skip to main content
DOE PAGES title logo U.S. Department of Energy
Office of Scientific and Technical Information

This content will become publicly available on July 19, 2020

Title: An Extended Catalog of Galaxy–Galaxy Strong Gravitational Lenses Discovered in DES Using Convolutional Neural Networks

Abstract

We search Dark Energy Survey (DES) Year 3 imaging for galaxy–galaxy strong gravitational lenses using convolutional neural networks, extending previous work with new training sets and covering a wider range of redshifts and colors. We train two neural networks using images of simulated lenses, then use them to score postage-stamp images of 7.9 million sources from DES chosen to have plausible lens colors based on simulations. We examine 1175 of the highest-scored candidates and identify 152 probable or definite lenses. Examining an additional 20,000 images with lower scores, we identify a further 247 probable or definite candidates. After including 86 candidates discovered in earlier searches using neural networks and 26 candidates discovered through visual inspection of blue-near-red objects in the DES catalog, we present a catalog of 511 lens candidates.

Authors:
ORCiD logo; ORCiD logo; ORCiD logo; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ORCiD logo; ; ; ORCiD logo more »; ; ORCiD logo; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ORCiD logo; ORCiD logo; ORCiD logo; ; ; ; ; ORCiD logo; ; ; ; ; ; ; ORCiD logo; ORCiD logo; ORCiD logo; ORCiD logo; ; ; ; ORCiD logo; ORCiD logo; ; ORCiD logo; ORCiD logo; ; ORCiD logo; « less
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Science (SC), High Energy Physics (HEP) (SC-25)
Contributing Org.:
DES Collaboration
OSTI Identifier:
1556970
Report Number(s):
arXiv:1905.10522; FERMILAB-PUB-19-133-AE; DES-2018-0435
Journal ID: ISSN 1538-4365; 1744717
Grant/Contract Number:  
AC02-07CH11359
Resource Type:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
The Astrophysical Journal. Supplement Series (Online)
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Name: The Astrophysical Journal. Supplement Series (Online); Journal Volume: 243; Journal Issue: 1; Journal ID: ISSN 1538-4365
Publisher:
American Astronomical Society/IOP
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
79 ASTRONOMY AND ASTROPHYSICS

Citation Formats

Jacobs, C., Collett, T., Glazebrook, K., Buckley-Geer, E., Diehl, H. T., Lin, H., McCarthy, C., Qin, A. K., Odden, C., Escudero, M. Caso, Dial, P., Yung, V. J., Gaitsch, S., Pellico, A., Lindgren, K. A., Abbott, T. M. C., Annis, J., Avila, S., Brooks, D., Burke, D. L., Rosell, A. Carnero, Kind, M. Carrasco, Carretero, J., Costa, L. N. da, Vicente, J. De, Fosalba, P., Frieman, J., García-Bellido, J., Gaztanaga, E., Goldstein, D. A., Gruen, D., Gruendl, R. A., Gschwend, J., Hollowood, D. L., Honscheid, K., Hoyle, B., James, D. J., Krause, E., Kuropatkin, N., Lahav, O., Lima, M., Maia, M. A. G., Marshall, J. L., Miquel, R., Plazas, A. A., Roodman, A., Sanchez, E., Scarpine, V., Serrano, S., Sevilla-Noarbe, I., Smith, M., Sobreira, F., Suchyta, E., Swanson, M. E. C., Tarle, G., Vikram, V., Walker, A. R., and Zhang, Y. An Extended Catalog of Galaxy–Galaxy Strong Gravitational Lenses Discovered in DES Using Convolutional Neural Networks. United States: N. p., 2019. Web. doi:10.3847/1538-4365/ab26b6.
Jacobs, C., Collett, T., Glazebrook, K., Buckley-Geer, E., Diehl, H. T., Lin, H., McCarthy, C., Qin, A. K., Odden, C., Escudero, M. Caso, Dial, P., Yung, V. J., Gaitsch, S., Pellico, A., Lindgren, K. A., Abbott, T. M. C., Annis, J., Avila, S., Brooks, D., Burke, D. L., Rosell, A. Carnero, Kind, M. Carrasco, Carretero, J., Costa, L. N. da, Vicente, J. De, Fosalba, P., Frieman, J., García-Bellido, J., Gaztanaga, E., Goldstein, D. A., Gruen, D., Gruendl, R. A., Gschwend, J., Hollowood, D. L., Honscheid, K., Hoyle, B., James, D. J., Krause, E., Kuropatkin, N., Lahav, O., Lima, M., Maia, M. A. G., Marshall, J. L., Miquel, R., Plazas, A. A., Roodman, A., Sanchez, E., Scarpine, V., Serrano, S., Sevilla-Noarbe, I., Smith, M., Sobreira, F., Suchyta, E., Swanson, M. E. C., Tarle, G., Vikram, V., Walker, A. R., & Zhang, Y. An Extended Catalog of Galaxy–Galaxy Strong Gravitational Lenses Discovered in DES Using Convolutional Neural Networks. United States. doi:10.3847/1538-4365/ab26b6.
Jacobs, C., Collett, T., Glazebrook, K., Buckley-Geer, E., Diehl, H. T., Lin, H., McCarthy, C., Qin, A. K., Odden, C., Escudero, M. Caso, Dial, P., Yung, V. J., Gaitsch, S., Pellico, A., Lindgren, K. A., Abbott, T. M. C., Annis, J., Avila, S., Brooks, D., Burke, D. L., Rosell, A. Carnero, Kind, M. Carrasco, Carretero, J., Costa, L. N. da, Vicente, J. De, Fosalba, P., Frieman, J., García-Bellido, J., Gaztanaga, E., Goldstein, D. A., Gruen, D., Gruendl, R. A., Gschwend, J., Hollowood, D. L., Honscheid, K., Hoyle, B., James, D. J., Krause, E., Kuropatkin, N., Lahav, O., Lima, M., Maia, M. A. G., Marshall, J. L., Miquel, R., Plazas, A. A., Roodman, A., Sanchez, E., Scarpine, V., Serrano, S., Sevilla-Noarbe, I., Smith, M., Sobreira, F., Suchyta, E., Swanson, M. E. C., Tarle, G., Vikram, V., Walker, A. R., and Zhang, Y. Fri . "An Extended Catalog of Galaxy–Galaxy Strong Gravitational Lenses Discovered in DES Using Convolutional Neural Networks". United States. doi:10.3847/1538-4365/ab26b6.
@article{osti_1556970,
title = {An Extended Catalog of Galaxy–Galaxy Strong Gravitational Lenses Discovered in DES Using Convolutional Neural Networks},
author = {Jacobs, C. and Collett, T. and Glazebrook, K. and Buckley-Geer, E. and Diehl, H. T. and Lin, H. and McCarthy, C. and Qin, A. K. and Odden, C. and Escudero, M. Caso and Dial, P. and Yung, V. J. and Gaitsch, S. and Pellico, A. and Lindgren, K. A. and Abbott, T. M. C. and Annis, J. and Avila, S. and Brooks, D. and Burke, D. L. and Rosell, A. Carnero and Kind, M. Carrasco and Carretero, J. and Costa, L. N. da and Vicente, J. De and Fosalba, P. and Frieman, J. and García-Bellido, J. and Gaztanaga, E. and Goldstein, D. A. and Gruen, D. and Gruendl, R. A. and Gschwend, J. and Hollowood, D. L. and Honscheid, K. and Hoyle, B. and James, D. J. and Krause, E. and Kuropatkin, N. and Lahav, O. and Lima, M. and Maia, M. A. G. and Marshall, J. L. and Miquel, R. and Plazas, A. A. and Roodman, A. and Sanchez, E. and Scarpine, V. and Serrano, S. and Sevilla-Noarbe, I. and Smith, M. and Sobreira, F. and Suchyta, E. and Swanson, M. E. C. and Tarle, G. and Vikram, V. and Walker, A. R. and Zhang, Y.},
abstractNote = {We search Dark Energy Survey (DES) Year 3 imaging for galaxy–galaxy strong gravitational lenses using convolutional neural networks, extending previous work with new training sets and covering a wider range of redshifts and colors. We train two neural networks using images of simulated lenses, then use them to score postage-stamp images of 7.9 million sources from DES chosen to have plausible lens colors based on simulations. We examine 1175 of the highest-scored candidates and identify 152 probable or definite lenses. Examining an additional 20,000 images with lower scores, we identify a further 247 probable or definite candidates. After including 86 candidates discovered in earlier searches using neural networks and 26 candidates discovered through visual inspection of blue-near-red objects in the DES catalog, we present a catalog of 511 lens candidates.},
doi = {10.3847/1538-4365/ab26b6},
journal = {The Astrophysical Journal. Supplement Series (Online)},
number = 1,
volume = 243,
place = {United States},
year = {2019},
month = {7}
}

Journal Article:
Free Publicly Available Full Text
This content will become publicly available on July 19, 2020
Publisher's Version of Record

Save / Share:

Works referenced in this record:

The Dark Energy Survey: Data Release 1
journal, November 2018

  • Abbott, T. M. C.; Abdalla, F. B.; Allam, S.
  • The Astrophysical Journal Supplement Series, Vol. 239, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.3847/1538-4365/aae9f0

A catalog of rich clusters of galaxies
journal, May 1989

  • Abell, George O.; Corwin, Harold G. , Jr.; Olowin, Ronald P.
  • The Astrophysical Journal Supplement Series, Vol. 70
  • DOI: 10.1086/191333

Broadband Photometry of 105 Giant Arcs: Redshift Constraints and Implications for Giant arc Statistics
journal, December 2011


Spt-Gmos: a Gemini/Gmos-South Spectroscopic Survey of Galaxy Clusters in the Spt-Sz Survey
journal, November 2016

  • Bayliss, M. B.; Ruel, J.; Stubbs, C. W.
  • The Astrophysical Journal Supplement Series, Vol. 227, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.3847/0067-0049/227/1/3

The SLUGGS survey: a comparison of total-mass profiles of early-type galaxies from observations and cosmological simulations, to ∼4 effective radii
journal, February 2018

  • Bellstedt, Sabine; Forbes, Duncan A.; Romanowsky, Aaron J.
  • Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Vol. 476, Issue 4
  • DOI: 10.1093/mnras/sty456

The Canarias Einstein ring: a newly discovered optical Einstein ring
journal, May 2016

  • Bettinelli, M.; Simioni, M.; Aparicio, A.
  • Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society: Letters, Vol. 461, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1093/mnrasl/slw097

A new Reduction of the Blanco Cosmology Survey: an Optically Selected Galaxy Cluster Catalog and a Public Release of Optical data Products
journal, January 2015

  • Bleem, L. E.; Stalder, B.; Brodwin, M.
  • The Astrophysical Journal Supplement Series, Vol. 216, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1088/0067-0049/216/1/20

Galaxy Clusters Discovered via the Sunyaev-Zel'Dovich Effect in the 2500-Square-Degree Spt-Sz Survey
journal, January 2015

  • Bleem, L. E.; Stalder, B.; de Haan, T.
  • The Astrophysical Journal Supplement Series, Vol. 216, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1088/0067-0049/216/2/27

THE SERENDIPITOUS OBSERVATION OF A GRAVITATIONALLY LENSED GALAXY AT z = 0.9057 FROM THE BLANCO COSMOLOGY SURVEY: THE ELLIOT ARC
journal, November 2011


The CFHTLS strong lensing legacy survey: I. Survey overview and T0002 release sample
journal, October 2006


The PAU survey: star–galaxy classification with multi narrow-band data
journal, November 2018

  • Cabayol, L.; Sevilla-Noarbe, I.; Fernández, E.
  • Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Vol. 483, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1093/mnras/sty3129

Chitah: STRONG-GRAVITATIONAL-LENS HUNTER IN IMAGING SURVEYS
journal, July 2015


The Population of Galaxy–Galaxy Strong Lenses in Forthcoming Optical Imaging Surveys
journal, September 2015


Cosmological constraints from the double source plane lens SDSSJ0946+1006
journal, July 2014

  • Collett, Thomas E.; Auger, Matthew W.
  • Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Vol. 443, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1093/mnras/stu1190

The first and second data releases of the Kilo-Degree Survey
journal, October 2015

  • de Jong, Jelte T. A.; Verdoes Kleijn, Gijs A.; Boxhoorn, Danny R.
  • Astronomy & Astrophysics, Vol. 582
  • DOI: 10.1051/0004-6361/201526601

Modelling the line-of-sight contribution in substructure lensing
journal, January 2018

  • Despali, Giulia; Vegetti, Simona; White, Simon D. M.
  • Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Vol. 475, Issue 4
  • DOI: 10.1093/mnras/sty159

The DES Bright Arcs Survey: Hundreds of Candidate Strongly Lensed Galaxy Systems from the Dark Energy Survey Science Verification and Year 1 Observations
journal, September 2017

  • Diehl, H. T.; Buckley-Geer, E. J.; Lindgren, K. A.
  • The Astrophysical Journal Supplement Series, Vol. 232, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.3847/1538-4365/aa8667

Rotation-invariant convolutional neural networks for galaxy morphology prediction
journal, April 2015

  • Dieleman, Sander; Willett, Kyle W.; Dambre, Joni
  • Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Vol. 450, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1093/mnras/stv632

Lens-Like Action of a star by the Deviation of Light in the Gravitational Field
journal, December 1936


The SOAR Gravitational Arc Survey – I. Survey overview and photometric catalogues★
journal, April 2013

  • Furlanetto, Cristina; Santiago, Basílio X.; Makler, Martín
  • Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Vol. 432, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1093/mnras/stt380

Ringfinder: Automated Detection of Galaxy-Scale Gravitational Lenses in Ground-Based Multi-Filter Imaging data
journal, April 2014


The Sloan Lens ACS Survey. VI. Discovery and Analysis of a Double Einstein Ring1
journal, April 2008

  • Gavazzi, Raphaël; Treu, Tommaso; Koopmans, Léon V. E.
  • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 677, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1086/529541

Thin and giant luminous arcs - A strong test of the lensing cluster mass distribution
journal, December 1991


Fast automated analysis of strong gravitational lenses with convolutional neural networks
journal, August 2017

  • Hezaveh, Yashar D.; Levasseur, Laurence Perreault; Marshall, Philip J.
  • Nature, Vol. 548, Issue 7669
  • DOI: 10.1038/nature23463

The luminosity and stellar mass Fundamental Plane of early-type galaxies
journal, June 2009


COSMOS PHOTOMETRIC REDSHIFTS WITH 30-BANDS FOR 2-deg 2
journal, December 2008


Finding high-redshift strong lenses in DES using convolutional neural networks
journal, January 2019

  • Jacobs, C.; Collett, T.; Glazebrook, K.
  • Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Vol. 484, Issue 4
  • DOI: 10.1093/mnras/stz272

Finding strong lenses in CFHTLS using convolutional neural networks
journal, June 2017

  • Jacobs, C.; Glazebrook, K.; Collett, T.
  • Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Vol. 471, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1093/mnras/stx1492

Star–galaxy classification using deep convolutional neural networks
journal, October 2016

  • Kim, Edward J.; Brunner, Robert J.
  • Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Vol. 464, Issue 4
  • DOI: 10.1093/mnras/stw2672

Gravitational imaging of cold dark matter substructures: Gravitational imaging of CDM substructures
journal, October 2005


The evolution of late-type galaxies from CASSOWARY lensing systems
journal, May 2014

  • Kostrzewa-Rutkowska, Zuzanna; Wyrzykowski, Łukasz; Auger, Matthew W.
  • Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Vol. 441, Issue 4
  • DOI: 10.1093/mnras/stu783

CMU DeepLens: deep learning for automatic image-based galaxy–galaxy strong lens finding
journal, July 2017

  • Lanusse, François; Ma, Quanbin; Li, Nan
  • Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Vol. 473, Issue 3
  • DOI: 10.1093/mnras/stx1665

Backpropagation Applied to Handwritten Zip Code Recognition
journal, December 1989


Constraints on the identity of the dark matter from strong gravitational lenses
journal, April 2016

  • Li, Ran; Frenk, Carlos S.; Cole, Shaun
  • Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Vol. 460, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1093/mnras/stw939

Discovery of the Lensed Quasar System DES J0408-5354
journal, March 2017


Automated Detection of Galaxy-Scale Gravitational Lenses in High-Resolution Imaging data
journal, March 2009

  • Marshall, Philip J.; Hogg, David W.; Moustakas, Leonidas A.
  • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 694, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1088/0004-637X/694/2/924

Space Warps – I. Crowdsourcing the discovery of gravitational lenses
journal, November 2015

  • Marshall, Philip J.; Verma, Aprajita; More, Anupreeta
  • Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Vol. 455, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1093/mnras/stv2009

Southern Cosmology Survey. ii. Massive Optically Selected Clusters from 70 Square Degrees of the Sunyaev–Zel'Dovich Effect Common Survey area
journal, November 2010

  • Menanteau, Felipe; Hughes, John P.; Barrientos, L. Felipe
  • The Astrophysical Journal Supplement Series, Vol. 191, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1088/0067-0049/191/2/340

A large sample of shear-selected clusters from the Hyper Suprime-Cam Subaru Strategic Program S16A Wide field mass maps
journal, December 2017

  • Miyazaki, Satoshi; Oguri, Masamune; Hamana, Takashi
  • Publications of the Astronomical Society of Japan, Vol. 70, Issue SP1
  • DOI: 10.1093/pasj/psx120

The Cfhtls-Strong Lensing Legacy Survey (Sl2s): Investigating the Group-Scale Lenses with the Sarcs Sample
journal, March 2012


Space Warps– II. New gravitational lens candidates from the CFHTLS discovered through citizen science
journal, November 2015

  • More, Anupreeta; Verma, Aprajita; Marshall, Philip J.
  • Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Vol. 455, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1093/mnras/stv1965

The Dark Energy Survey Image Processing Pipeline
journal, May 2018

  • Morganson, E.; Gruendl, R. A.; Menanteau, F.
  • Publications of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific, Vol. 130, Issue 989
  • DOI: 10.1088/1538-3873/aab4ef

Observation and Confirmation of six Strong-Lensing Systems in the dark Energy Survey Science Verification data
journal, August 2016


Finding strong gravitational lenses in the Kilo Degree Survey with Convolutional Neural Networks
journal, August 2017

  • Petrillo, C. E.; Tortora, C.; Chatterjee, S.
  • Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Vol. 472, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1093/mnras/stx2052

LinKS: discovering galaxy-scale strong lenses in the Kilo-Degree Survey using convolutional neural networks
journal, January 2019

  • Petrillo, C. E.; Tortora, C.; Vernardos, G.
  • Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Vol. 484, Issue 3
  • DOI: 10.1093/mnras/stz189

The Cluster Lensing and Supernova Survey with Hubble: an Overview
journal, March 2012

  • Postman, Marc; Coe, Dan; Benítez, Narciso
  • The Astrophysical Journal Supplement Series, Vol. 199, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1088/0067-0049/199/2/25

The co-evolution of total density profiles and central dark matter fractions in simulated early-type galaxies
journal, October 2016

  • Remus, Rhea-Silvia; Dolag, Klaus; Naab, Thorsten
  • Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Vol. 464, Issue 3
  • DOI: 10.1093/mnras/stw2594

Stellar Population Diagnostics of Elliptical Galaxy Formation
journal, September 2006


redMaGiC: selecting luminous red galaxies from the DES Science Verification data
journal, May 2016

  • Rozo, E.; Rykoff, E. S.; Abate, A.
  • Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Vol. 461, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1093/mnras/stw1281

redMaPPer. I. ALGORITHM AND SDSS DR8 CATALOG
journal, April 2014


The SAMI galaxy survey: exploring the gas-phase mass–metallicity relation
journal, January 2019

  • Sánchez, S. F.; Barrera-Ballesteros, J. K.; López-Cobá, C.
  • Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Vol. 484, Issue 3
  • DOI: 10.1093/mnras/stz019

Deep learning in neural networks: An overview
journal, January 2015


The sl2s Galaxy-Scale lens Sample. iv. the Dependence of the Total mass Density Profile of Early-Type Galaxies on Redshift, Stellar Mass, and size
journal, October 2013

  • Sonnenfeld, Alessandro; Treu, Tommaso; Gavazzi, Raphaël
  • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 777, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1088/0004-637X/777/2/98

Survey of Gravitationally-lensed Objects in HSC Imaging (SuGOHI). I. Automatic search for galaxy-scale strong lenses
journal, September 2017

  • Sonnenfeld, Alessandro; Chan, James H. H.; Shu, Yiping
  • Publications of the Astronomical Society of Japan, Vol. 70, Issue SP1
  • DOI: 10.1093/pasj/psx062

The CASSOWARY spectroscopy survey: a new sample of gravitationally lensed galaxies in SDSS
journal, October 2013

  • Stark, Daniel P.; Auger, Matthew; Belokurov, Vasily
  • Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Vol. 436, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1093/mnras/stt1624

A Spectroscopically Confirmed Double Source Plane lens System in the Hyper Suprime-Cam Subaru Strategic Program
journal, July 2016


Strong Lensing by Galaxies
journal, August 2010


Quantifying dwarf satellites through gravitational imaging: the case of SDSS J120602.09+514229.5: SDSS J120602.09+514229.5
journal, July 2010

  • Vegetti, Simona; Czoske, Oliver; Koopmans, Léon V. E.
  • Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Vol. 407, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2966.2010.16952.x

Statistics of mass substructure from strong gravitational lensing: quantifying the mass fraction and mass function
journal, December 2009


Inference of the cold dark matter substructure mass function at z = 0.2 using strong gravitational lenses
journal, June 2014

  • Vegetti, S.; Koopmans, L. V. E.; Auger, M. W.
  • Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Vol. 442, Issue 3
  • DOI: 10.1093/mnras/stu943

The formation of massive, compact galaxies at z = 2 in the Illustris simulation
journal, March 2015

  • Wellons, Sarah; Torrey, Paul; Ma, Chung-Pei
  • Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Vol. 449, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1093/mnras/stv303

Survey of Gravitationally Lensed Objects in HSC Imaging (SuGOHI). II. Environments and Line-of-Sight Structure of Strong Gravitational Lens Galaxies to z ∼ 0.8
journal, November 2018

  • Wong, Kenneth C.; Sonnenfeld, Alessandro; Chan, James H. H.
  • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 867, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.3847/1538-4357/aae381

Nebulae as Gravitational Lenses
journal, February 1937