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Title: The hidden giant: discovery of an enormous Galactic dwarf satellite in Gaia DR2

Abstract

In this paper, we report the discovery of a Milky Way satellite in the constellation of Antlia. The Antlia 2 dwarf galaxy is located behind the Galactic disc at a latitude of b ∼ 11° and spans 1.26°, which corresponds to ∼2.9 kpc at its distance of 130 kpc. While similar in spatial extent to the Large Magellanic Cloud, Antlia 2 is orders of magnitude fainter at MV = −9 mag, making it by far the lowest surface brightness system known (at ∼31.9 mag arcsec −2), ∼100 times more diffuse than the so-called ultra diffuse galaxies. The satellite was identified using a combination of astrometry, photometry, and variability data from Gaia Data Release 2, and its nature confirmed with deep archival DECam imaging, which revealed a conspicuous BHB signal. We have also obtained follow-up spectroscopy using AAOmega on the AAT, identifying 159 member stars, and we used them to measure the dwarf’s systemic velocity, 290.9 ± 0.5 km s −1, its velocity dispersion, 5.7 ± 1.1 km s −1, and mean metallicity, [Fe/H] = −1.4. From these properties we conclude that Antlia 2 inhabits one of the least dense dark matter (DM) haloes probed to date. Dynamical modelling and tidal-disruption simulations suggest that a combination of a cored DM profile and strong tidal stripping may explain the observedmore » properties of this satellite. The origin of this core may be consistent with aggressive feedback, or may even require alternatives to cold dark matter (such as ultra-light bosons).« less

Authors:
ORCiD logo [1]; ORCiD logo [2]; ORCiD logo [3];  [4];  [5]; ORCiD logo [6];  [7];  [8];  [9];  [6]; ORCiD logo [10]
  1. Academia Sinica, Taipei (Taiwan). Inst. of Astronomy and Astrophysics
  2. Univ. of Cambridge, Cambridge (United Kingdom). Inst. of Astronomy; Flatiron Inst., New York, NY (United States). Center for Computational Astrophysics
  3. Univ. of Cambridge, Cambridge (United Kingdom). Inst. of Astronomy; Carnegie Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA (United States). Dept. of Physics, McWilliams Center for Cosmology
  4. Fermi National Accelerator Lab., Batavia, IL (United States); Univ. of Chicago, Chicago, IL (United States). Kavli Inst. for Cosmological Physics
  5. Carnegie Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA (United States). Dept. of Physics, McWilliams Center for Cosmology
  6. Univ. of Cambridge, Cambridge (United Kingdom). Inst. of Astronomy
  7. Imperial College London, London (United Kingdom). Blackett Lab., Dept. of Phsyics
  8. Macquarie Univ., Sydney (Australia). Dept. of Physics & Astronomy and Macquarie Univ. Research Centre for Astronomy
  9. Macquarie Univ., North Ryde (Australia). Australian Astronomical Optics
  10. Univ. of Leicester, Leicester (United Kingdom). Dept. of Physics & Astronomy; Sternwarte der Ludwig-Maximilians-Univ., Munchen (Germany)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Science (SC), High Energy Physics (HEP) (SC-25)
OSTI Identifier:
1570216
Alternate Identifier(s):
OSTI ID: 1544920
Report Number(s):
arXiv:1811.04082; FERMILAB-PUB-19-517-AE
Journal ID: ISSN 0035-8711; oai:inspirehep.net:1703311
Grant/Contract Number:  
AC02-07CH11359
Resource Type:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 488; Journal Issue: 2; Journal ID: ISSN 0035-8711
Publisher:
Royal Astronomical Society
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
79 ASTRONOMY AND ASTROPHYSICS; galaxy: halo; galaxies: dwarf; galaxies: individual: Antila 2 Dwarf

Citation Formats

Torrealba, G., Belokurov, V., Koposov, S. E., Li, T. S., Walker, M. G., Sanders, J. L., Geringer-Sameth, A., Zucker, D. B., Kuehn, K., Evans, N. W., and Dehnen, W. The hidden giant: discovery of an enormous Galactic dwarf satellite in Gaia DR2. United States: N. p., 2019. Web. doi:10.1093/mnras/stz1624.
Torrealba, G., Belokurov, V., Koposov, S. E., Li, T. S., Walker, M. G., Sanders, J. L., Geringer-Sameth, A., Zucker, D. B., Kuehn, K., Evans, N. W., & Dehnen, W. The hidden giant: discovery of an enormous Galactic dwarf satellite in Gaia DR2. United States. doi:10.1093/mnras/stz1624.
Torrealba, G., Belokurov, V., Koposov, S. E., Li, T. S., Walker, M. G., Sanders, J. L., Geringer-Sameth, A., Zucker, D. B., Kuehn, K., Evans, N. W., and Dehnen, W. Wed . "The hidden giant: discovery of an enormous Galactic dwarf satellite in Gaia DR2". United States. doi:10.1093/mnras/stz1624.
@article{osti_1570216,
title = {The hidden giant: discovery of an enormous Galactic dwarf satellite in Gaia DR2},
author = {Torrealba, G. and Belokurov, V. and Koposov, S. E. and Li, T. S. and Walker, M. G. and Sanders, J. L. and Geringer-Sameth, A. and Zucker, D. B. and Kuehn, K. and Evans, N. W. and Dehnen, W.},
abstractNote = {In this paper, we report the discovery of a Milky Way satellite in the constellation of Antlia. The Antlia 2 dwarf galaxy is located behind the Galactic disc at a latitude of b ∼ 11° and spans 1.26°, which corresponds to ∼2.9 kpc at its distance of 130 kpc. While similar in spatial extent to the Large Magellanic Cloud, Antlia 2 is orders of magnitude fainter at MV = −9 mag, making it by far the lowest surface brightness system known (at ∼31.9 mag arcsec−2), ∼100 times more diffuse than the so-called ultra diffuse galaxies. The satellite was identified using a combination of astrometry, photometry, and variability data from Gaia Data Release 2, and its nature confirmed with deep archival DECam imaging, which revealed a conspicuous BHB signal. We have also obtained follow-up spectroscopy using AAOmega on the AAT, identifying 159 member stars, and we used them to measure the dwarf’s systemic velocity, 290.9 ± 0.5 km s−1, its velocity dispersion, 5.7 ± 1.1 km s−1, and mean metallicity, [Fe/H] = −1.4. From these properties we conclude that Antlia 2 inhabits one of the least dense dark matter (DM) haloes probed to date. Dynamical modelling and tidal-disruption simulations suggest that a combination of a cored DM profile and strong tidal stripping may explain the observed properties of this satellite. The origin of this core may be consistent with aggressive feedback, or may even require alternatives to cold dark matter (such as ultra-light bosons).},
doi = {10.1093/mnras/stz1624},
journal = {Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society},
number = 2,
volume = 488,
place = {United States},
year = {2019},
month = {6}
}

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Internal Kinematics of the Fornax Dwarf Spheroidal Galaxy
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CONTRASTING GALAXY FORMATION FROM QUANTUM WAVE DARK MATTER, ψ DM, WITH ΛCDM, USING PLANCK AND HUBBLE DATA
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A new galaxy in the local group: The antlia dwarf galaxy.
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Accurate Stellar Kinematics at Faint Magnitudes: Application to the BoÖTes i Dwarf Spheroidal Galaxy
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Ships Passing in the Night: Spectroscopic Analysis of Two Ultra-faint Satellites in the Constellation Carina
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The mass distribution and gravitational potential of the Milky Way
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The Masses of Local Group Dwarf Spheroidal Galaxies: the Death of the Universal mass Profile
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The stellar dynamics of omega centauri.
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In-flight calibration of Hitomi Soft X-ray Spectrometer. (1) Background
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The Imprint of Cosmic Reionization on the Luminosity Function of Galaxies
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A HUBBLE SPACE TELESCOPE STUDY OF THE ENIGMATIC MILKY WAY HALO GLOBULAR CLUSTER CRATER
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Evidence for an Intermediate-mass Milky Way from Gaia DR2 Halo Globular Cluster Motions
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How supernova feedback turns dark matter cusps into cores: Supernova feedback and dark matter cores
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THE LARGE AREA TELESCOPE ON THE FERMI GAMMA-RAY SPACE TELESCOPE MISSION
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Dark matter annihilation and decay in dwarf spheroidal galaxies: the classical and ultrafaint dSphs
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A new Milky way Satellite Discovered in the Subaru/Hyper Suprime-Cam Survey
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Breathing Fire: how Stellar Feedback Drives Radial Migration, Rapid size Fluctuations, and Population Gradients in Low-Mass Galaxies
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Stellar Feedback in Dwarf Galaxy Formation
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Four new Stellar Debris Streams in the Galactic halo
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The Observed Properties of Dwarf Galaxies in and Around the Local Group
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The Gaia mission
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Proper Motion of Milky Way Dwarf Spheroidals from Line-of-Sight Velocities
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Magellan/M2fs Spectroscopy of Tucana 2 and grus 1
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Nearest Neighbor: The Low-mass Milky Way Satellite Tucana III
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The feeble giant. Discovery of a large and diffuse Milky Way dwarf galaxy in the constellation of Crater
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The Physical Nature of the Cosmic Accretion of Baryons and dark Matter into Halos and Their Galaxies
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Fuzzy Cold Dark Matter: The Wave Properties of Ultralight Particles
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DEVELOPMENT OF THE MODEL OF GALACTIC INTERSTELLAR EMISSION FOR STANDARD POINT-SOURCE ANALYSIS OF FERMI LARGE AREA TELESCOPE DATA
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Small-Scale Challenges to the Λ CDM Paradigm
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The structure of cold dark matter halos
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Observational Evidence for Self-Interacting Cold Dark Matter
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The Size-Virial Radius Relation of Galaxies
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The case for a cold dark matter cusp in Draco
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Response of Dark Matter Halos to Condensation of Baryons: Cosmological Simulations and Improved Adiabatic Contraction Model
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Gaia Data Release 2 : Kinematics of globular clusters and dwarf galaxies around the Milky Way★
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Kinematics and Chemistry of Recently Discovered Reticulum 2 and Horologium 1 Dwarf Galaxies
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Forty-Seven Milky Way-Sized, Extremely Diffuse Galaxies in the coma Cluster
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Gaia Data Release 2 : Variable stars in the colour-absolute magnitude diagram★★★
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Portrait of a dark Horse: a Photometric and Spectroscopic Study of the Ultra-Faint Milky way Satellite Pegasus iii
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Farthest Neighbor: The Distant Milky Way Satellite Eridanus II
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At the survey limits: discovery of the Aquarius 2 dwarf galaxy in the VST ATLAS and the SDSS data
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Proper motions and dynamics of the Milky Way globular cluster system from Gaia DR2
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Stealth Galaxies in the halo of the Milky way
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Complexity on Small Scales: The Metallicity Distribution of the Carina Dwarf Spheroidal Galaxy
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M31 Transverse Velocity and Local Group Mass from Satellite Kinematics
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