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Title: Neoproterozoic to early Phanerozoic rise in island arc redox state due to deep ocean oxygenation and increased marine sulfate levels

Abstract

A rise in atmospheric O 2levels between 800 and 400 Ma is thought to have oxygenated the deep oceans, ushered in modern biogeochemical cycles, and led to the diversification of animals. Over the same time interval, marine sulfate concentrations are also thought to have increased to near-modern levels. We present compiled data that indicate Phanerozoic island arc igneous rocks are more oxidized (Fe 3+/ΣFe ratios are elevated by 0.12) vs. Precambrian equivalents. We propose this elevation is due to increases in deep-ocean O 2and marine sulfate concentrations between 800 and 400 Ma, which oxidized oceanic crust on the seafloor. Once subducted, this material oxidized the subarc mantle, increasing the redox state of island arc parental melts, and thus igneous island arc rocks. We test this using independently compiled V/Sc ratios, which are also an igneous oxybarometer. Average V/Sc ratios of Phanerozoic island arc rocks are elevated (by +1.1) compared with Precambrian equivalents, consistent with our proposal for an increase in the redox state of the subarc mantle between 800 and 400 Ma based on Fe 3+/ΣFe ratios. This work provides evidence that the more oxidized nature of island arc vs. midocean-ridge basalts is related to the subduction of material oxidizedmore » at the Earth’s surface to the subarc mantle. It also indicates that the rise of atmospheric O 2and marine sulfate to near-modern levels by the late Paleozoic influenced not only surface biogeochemical cycles and animal diversification but also influenced the redox state of island arc rocks, which are building blocks of continental crust.« less

Authors:
ORCiD logo [1];  [2]
  1. Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Department of Earth and Planetary Science; Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Earth and Environmental Services Area
  2. California Inst. of Technology (CalTech), Pasadena, CA (United States). Division of Geological and Planetary Sciences
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Science (SC)
OSTI Identifier:
1561912
Grant/Contract Number:  
AC02-05CH11231
Resource Type:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 116; Journal Issue: 18; Journal ID: ISSN 0027-8424
Publisher:
National Academy of Sciences, Washington, DC (United States)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
54 ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES

Citation Formats

Stolper, Daniel A., and Bucholz, Claire E. Neoproterozoic to early Phanerozoic rise in island arc redox state due to deep ocean oxygenation and increased marine sulfate levels. United States: N. p., 2019. Web. doi:10.1073/pnas.1821847116.
Stolper, Daniel A., & Bucholz, Claire E. Neoproterozoic to early Phanerozoic rise in island arc redox state due to deep ocean oxygenation and increased marine sulfate levels. United States. doi:10.1073/pnas.1821847116.
Stolper, Daniel A., and Bucholz, Claire E. Thu . "Neoproterozoic to early Phanerozoic rise in island arc redox state due to deep ocean oxygenation and increased marine sulfate levels". United States. doi:10.1073/pnas.1821847116.
@article{osti_1561912,
title = {Neoproterozoic to early Phanerozoic rise in island arc redox state due to deep ocean oxygenation and increased marine sulfate levels},
author = {Stolper, Daniel A. and Bucholz, Claire E.},
abstractNote = {A rise in atmospheric O2levels between 800 and 400 Ma is thought to have oxygenated the deep oceans, ushered in modern biogeochemical cycles, and led to the diversification of animals. Over the same time interval, marine sulfate concentrations are also thought to have increased to near-modern levels. We present compiled data that indicate Phanerozoic island arc igneous rocks are more oxidized (Fe3+/ΣFe ratios are elevated by 0.12) vs. Precambrian equivalents. We propose this elevation is due to increases in deep-ocean O2and marine sulfate concentrations between 800 and 400 Ma, which oxidized oceanic crust on the seafloor. Once subducted, this material oxidized the subarc mantle, increasing the redox state of island arc parental melts, and thus igneous island arc rocks. We test this using independently compiled V/Sc ratios, which are also an igneous oxybarometer. Average V/Sc ratios of Phanerozoic island arc rocks are elevated (by +1.1) compared with Precambrian equivalents, consistent with our proposal for an increase in the redox state of the subarc mantle between 800 and 400 Ma based on Fe3+/ΣFe ratios. This work provides evidence that the more oxidized nature of island arc vs. midocean-ridge basalts is related to the subduction of material oxidized at the Earth’s surface to the subarc mantle. It also indicates that the rise of atmospheric O2and marine sulfate to near-modern levels by the late Paleozoic influenced not only surface biogeochemical cycles and animal diversification but also influenced the redox state of island arc rocks, which are building blocks of continental crust.},
doi = {10.1073/pnas.1821847116},
journal = {Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America},
number = 18,
volume = 116,
place = {United States},
year = {2019},
month = {4}
}

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