skip to main content
DOE PAGES title logo U.S. Department of Energy
Office of Scientific and Technical Information

This content will become publicly available on September 27, 2020

Title: Clocking the formation of today’s largest galaxies: wide field integral spectroscopy of brightest cluster galaxies and their surroundings

Abstract

ABSTRACT The formation and evolution of local brightest cluster galaxies (BCGs) is investigated by determining the stellar populations and dynamics from the galaxy core, through the outskirts and into the intracluster light (ICL). Integral spectroscopy of 23 BCGs observed out to $$4\, r_{e}$$ is collected and high signal-to-noise regions are identified. Stellar population synthesis codes are used to determine the age, metallicity, velocity, and velocity dispersion of stars within each region. The ICL spectra are best modelled with populations that are younger and less metal-rich than those of the BCG cores. The average BCG core age of the sample is $$\rm 13.3\pm 2.8\, Gyr$$ and the average metallicity is $$\rm [Fe/H] = 0.30\pm 0.09$$, whereas for the ICL the average age is $$\rm 9.2\pm 3.5\, Gyr$$ and the average metallicity is $$\rm [Fe/H] = 0.18\pm 0.16$$. The velocity dispersion profile is seen to be rising or flat in most of the sample (17/23), and those with rising values reach the value of the host cluster’s velocity dispersion in several cases. The most extended BCGs are closest to the peak of the cluster’s X-ray luminosity. The results are consistent with the idea that the BCG cores and inner regions formed quickly and long ago, with the outer regions and ICL forming more recently, and continuing to assemble through minor merging. Any recent star formation in the BCGs is a minor component, and is associated with the cluster cool core status.

Authors:
 [1];  [1];  [1];  [1];  [2];  [3];  [4];  [5];  [6];  [7];  [8]
  1. Department of Physics, Cal Poly State University, San Luis Obispo, CA 93407, USA
  2. Department of Physics and Astronomy, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06520, USA, Division of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of California Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA 90095, USA
  3. Department of Physics and Astronomy, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06520, USA, Aeronautics and Astronautics Department, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305, USA
  4. Departamento de Astronomia, Universidade de São Paulo, IAG, São Paulo, 05508-909, Brazil
  5. Department of Physics and Astronomy, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06520, USA
  6. Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge, MA 02138, USA
  7. Département de physique, de génie physique et d’optique, Université Laval, Québec, QC, G1V 0A6, Canada, Centre de Recherche en Astrophysique du Québec, C. P. 6128, Succ. Centre-Ville, Montéal, QC, H3C 3J7Q, Canada
  8. Center for Computational Astronomy (CCA), Flatiron Institute, New York, NY 10010, USA
Publication Date:
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE
OSTI Identifier:
1577002
Resource Type:
Published Article
Journal Name:
Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Name: Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society Journal Volume: 491 Journal Issue: 2; Journal ID: ISSN 0035-8711
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Country of Publication:
United Kingdom
Language:
English

Citation Formats

Edwards, Louise O. V., Salinas, Matthew, Stanley, Steffanie, Holguin West, Priscilla E., Trierweiler, Isabella, Alpert, Hannah, Coelho, Paula, Koppaka, Saisneha, Tremblay, Grant R., Martel, Hugo, and Li, Yuan. Clocking the formation of today’s largest galaxies: wide field integral spectroscopy of brightest cluster galaxies and their surroundings. United Kingdom: N. p., 2019. Web. doi:10.1093/mnras/stz2706.
Edwards, Louise O. V., Salinas, Matthew, Stanley, Steffanie, Holguin West, Priscilla E., Trierweiler, Isabella, Alpert, Hannah, Coelho, Paula, Koppaka, Saisneha, Tremblay, Grant R., Martel, Hugo, & Li, Yuan. Clocking the formation of today’s largest galaxies: wide field integral spectroscopy of brightest cluster galaxies and their surroundings. United Kingdom. doi:10.1093/mnras/stz2706.
Edwards, Louise O. V., Salinas, Matthew, Stanley, Steffanie, Holguin West, Priscilla E., Trierweiler, Isabella, Alpert, Hannah, Coelho, Paula, Koppaka, Saisneha, Tremblay, Grant R., Martel, Hugo, and Li, Yuan. Fri . "Clocking the formation of today’s largest galaxies: wide field integral spectroscopy of brightest cluster galaxies and their surroundings". United Kingdom. doi:10.1093/mnras/stz2706.
@article{osti_1577002,
title = {Clocking the formation of today’s largest galaxies: wide field integral spectroscopy of brightest cluster galaxies and their surroundings},
author = {Edwards, Louise O. V. and Salinas, Matthew and Stanley, Steffanie and Holguin West, Priscilla E. and Trierweiler, Isabella and Alpert, Hannah and Coelho, Paula and Koppaka, Saisneha and Tremblay, Grant R. and Martel, Hugo and Li, Yuan},
abstractNote = {ABSTRACT The formation and evolution of local brightest cluster galaxies (BCGs) is investigated by determining the stellar populations and dynamics from the galaxy core, through the outskirts and into the intracluster light (ICL). Integral spectroscopy of 23 BCGs observed out to $4\, r_{e}$ is collected and high signal-to-noise regions are identified. Stellar population synthesis codes are used to determine the age, metallicity, velocity, and velocity dispersion of stars within each region. The ICL spectra are best modelled with populations that are younger and less metal-rich than those of the BCG cores. The average BCG core age of the sample is $\rm 13.3\pm 2.8\, Gyr$ and the average metallicity is $\rm [Fe/H] = 0.30\pm 0.09$, whereas for the ICL the average age is $\rm 9.2\pm 3.5\, Gyr$ and the average metallicity is $\rm [Fe/H] = 0.18\pm 0.16$. The velocity dispersion profile is seen to be rising or flat in most of the sample (17/23), and those with rising values reach the value of the host cluster’s velocity dispersion in several cases. The most extended BCGs are closest to the peak of the cluster’s X-ray luminosity. The results are consistent with the idea that the BCG cores and inner regions formed quickly and long ago, with the outer regions and ICL forming more recently, and continuing to assemble through minor merging. Any recent star formation in the BCGs is a minor component, and is associated with the cluster cool core status.},
doi = {10.1093/mnras/stz2706},
journal = {Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society},
number = 2,
volume = 491,
place = {United Kingdom},
year = {2019},
month = {9}
}

Journal Article:
Free Publicly Available Full Text
This content will become publicly available on September 27, 2020
Publisher's Version of Record

Save / Share:

Works referenced in this record:

The Relation Between Compact, Quiescent High-Redshift Galaxies and Massive Nearby Elliptical Galaxies: Evidence for Hierarchical, Inside-Out Growth
journal, May 2009


The diverse nature of optical emission lines in brightest cluster galaxies: IFU observations of the central kiloparsec
journal, July 2009

  • Edwards, Louise O. V.; Robert, Carmelle; Mollá, Mercedes
  • Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Vol. 396, Issue 4
  • DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2966.2009.14897.x

Chandra imaging of the X-ray core of Abell 1795
journal, February 2001


The Luminosity Profiles of Brightest Cluster Galaxies
journal, July 2011

  • Donzelli, C. J.; Muriel, H.; Madrid, J. P.
  • The Astrophysical Journal Supplement Series, Vol. 195, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1088/0067-0049/195/2/15

The different growth pathways of Brightest Cluster Galaxies and the Intra-Cluster Light
journal, June 2018

  • Contini, E.; Yi, S. K.; Kang, X.
  • Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society
  • DOI: 10.1093/mnras/sty1518

BCG Mass Evolution in Cosmological Hydro-Simulations
journal, June 2018

  • Ragone-Figueroa, C.; Granato, G. L.; Ferraro, M. E.
  • Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society
  • DOI: 10.1093/mnras/sty1639

Close companions to brightest cluster galaxies: support for minor mergers and downsizing: Close companions to brightest cluster galaxies
journal, July 2012


Line emission in the brightest cluster galaxies of the NOAO Fundamental Plane and Sloan Digital Sky Surveys
journal, July 2007


The hierarchical formation of the brightest cluster galaxies
journal, February 2007


Stellar and dynamical masses of ellipticals in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey
journal, June 2004


Brightest Cluster Galaxies at the Present Epoch
journal, December 2014


Kinematics of the outer halo of M 87 as mapped by planetary nebulae
journal, December 2018


The Density Profiles of Massive, Relaxed Galaxy Clusters. i. the Total Density over Three Decades in Radius
journal, February 2013

  • Newman, Andrew B.; Treu, Tommaso; Ellis, Richard S.
  • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 765, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1088/0004-637X/765/1/24

Characterizing diffused stellar light in simulated galaxy clusters
journal, November 2013

  • Cui, Weiguang; Murante, G.; Monaco, P.
  • Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Vol. 437, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1093/mnras/stt1940

Comprehensive stellar population models and the disentanglement of age and metallicity effects
journal, November 1994

  • Worthey, Guy
  • The Astrophysical Journal Supplement Series, Vol. 95
  • DOI: 10.1086/192096

Dynamical Family Properties and Dark Halo Scaling Relations of Giant Elliptical Galaxies
journal, April 2001

  • Gerhard, Ortwin; Kronawitter, Andi; Saglia, R. P.
  • The Astronomical Journal, Vol. 121, Issue 4
  • DOI: 10.1086/319940

Resurrecting the red from the dead: optical properties of BCGs in X-ray luminous clusters★: Resurrecting the red from the dead
journal, August 2008


Intracluster light properties in the CLASH-VLT cluster MACS J1206.2-0847
journal, May 2014


STRUCTURE AND FORMATION OF cD GALAXIES: NGC 6166 IN ABELL 2199
journal, June 2015


Confirmation of the Remarkable Compactness of Massive Quiescent Galaxies at z ~ 2.3: Early-Type Galaxies Did not Form in a Simple Monolithic Collapse
journal, March 2008

  • van Dokkum, Pieter G.; Franx, Marijn; Kriek, Mariska
  • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 677, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1086/587874

Diversity in the stellar velocity dispersion profiles of a large sample of brightest cluster galaxies z ≤ 0.3
journal, February 2018

  • Loubser, S. I.; Hoekstra, H.; Babul, A.
  • Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Vol. 477, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1093/mnras/sty498

Brightest cluster galaxies as standard candles
journal, February 1995

  • Postman, Marc; Lauer, Tod R.
  • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 440
  • DOI: 10.1086/175245

The Hydra I cluster core: II. Kinematic complexity in a rising velocity dispersion profile around the cD galaxy NGC 3311
journal, November 2018


Spectral models for solar-scaled and α-enhanced stellar populations
journal, November 2007


The Stellar Initial mass Function in Early-Type Galaxies from Absorption line Spectroscopy. ii. Results
journal, November 2012


Far-ultraviolet morphology of star-forming filaments in cool core brightest cluster galaxies
journal, June 2015

  • Tremblay, G. R.; O'Dea, C. P.; Baum, S. A.
  • Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Vol. 451, Issue 4
  • DOI: 10.1093/mnras/stv1151

On the relation between the X-ray properties of clusters of galaxies and their brightest cluster member
journal, May 1991


Evolution of brightest cluster galaxies in X ray clusters
journal, January 2002


The Diffuse Light in Simulations of Galaxy Clusters
journal, April 2004

  • Murante, G.; Arnaboldi, M.; Gerhard, O.
  • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 607, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1086/421348

Kinematics and line strength indices in the halos of the Coma brightest cluster galaxies NGC 4874 and NGC 4889
journal, September 2010


Cold molecular gas in cooling flow clusters of galaxies
journal, December 2003


Diffuse Optical Light in Galaxy Clusters. I. Abell 3888
journal, January 2006

  • Krick, J. E.; Bernstein, R. A.; Pimbblet, K. A.
  • The Astronomical Journal, Vol. 131, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1086/498269

Galactic cannibalism. III - The morphological evolution of galaxies and clusters
journal, September 1978

  • Hausman, M. A.; Ostriker, J. P.
  • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 224
  • DOI: 10.1086/156380

Three dynamically distinct stellar populations in the halo of M49
journal, August 2018


Evolutionary stellar population synthesis with MILES – II. Scaled-solar and α-enhanced models
journal, March 2015

  • Vazdekis, A.; Coelho, P.; Cassisi, S.
  • Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Vol. 449, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1093/mnras/stv151

The origin of intergalactic stars in galaxy clusters
journal, May 2011


The stellar accretion origin of stellar population gradients in massive galaxies at large radii
journal, March 2015

  • Hirschmann, Michaela; Naab, Thorsten; Ostriker, Jeremiah P.
  • Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Vol. 449, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1093/mnras/stv274

On the origin of the intracluster light in massive galaxy clusters
journal, February 2015

  • DeMaio, Tahlia; Gonzalez, Anthony H.; Zabludoff, Ann
  • Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Vol. 448, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1093/mnras/stv033

The dynamics and structure of the cD galaxy in Abell 2029
journal, July 1979

  • Dressler, A.
  • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 231
  • DOI: 10.1086/157229

Properties of the X-ray-brightest Abell-type clusters of galaxies (XBACs) from ROSAT All-Sky Survey data -- I. The sample
journal, August 1996

  • Ebeling, H.; Voges, W.; Bohringer, H.
  • Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Vol. 281, Issue 3
  • DOI: 10.1093/mnras/281.3.799

Dissipation and Extra Light in Galactic Nuclei. ii. “Cusp” Ellipticals
journal, March 2009

  • Hopkins, Philip F.; Cox, Thomas J.; Dutta, Suvendra N.
  • The Astrophysical Journal Supplement Series, Vol. 181, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1088/0067-0049/181/1/135

The giant Hα/X-ray filament in the cluster of galaxies A1795
journal, July 2005


The Frontier Fields: Survey Design and Initial Results
journal, March 2017


Tidal Streams of Intracluster Light
journal, June 2009


On the formation and physical properties of the intracluster light in hierarchical galaxy formation models
journal, December 2013

  • Contini, E.; De Lucia, G.; Villalobos, Á.
  • Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Vol. 437, Issue 4
  • DOI: 10.1093/mnras/stt2174

An analysis of the composite stellar population in M32
journal, June 2009

  • Coelho, P.; Mendes de Oliveira, C.; Fernandes, R. Cid
  • Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Vol. 396, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2966.2009.14722.x

The Dynamical State of Brightest Cluster Galaxies and the Formation of Clusters
journal, April 2009


NOAO Fundamental Plane Survey. I. Survey Design, Redshifts, and Velocity Dispersion Data
journal, October 2004

  • Smith, Russell J.; Hudson, Michael J.; Nelan, Jenica E.
  • The Astronomical Journal, Vol. 128, Issue 4
  • DOI: 10.1086/423915

Distinct core and halo stellar populations and the formation history of the bright Coma cluster early-type galaxy NGC 4889: SSP and formation history of NGC 4889
journal, July 2010

  • Coccato, Lodovico; Gerhard, Ortwin; Arnaboldi, Magda
  • Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society: Letters, Vol. 407, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1111/j.1745-3933.2010.00897.x

The Cluster Lensing and Supernova Survey with Hubble: an Overview
journal, March 2012

  • Postman, Marc; Coe, Dan; Benítez, Narciso
  • The Astrophysical Journal Supplement Series, Vol. 199, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1088/0067-0049/199/2/25

Galaxy growth from redshift 5 to 0 at fixed comoving number density
journal, July 2016

  • van de Voort, Freeke
  • Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Vol. 462, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1093/mnras/stw1690

SparsePak: A Formatted Fiber Field Unit for the WIYN Telescope Bench Spectrograph. I. Design, Construction, and Calibration
journal, June 2004

  • Bershady, Matthew A.; Andersen, David R.; Harker, Justin
  • Publications of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific, Vol. 116, Issue 820
  • DOI: 10.1086/421057

Environmental dependence of the structure of brightest cluster galaxies
journal, December 2005


The fate of Dwarf Galaxies in Clusters and the Origin of Intracluster Stars. ii. Cosmological Simulations
journal, September 2012


The many lives of active galactic nuclei: cooling flows, black holes and the luminosities and colours of galaxies
journal, January 2006

  • Croton, Darren J.; Springel, Volker; White, Simon D. M.
  • Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Vol. 365, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2966.2005.09675.x

Two-dimensional spectrophotometry of the cores of X-ray luminous clusters
journal, September 1983

  • Cowie, L. L.; Hu, E. M.; Jenkins, E. B.
  • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 272
  • DOI: 10.1086/161259

Interaction of the massive cluster system Abell 3016/3017 embedded in a cosmic filament
journal, January 2019


The Brightest Cluster Galaxy in a85: the Largest core Known so far
journal, October 2014


An Investigation of Intracluster Light Evolution Using Cosmological Hydrodynamical Simulations
journal, May 2018


An investigation of cooling flows and general cluster properties from an X-ray image deprojection analysis of 207 clusters of galaxies
journal, December 1997

  • White, D. A.; Jones, C.; Forman, W.
  • Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Vol. 292, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1093/mnras/292.2.419

[ITAL]Hubble Space Telescope[/ITAL] Imaging of Brightest Cluster Galaxies
journal, February 2003

  • Laine, Seppo; van der Marel, Roeland P.; Lauer, Tod R.
  • The Astronomical Journal, Vol. 125, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1086/345823

Stellar population synthesis at the resolution of 2003
journal, October 2003


What is a cool-core cluster? a detailed analysis of the cores of the X-ray flux-limited HIFLUGCS cluster sample
journal, April 2010


Angular Momenta, Dynamical Masses, and Mergers of Brightest Cluster Galaxies
journal, November 2013


The stellar content of central dominant galaxies. II - Colors of cD envelopes
journal, November 1992

  • Mackie, Glen
  • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 400
  • DOI: 10.1086/171973

Understanding the Unique Assembly History of Central Group Galaxies
journal, November 2014


The Hydra I cluster core: I. Stellar populations in the cD galaxy NGC 3311⋆⋆⋆
journal, April 2016


Intracluster light at the Frontier – II. The Frontier Fields Clusters
journal, November 2017

  • Montes, Mireia; Trujillo, Ignacio
  • Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Vol. 474, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1093/mnras/stx2847

The Galactic Disk Mass Function: Reconciliation of the [ITAL]Hubble Space Telescope[/ITAL] and Nearby Determinations
journal, April 2003

  • Chabrier, Gilles
  • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 586, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1086/374879

The fate of dwarf galaxies in clusters and the origin of intracluster stars
journal, March 2009

  • Barai, Paramita; Brito, William; Martel, Hugo
  • Journal of Astrophysics and Astronomy, Vol. 30, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1007/s12036-009-0001-1

Major Cluster Mergers and the Location of the Brightest Cluster Galaxy
journal, April 2014


Intracluster stars in simulations with active galactic nucleus feedback: Intracluster stars in simulations
journal, May 2010


Dynamical evolution of galaxy clusters in the framework of the N-body problem. The formation of supermassive cD galaxies
journal, June 2007


An Entropy Threshold for Strong Hα and Radio Emission in the Cores of Galaxy Clusters
journal, August 2008

  • Cavagnolo, Kenneth W.; Donahue, Megan; Voit, G. Mark
  • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 683, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1086/591665

‘Zwicky's Nonet’: a compact merging ensemble of nine galaxies and 4C 35.06, a peculiar radio galaxy with dancing radio jets
journal, July 2017

  • Biju, K. G.; Bagchi, Joydeep; Ishwara-Chandra, C. H.
  • Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Vol. 471, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1093/mnras/stx1476

Uncovering the chemical enrichment and mass-assembly histories of star-forming galaxies
journal, February 2007


The Quantity of Intracluster Light: Comparing Theoretical and Observational Measurement Techniques Using Simulated Clusters
journal, April 2011

  • Rudick, Craig S.; Mihos, J. Christopher; McBride, Cameron K.
  • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 732, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1088/0004-637X/732/1/48

Diffuse Optical Light in Galaxy Clusters. II. Correlations with Cluster Properties
journal, June 2007

  • Krick, J. E.; Bernstein, R. A.
  • The Astronomical Journal, Vol. 134, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1086/518787

INTRACLUSTER MEDIUM ENTROPY PROFILES FOR A CHANDRA ARCHIVAL SAMPLE OF GALAXY CLUSTERS
journal, April 2009

  • Cavagnolo, Kenneth W.; Donahue, Megan; Voit, G. Mark
  • The Astrophysical Journal Supplement Series, Vol. 182, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1088/0067-0049/182/1/12

Simulating galaxy clusters - III. Properties of the intracluster stars
journal, February 2005

  • Sommer-Larsen, Jesper; Romeo, Alessio D.; Portinari, Laura
  • Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Vol. 357, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2966.2005.08599.x

The Structure of Cold Dark Matter Halos
journal, May 1996

  • Navarro, Julio F.; Frenk, Carlos S.; White, Simon D. M.
  • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 462
  • DOI: 10.1086/177173

Stellar populations in the centres of brightest cluster galaxies
journal, September 2009

  • Loubser, S. I.; Sánchez-Blázquez, P.; Sansom, A. E.
  • Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Vol. 398, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2966.2009.15171.x

Stellar population gradients in brightest cluster galaxies: Stellar population gradients in BCGs
journal, August 2012


Stellar populations of BCGs, close companions and intracluster light in Abell 85, Abell 2457 and IIZw108
journal, June 2016

  • Edwards, L. O. V.; Alpert, H. S.; Trierweiler, I. L.
  • Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Vol. 461, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1093/mnras/stw1314

Galaxy assembly, stellar feedback and metal enrichment: the view from the gaea model
journal, June 2016

  • Hirschmann, Michaela; De Lucia, Gabriella; Fontanot, Fabio
  • Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Vol. 461, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1093/mnras/stw1318

Dark matter in elliptical galaxies
journal, March 1995

  • Carollo, C. M.; de Zeeuw, P. T.; van der Marel, R. P.
  • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 441
  • DOI: 10.1086/187780

The MASSIVE survey – VIII. Stellar velocity dispersion profiles and environmental dependence of early-type galaxies
journal, October 2017

  • Veale, Melanie; Ma, Chung-Pei; Greene, Jenny E.
  • Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Vol. 473, Issue 4
  • DOI: 10.1093/mnras/stx2717

The ROSAT Brightest Cluster Sample -- III. Optical spectra of the central cluster galaxies
journal, July 1999


Intracluster Light at the Frontier: A2744
journal, October 2014


The Massive Survey. ii. Stellar Population Trends out to Large Radius in Massive Early-Type Galaxies
journal, June 2015


Semi-empirical analysis of Sloan Digital Sky Survey galaxies - I. Spectral synthesis method
journal, April 2005

  • Fernandes, Roberto Cid; Mateus, Abílio; Sodré, Laerte
  • Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Vol. 358, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2966.2005.08752.x

The origin and properties of intracluster stars in a rich cluster
journal, November 2004


The ROSAT Brightest Cluster Sample -- I. The compilation of the sample and the cluster log N--log S distribution
journal, December 1998


The Formation and Evolution of Intracluster Light
journal, September 2006

  • Rudick, Craig S.; Mihos, J. Christopher; McBride, Cameron
  • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 648, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1086/506176

Statistics of X-ray observables for the cooling-core and non-cooling core galaxy clusters
journal, April 2007


The Dust Content and Opacity of Actively Star‐forming Galaxies
journal, April 2000

  • Calzetti, Daniela; Armus, Lee; Bohlin, Ralph C.
  • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 533, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1086/308692

The build-up of the cD halo of M 87: evidence for accretion in the last Gyr
journal, June 2015


Dynamics of 10 Clusters of Galaxies with Substructures
journal, May 2014


Extremely compact massive galaxies at z   1.4
journal, November 2006


Chemical enrichment of the intracluster and intergalactic medium in a hierarchical galaxy formation model
journal, April 2004

  • De Lucia, Gabriella; Kauffmann, Guinevere; White, Simon D. M.
  • Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Vol. 349, Issue 3
  • DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2966.2004.07584.x

Stellar Mass Growth of Brightest Cluster Galaxy Progenitors in COSMOS Since z ∼ 3
journal, August 2019

  • Cooke, Kevin C.; Kartaltepe, Jeyhan S.; Tyler, K. D.
  • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 881, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.3847/1538-4357/ab30c9

V ZW 311 - The once and future cD
journal, December 1982

  • Schneider, D. P.; Gunn, J. E.
  • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 263
  • DOI: 10.1086/160475

The Evolution of Brightest Cluster Galaxies in a Hierarchical Universe
journal, October 2012


The accretion histories of brightest cluster galaxies from their stellar population gradients
journal, April 2015

  • Oliva-Altamirano, Paola; Brough, Sarah; Tran, Kim-Vy
  • Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Vol. 449, Issue 4
  • DOI: 10.1093/mnras/stv475

Differential stellar population models: how to reliably measure [Fe/H] and [α/Fe] in galaxies
journal, September 2009


The planetary nebula population in the halo of M 87
journal, October 2013


A large population of ultra-compact dwarf galaxies in the Hydra I cluster
journal, May 2011


Anisotropic velocity dispersions in spherical galaxies
journal, March 1983

  • Tonry, J. L.
  • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 266
  • DOI: 10.1086/160758

Keck Spectroscopy of Distant GOODS Spheroidal Galaxies: Downsizing in a Hierarchical Universe
journal, February 2005

  • Treu, Tommaso; Ellis, Richard S.; Liao, Ting X.
  • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 622, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1086/429374

GRAPE-SPH chemodynamical simulation of elliptical galaxies -- I. Evolution of metallicity gradients
journal, January 2004


SPIDER - VII. Revealing the stellar population content of massive early-type galaxies out to 8 R e : Stellar populations of ETGs out to R ≲ 8R
journal, October 2012


A SPECTROSCOPIC SAMPLE OF MASSIVE, QUIESCENT z ∼ 2 GALAXIES: IMPLICATIONS FOR THE EVOLUTION OF THE MASS-SIZE RELATION
journal, November 2014


MMTF-Hα AND HST -FUV IMAGING OF THE FILAMENTARY COMPLEX IN ABELL 1795
journal, September 2009


Dynamical difference between the cD galaxy and the diffuse, stellar component in simulated galaxy clusters
journal, April 2010


Spatially resolved kinematics and stellar populations of brightest cluster and group galaxies
journal, June 2007


Radial kinematics of brightest cluster galaxies
journal, December 2008

  • Loubser, S. I.; Sansom, A. E.; Sánchez-Blázquez, P.
  • Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Vol. 391, Issue 3
  • DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2966.2008.13813.x

The Environmental Dependence of Brightest Cluster Galaxies: Implications for Large‐Scale Flows
journal, April 1997

  • Hudson, Michael J.; Ebeling, Harald
  • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 479, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1086/303904

The ages and metallicities of galaxies in the local universe
journal, September 2005

  • Gallazzi, Anna; Charlot, Stéphane; Brinchmann, Jarle
  • Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Vol. 362, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2966.2005.09321.x

Kinematics of 13 brightest cluster galaxies
journal, January 1995

  • Fisher, David; Illingworth, Garth; Franx, Marijn
  • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 438
  • DOI: 10.1086/175100

Submillimeter Galaxies as Progenitors of Compact Quiescent Galaxies
journal, January 2014


Intergalactic stellar populations in intermediate redshift clusters: The grinding machine
journal, November 2012


Are brightest halo galaxies central galaxies?: Brightest halo galaxies
journal, September 2010

  • Skibba, Ramin A.; van den Bosch, Frank C.; Yang, Xiaohu
  • Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Vol. 410, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2966.2010.17452.x

A survey of molecular hydrogen in the central galaxies of cooling flows
journal, November 2002


Shredded Galaxies as the Source of Diffuse Intrahalo Light on Varying Scales
journal, September 2007

  • Purcell, Chris W.; Bullock, James S.; Zentner, Andrew R.
  • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 666, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1086/519787

The dark halo of the Hydra I galaxy cluster: core, cusp, cosmological?: Dynamics of NGC 3311 and its globular cluster system
journal, June 2011


The Origin of the Mass‐Metallicity Relation: Insights from 53,000 Star‐forming Galaxies in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey
journal, October 2004

  • Tremonti, Christy A.; Heckman, Timothy M.; Kauffmann, Guinevere
  • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 613, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1086/423264

Signatures of Stellar Accretion in MaNGA Early-type Galaxies
journal, July 2019

  • Oyarzún, Grecco A.; Bundy, Kevin; Westfall, Kyle B.
  • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 880, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.3847/1538-4357/ab297c

The importance of mergers for the origin of intracluster stars in cosmological simulations of galaxy clusters
journal, May 2007


The MASSIVE Survey – V. Spatially resolved stellar angular momentum, velocity dispersion, and higher moments of the 41 most massive local early-type galaxies
journal, September 2016

  • Veale, Melanie; Ma, Chung-Pei; Thomas, Jens
  • Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Vol. 464, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1093/mnras/stw2330