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Title: Optimization of switch diagnostics on the MAIZE linear transformer driver

Abstract

The MAIZE Linear Transformer Driver is made of 40 capacitor-switch-capacitor `bricks' connected in parallel. When these 40 bricks are charged to 100-kV and then discharged synchronously, the MAIZE facility generates a 1-MA current pulse with a 100-ns rise time into a matched load impedance. Discharging each of the capacitors in a brick is carried out by the breakdown of a spark-gap switch, a process which results in the emission of light. Monitoring this output light with a fiber optic coupled to a photomultiplier tube (PMT) and an oscilloscope channel provides information on switch performance and timing jitter– whether a switch red early, late, or in phase with the other switches. However, monitoring each switch with a dedicated detector- oscilloscope channel can be problematic for facilities where the number of switches to be monitored (e.g., 40 on MAIZE) greatly exceeds the number of detector-oscilloscope channels available. The technique of using fibers to monitor light emission from switches can be optimized by treating a PMT as a binary digit or bit and using a combinatorial encoding scheme, where each switch is monitored by a unique combination of fiber- PMT-oscilloscope channels simultaneously. By observing the unique combination of ber-PMT-oscilloscope channels that are turnedmore » on, the pre-firing or late-firing of a single switch on MAIZE can be identified by as few as six PMT-oscilloscope channels. The number of PMT-oscilloscope channels, N, required to monitor X switches can be calculated by 2N = X + 1, where the number '2' is selected because the PMT-oscilloscope acts as a bit. Here, we demonstrate the use of this diagnostic technique on MAIZE. In conclusion, we also present an analysis of how this technique could be scaled to monitor the tens of thousands of switches proposed for various next generation pulsed power facilities.« less

Authors:
 [1];  [1]; ORCiD logo [1]; ORCiD logo [1];  [1];  [2]; ORCiD logo [1]; ORCiD logo [1]; ORCiD logo [1]
  1. Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)
  2. Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA); National Science Foundation (NSF)
OSTI Identifier:
1575399
Alternate Identifier(s):
OSTI ID: 1580147
Grant/Contract Number:  
NA0003764; NA0003525; 20-9240
Resource Type:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Review of Scientific Instruments
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 90; Journal Issue: 12; Journal ID: ISSN 0034-6748
Publisher:
American Institute of Physics (AIP)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
47 OTHER INSTRUMENTATION

Citation Formats

Shah, A. P., Campbell, P. C., Miller, S. M., Woolstrum, J. M., Sporer, B. J., Patel, S. G., Jordan, N. M., Gilgenbach, R. M., and McBride, R. D. Optimization of switch diagnostics on the MAIZE linear transformer driver. United States: N. p., 2019. Web. doi:10.1063/1.5113866.
Shah, A. P., Campbell, P. C., Miller, S. M., Woolstrum, J. M., Sporer, B. J., Patel, S. G., Jordan, N. M., Gilgenbach, R. M., & McBride, R. D. Optimization of switch diagnostics on the MAIZE linear transformer driver. United States. doi:https://doi.org/10.1063/1.5113866
Shah, A. P., Campbell, P. C., Miller, S. M., Woolstrum, J. M., Sporer, B. J., Patel, S. G., Jordan, N. M., Gilgenbach, R. M., and McBride, R. D. Fri . "Optimization of switch diagnostics on the MAIZE linear transformer driver". United States. doi:https://doi.org/10.1063/1.5113866. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1575399.
@article{osti_1575399,
title = {Optimization of switch diagnostics on the MAIZE linear transformer driver},
author = {Shah, A. P. and Campbell, P. C. and Miller, S. M. and Woolstrum, J. M. and Sporer, B. J. and Patel, S. G. and Jordan, N. M. and Gilgenbach, R. M. and McBride, R. D.},
abstractNote = {The MAIZE Linear Transformer Driver is made of 40 capacitor-switch-capacitor `bricks' connected in parallel. When these 40 bricks are charged to 100-kV and then discharged synchronously, the MAIZE facility generates a 1-MA current pulse with a 100-ns rise time into a matched load impedance. Discharging each of the capacitors in a brick is carried out by the breakdown of a spark-gap switch, a process which results in the emission of light. Monitoring this output light with a fiber optic coupled to a photomultiplier tube (PMT) and an oscilloscope channel provides information on switch performance and timing jitter– whether a switch red early, late, or in phase with the other switches. However, monitoring each switch with a dedicated detector- oscilloscope channel can be problematic for facilities where the number of switches to be monitored (e.g., 40 on MAIZE) greatly exceeds the number of detector-oscilloscope channels available. The technique of using fibers to monitor light emission from switches can be optimized by treating a PMT as a binary digit or bit and using a combinatorial encoding scheme, where each switch is monitored by a unique combination of fiber- PMT-oscilloscope channels simultaneously. By observing the unique combination of ber-PMT-oscilloscope channels that are turned on, the pre-firing or late-firing of a single switch on MAIZE can be identified by as few as six PMT-oscilloscope channels. The number of PMT-oscilloscope channels, N, required to monitor X switches can be calculated by 2N = X + 1, where the number '2' is selected because the PMT-oscilloscope acts as a bit. Here, we demonstrate the use of this diagnostic technique on MAIZE. In conclusion, we also present an analysis of how this technique could be scaled to monitor the tens of thousands of switches proposed for various next generation pulsed power facilities.},
doi = {10.1063/1.5113866},
journal = {Review of Scientific Instruments},
number = 12,
volume = 90,
place = {United States},
year = {2019},
month = {12}
}

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