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Title: Both starvation and outflows drive galaxy quenching

Abstract

ABSTRACT Star-forming galaxies can in principle be transformed into passive systems by a multitude of processes that quench star formation, such as the halting of gas accretion (starvation) or the rapid removal of gas in AGN-driven outflows. However, it remains unclear which processes are the most significant, primary drivers of the SF-passive bimodality. We address this key issue in galaxy evolution by studying the chemical properties of 80 000 local galaxies in Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 7. In order to distinguish between different quenching mechanisms, we analyse the stellar metallicities of star-forming, green valley, and passive galaxies. We find that the significant difference in stellar metallicity between passive galaxies and their star-forming progenitors implies that for galaxies at all masses, quenching must have involved an extended phase of starvation. However, some form of gas ejection also has to be introduced into our models to best match the observed properties of local passive galaxies, indicating that, while starvation is likely to be the prerequisite for quenching, it is the combination of starvation and outflows that is responsible for quenching the majority of galaxies. Closed-box models indicate that the duration of the quenching phase is 2–3 Gyr, with an e-folding time ofmore » 2–4 Gyr, after which further star formation is prevented by an ejective/heating mode. Alternatively, leaky-box models find a longer duration for the quenching phase of 5–7 Gyr and an e-folding time of ∼1 Gyr, with outflows becoming increasingly important with decreasing stellar mass. Finally, our analysis of local green valley galaxies indicates that quenching is slower in the local Universe than at high redshift.« less

Authors:
 [1];  [1];  [2];  [3]; ORCiD logo [2];  [2]; ORCiD logo [2]
  1. Cavendish Laboratory, University of Cambridge, 19 J.J. Thomson Avenue, Cambridge CB3 0HE, UK, Kavli Institute for Cosmology, University of Cambridge, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB3 0HA, UK
  2. Institute of Cosmology and Gravitation, University of Portsmouth, Portsmouth PO1 3FX, UK
  3. Kavli Institute for Astronomy and Astrophysics, Peking University, Beijing 100871, China
Publication Date:
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE
OSTI Identifier:
1580293
Resource Type:
Published Article
Journal Name:
Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Name: Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society Journal Volume: 491 Journal Issue: 4; Journal ID: ISSN 0035-8711
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Country of Publication:
United Kingdom
Language:
English

Citation Formats

Trussler, James, Maiolino, Roberto, Maraston, Claudia, Peng, Yingjie, Thomas, Daniel, Goddard, Daniel, and Lian, Jianhui. Both starvation and outflows drive galaxy quenching. United Kingdom: N. p., 2019. Web. doi:10.1093/mnras/stz3286.
Trussler, James, Maiolino, Roberto, Maraston, Claudia, Peng, Yingjie, Thomas, Daniel, Goddard, Daniel, & Lian, Jianhui. Both starvation and outflows drive galaxy quenching. United Kingdom. doi:10.1093/mnras/stz3286.
Trussler, James, Maiolino, Roberto, Maraston, Claudia, Peng, Yingjie, Thomas, Daniel, Goddard, Daniel, and Lian, Jianhui. Sat . "Both starvation and outflows drive galaxy quenching". United Kingdom. doi:10.1093/mnras/stz3286.
@article{osti_1580293,
title = {Both starvation and outflows drive galaxy quenching},
author = {Trussler, James and Maiolino, Roberto and Maraston, Claudia and Peng, Yingjie and Thomas, Daniel and Goddard, Daniel and Lian, Jianhui},
abstractNote = {ABSTRACT Star-forming galaxies can in principle be transformed into passive systems by a multitude of processes that quench star formation, such as the halting of gas accretion (starvation) or the rapid removal of gas in AGN-driven outflows. However, it remains unclear which processes are the most significant, primary drivers of the SF-passive bimodality. We address this key issue in galaxy evolution by studying the chemical properties of 80 000 local galaxies in Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 7. In order to distinguish between different quenching mechanisms, we analyse the stellar metallicities of star-forming, green valley, and passive galaxies. We find that the significant difference in stellar metallicity between passive galaxies and their star-forming progenitors implies that for galaxies at all masses, quenching must have involved an extended phase of starvation. However, some form of gas ejection also has to be introduced into our models to best match the observed properties of local passive galaxies, indicating that, while starvation is likely to be the prerequisite for quenching, it is the combination of starvation and outflows that is responsible for quenching the majority of galaxies. Closed-box models indicate that the duration of the quenching phase is 2–3 Gyr, with an e-folding time of 2–4 Gyr, after which further star formation is prevented by an ejective/heating mode. Alternatively, leaky-box models find a longer duration for the quenching phase of 5–7 Gyr and an e-folding time of ∼1 Gyr, with outflows becoming increasingly important with decreasing stellar mass. Finally, our analysis of local green valley galaxies indicates that quenching is slower in the local Universe than at high redshift.},
doi = {10.1093/mnras/stz3286},
journal = {Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society},
number = 4,
volume = 491,
place = {United Kingdom},
year = {2019},
month = {11}
}

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Fuel Efficient Galaxies: Sustaining star Formation with Stellar mass loss
journal, May 2011


Photochemical evolution of elliptical galaxies - I. The high-redshift formation scenario
journal, January 2004


Photometric Response Functions of the Sloan Digital sky Survey Imager
journal, March 2010


The origin of the galaxy mass–metallicity relation and implications for galactic outflows
journal, April 2008


The Fundamental Plane of star formation in galaxies revealed by the EAGLE hydrodynamical simulations
journal, April 2016

  • Lagos, Claudia del P.; Theuns, Tom; Schaye, Joop
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MASS AND ENVIRONMENT AS DRIVERS OF GALAXY EVOLUTION IN SDSS AND zCOSMOS AND THE ORIGIN OF THE SCHECHTER FUNCTION
journal, August 2010


Stellar metallicity of star-forming galaxies at z  ~  3
journal, March 2012


On the Infall of Matter Into Clusters of Galaxies and Some Effects on Their Evolution
journal, August 1972

  • Gunn, James E.; Gott, J. Richard, III
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Powerful Outflows and Feedback from Active Galactic Nuclei
journal, August 2015


CANDELS Sheds Light on the Environmental Quenching of Low-mass Galaxies
journal, May 2017


On the (Non)Evolution of h i gas in Galaxies over Cosmic time
journal, April 2009


An Objective Definition for the main Sequence of Star-Forming Galaxies
journal, March 2015


The Mass‐Metallicity Relation at z ≳2
journal, June 2006

  • Erb, Dawn K.; Shapley, Alice E.; Pettini, Max
  • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 644, Issue 2
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Evolution of Interstellar Medium, Star Formation, and Accretion at High Redshift
journal, March 2017


How do galaxies get their gas?
journal, October 2005


Quantifying the Bimodal Color‐Magnitude Distribution of Galaxies
journal, January 2004

  • Baldry, Ivan K.; Glazebrook, Karl; Brinkmann, Jon
  • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 600, Issue 2
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The mass–metallicity relations for gas and stars in star-forming galaxies: strong outflow versus variable IMF
journal, November 2017

  • Lian, Jianhui; Thomas, Daniel; Maraston, Claudia
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The relation between metallicity, stellar mass and star formation in galaxies: an analysis of observational and model data: Metallicity and star formation in galaxies
journal, March 2012


The Luminosity Function and Stellar Evolution.
journal, January 1955

  • Salpeter, Edwin E.
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Massive molecular outflows and evidence for AGN feedback from CO observations
journal, January 2014


The origin and evolution of the galaxy mass–metallicity relation
journal, December 2015

  • Ma, Xiangcheng; Hopkins, Philip F.; Faucher-Giguère, Claude-André
  • Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Vol. 456, Issue 2
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Medium-resolution Isaac Newton Telescope library of empirical spectra
journal, September 2006

  • Sanchez-Blazquez, P.; Peletier, R. F.; Jimenez-Vicente, J.
  • Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Vol. 371, Issue 2
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Ram pressure stripping of spiral galaxies in clusters
journal, October 1999


Spectroscopic Target Selection in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey: The Main Galaxy Sample
journal, September 2002

  • Strauss, Michael A.; Weinberg, David H.; Lupton, Robert H.
  • The Astronomical Journal, Vol. 124, Issue 3
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ALMA Shows that Gas Reservoirs of Star-forming Disks over the Past 3 Billion Years Are Not Predominantly Molecular
journal, October 2017

  • Cortese, Luca; Catinella, Barbara; Janowiecki, Steven
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Strangulation as the primary mechanism for shutting down star formation in galaxies
journal, May 2015


The evolution of galaxy metallicity scaling relations in cosmological hydrodynamical simulations
journal, July 2015

  • De Rossi, M. E.; Theuns, T.; Font, A. S.
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Galaxy Groups in the SDSS DR4. I. The Catalog and Basic Properties
journal, December 2007

  • Yang, Xiaohu; Mo, H. J.; van den Bosch, Frank C.
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THE DEAD SEQUENCE: A CLEAR BIMODALITY IN GALAXY COLORS FROM z = 0 to z = 2.5
journal, November 2009


The physical properties of star-forming galaxies in the low-redshift Universe
journal, July 2004


Giant Metrewave Radio Telescope observations of neutral atomic hydrogen gas in the COSMOS field at z ∼ 0.37
journal, May 2016

  • Rhee, Jonghwan; Lah, Philip; Chengalur, Jayaram N.
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The importance of satellite quenching for the build-up of the red sequence of present-day galaxies
journal, June 2008

  • van den Bosch, Frank C.; Aquino, Daniel; Yang, Xiaohu
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Similar star formation rate and metallicity variability time-scales drive the fundamental metallicity relation
journal, March 2018

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SDSS-IV MaNGA: environmental dependence of stellar age and metallicity gradients in nearby galaxies
journal, November 2016

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ISM EXCITATION AND METALLICITY OF STAR-FORMING GALAXIES AT Z ≃ 3.3 FROM NEAR-IR SPECTROSCOPY
journal, May 2016


On stellar mass loss from galaxies in groups and clusters
journal, July 2017

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SDSS IV MaNGA – metallicity and nitrogen abundance gradients in local galaxies
journal, April 2017

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LSD: Lyman-break galaxies Stellar populations and Dynamics - I. Mass, metallicity and gas at z ∼ 3.1
journal, October 2009


The CALIFA survey across the Hubble sequence: Spatially resolved stellar population properties in galaxies⋆
journal, September 2015


The ages and metallicities of galaxies in the local universe
journal, September 2005

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Star Formation in AEGIS Field Galaxies since z  = 1.1: The Dominance of Gradually Declining Star Formation, and the Main Sequence of Star-forming Galaxies
journal, April 2007

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Recovering galaxy star formation and metallicity histories from spectra using VESPA: Recovering galaxy histories using VESPA
journal, September 2007


Galaxy evolution in groups and clusters: satellite star formation histories and quenching time-scales in a hierarchical Universe
journal, April 2013

  • Wetzel, Andrew R.; Tinker, Jeremy L.; Conroy, Charlie
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The mass and momentum outflow rates of photoionized galactic outflows
journal, May 2017

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The Dawn of the Red: star formation histories of group galaxies over the past 5 billion years: Star formation histories of group galaxies
journal, February 2011

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Virial shocks in galactic haloes?
journal, October 2003


Insights on star-formation histories and physical properties of 1.2 ≤ z ≲ 4 Herschel -detected galaxies
journal, September 2017


Stellar Absorption Line Analysis of Local Star-forming Galaxies: The Relation between Stellar Mass, Metallicity, Dust Attenuation, and Star Formation Rate
journal, September 2017

  • Jabran Zahid, H.; Kudritzki, Rolf-Peter; Conroy, Charlie
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Observational Evidence of Active Galactic Nuclei Feedback
journal, September 2012


The origin of dwarf galaxies, cold dark matter, and biased galaxy formation
journal, April 1986

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The Epochs of Early‐Type Galaxy Formation as a Function of Environment
journal, March 2005

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The Origin of the Mass‐Metallicity Relation: Insights from 53,000 Star‐forming Galaxies in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey
journal, October 2004

  • Tremonti, Christy A.; Heckman, Timothy M.; Kauffmann, Guinevere
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The Broadband Optical Properties of Galaxies with Redshifts 0.02 <  z  < 0.22
journal, September 2003

  • Blanton, Michael R.; Hogg, David W.; Bahcall, Neta A.
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AMAZE: I. The evolution of the mass–metallicity relation at
journal, July 2008


Surface Brightness and Evolution of Galaxies
journal, December 1976

  • Petrosian, Vahe
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