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Title: Microscale residual stresses in additively manufactured stainless steel

Abstract

Additively manufactured (AM) metallic materials commonly possess substantial microscale internal stresses that manifest as intergranular and intragranular residual stresses. However, the impact of these residual stresses on the mechanical behaviour of AM materials remains unexplored. Here we combine in situ synchrotron X-ray diffraction experiments and computational modelling to quantify the lattice strains in different families of grains with specific orientations and associated intergranular residual stresses in an AM 316L stainless steel under uniaxial tension. We measure pronounced tension–compression asymmetries in yield strength and work hardening for as-printed stainless steel, and show they are associated with back stresses originating from heterogeneous dislocation distributions and resultant intragranular residual stresses. We further report that heat treatment relieves microscale residual stresses, thereby reducing the tension–compression asymmetries and altering work-hardening behaviour. This work establishes the mechanistic connections between the microscale residual stresses and mechanical behaviour of AM stainless steel.

Authors:
 [1];  [1]; ORCiD logo [2];  [1];  [1];  [2];  [2]; ORCiD logo [1]
  1. Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)
  2. Georgia Inst. of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)
OSTI Identifier:
1566796
Report Number(s):
LLNL-JRNL-789087
Journal ID: ISSN 2041-1723; 986990
Grant/Contract Number:  
AC52-07NA27344
Resource Type:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Nature Communications
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 10; Journal Issue: 1; Journal ID: ISSN 2041-1723
Publisher:
Nature Publishing Group
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
36 MATERIALS SCIENCE

Citation Formats

Chen, Wen, Voisin, Thomas, Zhang, Yin, Florien, Jean-Baptiste, Spadaccini, Christopher M., McDowell, David L., Zhu, Ting, and Wang, Y. Morris. Microscale residual stresses in additively manufactured stainless steel. United States: N. p., 2019. Web. doi:10.1038/s41467-019-12265-8.
Chen, Wen, Voisin, Thomas, Zhang, Yin, Florien, Jean-Baptiste, Spadaccini, Christopher M., McDowell, David L., Zhu, Ting, & Wang, Y. Morris. Microscale residual stresses in additively manufactured stainless steel. United States. doi:10.1038/s41467-019-12265-8.
Chen, Wen, Voisin, Thomas, Zhang, Yin, Florien, Jean-Baptiste, Spadaccini, Christopher M., McDowell, David L., Zhu, Ting, and Wang, Y. Morris. Wed . "Microscale residual stresses in additively manufactured stainless steel". United States. doi:10.1038/s41467-019-12265-8. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1566796.
@article{osti_1566796,
title = {Microscale residual stresses in additively manufactured stainless steel},
author = {Chen, Wen and Voisin, Thomas and Zhang, Yin and Florien, Jean-Baptiste and Spadaccini, Christopher M. and McDowell, David L. and Zhu, Ting and Wang, Y. Morris},
abstractNote = {Additively manufactured (AM) metallic materials commonly possess substantial microscale internal stresses that manifest as intergranular and intragranular residual stresses. However, the impact of these residual stresses on the mechanical behaviour of AM materials remains unexplored. Here we combine in situ synchrotron X-ray diffraction experiments and computational modelling to quantify the lattice strains in different families of grains with specific orientations and associated intergranular residual stresses in an AM 316L stainless steel under uniaxial tension. We measure pronounced tension–compression asymmetries in yield strength and work hardening for as-printed stainless steel, and show they are associated with back stresses originating from heterogeneous dislocation distributions and resultant intragranular residual stresses. We further report that heat treatment relieves microscale residual stresses, thereby reducing the tension–compression asymmetries and altering work-hardening behaviour. This work establishes the mechanistic connections between the microscale residual stresses and mechanical behaviour of AM stainless steel.},
doi = {10.1038/s41467-019-12265-8},
journal = {Nature Communications},
number = 1,
volume = 10,
place = {United States},
year = {2019},
month = {9}
}

Journal Article:
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Cited by: 3 works
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Figures / Tables:

Figure 1 Figure 1: Microstructure of as-printed 316L stainless steel. (a) EBSD image along the build direction (BD) and transverse direction (TD), respectively. The EBSD image along the loading direction (LD) is similar to that along TD. The grain size distribution is obtained from the top surface (the TD-LD plane) in themore » image. (b) 001, 110, 111 pole figures corresponding to the EBSD image taken along the BD. (c) Top-view HAADF STEM image of the same sample in (a). Tangled dislocations and a few twin boundaries (marked with white arrows) are visible; cellular structures are poorly defined. (d) A higher resolution HAADF STEM image of cellular structures compared to (c). Some precipitates are visible.« less

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    Works referencing / citing this record:

    The origin of high-density dislocations in additively manufactured metals
    journal, April 2020


      Figures/Tables have been extracted from DOE-funded journal article accepted manuscripts.