared with climatological values. We report the number of MCSs and precipitation in the basin is about 50% lower than compared to the climatology for 2000–2013. We argue that the below average occurrence of MCSs during the GoAmazon2014/5 program can be explained, at least in part, by the effects of positive anomalies in sea surface temperature over the equatorial Pacific Ocean, negative moisture transport toward the Amazon basin, and by the anticyclonic phase of the mode of interannual and intraseasonal variability over South America. Special attention is given to the 99 MCSs that occurred over the GoAmazon2014/5 site. The impact of MCSs on the meteorological variables over the GoAmazon2014/5 sites is examined, and the contribution of MCSs to rainfall over that region is estimated to be about 70% of the total. Finally, the synoptic and thermodynamic conditions related to the MCSs' genesis and dissipation are discussed. It is suggested that in days with reduced MCS genesis over the GoAmazon2014/5 region, the ventilation over the continent by easterly winds from the relative cold South Atlantic Ocean favours convection at locations near the ocean as compared to those inland.},
doi = {10.1002/joc.6173},
journal = {International Journal of Climatology},
number = [15],
volume = [39],
place = {United States},
year = {2019},
month = {5}
}

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    Works referencing / citing this record:

    The 2014 southeast Brazil austral summer drought: regional scale mechanisms and teleconnections
    journal, August 2015

    • Coelho, Caio A. S.; de Oliveira, Cristiano Prestrelo; Ambrizzi, Tércio
    • Climate Dynamics, Vol. 46, Issue 11-12
    • DOI: 10.1007/s00382-015-2800-1

    Interannual rainfall variability in the Amazon basin and sea-surface temperatures in the equatorial Pacific and the tropical Atlantic Oceans: AMAZON BASIN RAINFALL VARIABILITY AND SST
    journal, November 2002

    • Ronchail, Josyane; Cochonneau, Gérard; Molinier, Michel
    • International Journal of Climatology, Vol. 22, Issue 13
    • DOI: 10.1002/joc.815

    Mesoscale convective systems over the Amazon basin. Part I: climatological aspects: AMAZON'S MESOSCALE CONVECTIVE SYSTEMS CLIMATOLOGY
    journal, July 2017

    • Rehbein, Amanda; Ambrizzi, Tercio; Mechoso, Carlos Roberto
    • International Journal of Climatology, Vol. 38, Issue 1
    • DOI: 10.1002/joc.5171

    Moisture source for the Amazon Basin: a study of contrasting years
    journal, May 2012

    • Satyamurty, Prakki; da Costa, Claudia Priscila Wanzeler; Manzi, Antonio Ocimar
    • Theoretical and Applied Climatology, Vol. 111, Issue 1-2
    • DOI: 10.1007/s00704-012-0637-7

    On the role of aerosols, humidity, and vertical wind shear in the transition of shallow-to-deep convection at the Green Ocean Amazon 2014/5 site
    journal, January 2018

    • Chakraborty, Sudip; Schiro, Kathleen A.; Fu, Rong
    • Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, Vol. 18, Issue 15
    • DOI: 10.5194/acp-18-11135-2018

    Record-breaking warming and extreme drought in the Amazon rainforest during the course of El Niño 2015–2016
    journal, September 2016

    • Jiménez-Muñoz, Juan C.; Mattar, Cristian; Barichivich, Jonathan
    • Scientific Reports, Vol. 6, Issue 1
    • DOI: 10.1038/srep33130

    An overview of the Amazonian Aerosol Characterization Experiment 2008 (AMAZE-08)
    journal, January 2010

    • Martin, S. T.; Andreae, M. O.; Althausen, D.
    • Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, Vol. 10, Issue 23
    • DOI: 10.5194/acp-10-11415-2010

    Tropical Convective Transition Statistics and Causality in the Water Vapor–Precipitation Relation
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    Meteorological context of the onset and end of the rainy season in Central Amazonia during the GoAmazon2014/5
    journal, January 2017

    • Marengo, Jose A.; Fisch, Gilberto F.; Alves, Lincoln M.
    • Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, Vol. 17, Issue 12
    • DOI: 10.5194/acp-17-7671-2017

    The Amazon Tall Tower Observatory (ATTO): overview of pilot measurements on ecosystem ecology, meteorology, trace gases, and aerosols
    journal, January 2015

    • Andreae, M. O.; Acevedo, O. C.; Araùjo, A.
    • Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, Vol. 15, Issue 18
    • DOI: 10.5194/acp-15-10723-2015

    Impacts of the Manaus pollution plume on the microphysical properties of Amazonian warm-phase clouds in the wet season
    journal, January 2016

    • Cecchini, Micael A.; Machado, Luiz A. T.; Comstock, Jennifer M.
    • Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, Vol. 16, Issue 11
    • DOI: 10.5194/acp-16-7029-2016

    Extreme seasonal droughts and floods in Amazonia: causes, trends and impacts: EXTREMES IN AMAZONIA
    journal, July 2015

    • Marengo, J. A.; Espinoza, J. C.
    • International Journal of Climatology, Vol. 36, Issue 3
    • DOI: 10.1002/joc.4420

    Sensitivities of Amazonian clouds to aerosols and updraft speed
    journal, January 2017

    • Cecchini, Micael A.; Machado, Luiz A. T.; Andreae, Meinrat O.
    • Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, Vol. 17, Issue 16
    • DOI: 10.5194/acp-17-10037-2017

    Introduction: Observations and Modeling of the Green Ocean Amazon (GoAmazon2014/5)
    journal, January 2016

    • Martin, S. T.; Artaxo, P.; Machado, L. A. T.
    • Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, Vol. 16, Issue 8
    • DOI: 10.5194/acp-16-4785-2016

    The role of the Amazon Basin moisture in the atmospheric branch of the hydrological cycle: a Lagrangian analysis
    journal, January 2014

    • Drumond, A.; Marengo, J.; Ambrizzi, T.
    • Hydrology and Earth System Sciences, Vol. 18, Issue 7
    • DOI: 10.5194/hess-18-2577-2014

    The ERA-Interim reanalysis: configuration and performance of the data assimilation system
    journal, April 2011

    • Dee, D. P.; Uppala, S. M.; Simmons, A. J.
    • Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society, Vol. 137, Issue 656
    • DOI: 10.1002/qj.828

    Hydro-climatic and ecological behaviour of the drought of Amazonia in 2005
    journal, February 2008

    • Marengo, J. A.; Nobre, C. A.; Tomasella, J.
    • Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, Vol. 363, Issue 1498
    • DOI: 10.1098/rstb.2007.0015

    The Green Ocean: precipitation insights from the GoAmazon2014/5 experiment
    journal, January 2018

    • Wang, Die; Giangrande, Scott E.; Bartholomew, Mary Jane
    • Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, Vol. 18, Issue 12
    • DOI: 10.5194/acp-18-9121-2018

    A permanent Raman lidar station in the Amazon: description, characterization, and first results
    journal, January 2014

    • Barbosa, H. M. J.; Barja, B.; Pauliquevis, T.
    • Atmospheric Measurement Techniques, Vol. 7, Issue 6
    • DOI: 10.5194/amt-7-1745-2014

    Tropical continental downdraft characteristics: mesoscale systems versus unorganized convection
    journal, January 2018

    • Schiro, Kathleen A.; Neelin, J. David
    • Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, Vol. 18, Issue 3
    • DOI: 10.5194/acp-18-1997-2018