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Title: Deuterium retention in re-solidified tungsten and beryllium

Abstract

Leading edges of the ITER tungsten (W) divertor are expected to melt due to transient heat loads from edge localized modes (ELMs), and melting of the entire divertor surface will occur during vertical displacement events (VDEs) and disruptions. In addition, understanding tritium retention in plasma facing materials is critical for the successful operation of ITER due to safety reasons. Thus, the question of how melting affects hydrogenic retention is highly relevant for fusion devices. Here we use an Nd:YAG laser to melt tungsten and beryllium in vacuo, and the samples are subsequently exposed to deuterium plasma with sample temperatures ranging from 370 to 750 K. The deuterium content in re-solidified and reference (no laser) samples is measured using thermal desorption spectroscopy and modeled using TMAP-7. In all cases, the re-solidified samples have lower retention compared to the reference samples. For re-solidified tungsten, the most significant effect is in the 1.8 eV trap with peak thermal desorption temperature of ~750 K, which had a 77% reduction in the peak release rate compared with the reference sample. SEM imaging indicates that laser melting and re-solidification of tungsten anneals intrinsic defects that act as nucleation sites for larger-scale defects that develop during plasmamore » exposure. However, melting does not significantly affect traps with lower de-trapping energies of 1.0 eV and 1.4 eV. In beryllium, melting and cracking results in lower retention compared to the reference sample by 40%, and thermal desorption profiles indicate that the diffusion depth of deuterium into re-solidified beryllium is lower than that of the reference sample.« less

Authors:
; ; ;
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Univ. of California, San Diego, CA (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Science (SC)
OSTI Identifier:
1547829
Alternate Identifier(s):
OSTI ID: 1609932
Grant/Contract Number:  
FG02-07ER54912
Resource Type:
Published Article
Journal Name:
Nuclear Materials and Energy
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Name: Nuclear Materials and Energy Journal Volume: 18 Journal Issue: C; Journal ID: ISSN 2352-1791
Publisher:
Elsevier
Country of Publication:
Netherlands
Language:
English
Subject:
36 MATERIALS SCIENCE; 70 PLASMA PHYSICS AND FUSION TECHNOLOGY; Tokamak plasma-material interactions; Transient heating; Laser melting; Hydrogen retention

Citation Formats

Yu, J. H., Simmonds, M. J., Baldwin, M. J., and Doerner, R. P. Deuterium retention in re-solidified tungsten and beryllium. Netherlands: N. p., 2019. Web. doi:10.1016/j.nme.2019.01.011.
Yu, J. H., Simmonds, M. J., Baldwin, M. J., & Doerner, R. P. Deuterium retention in re-solidified tungsten and beryllium. Netherlands. doi:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.nme.2019.01.011
Yu, J. H., Simmonds, M. J., Baldwin, M. J., and Doerner, R. P. Tue . "Deuterium retention in re-solidified tungsten and beryllium". Netherlands. doi:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.nme.2019.01.011.
@article{osti_1547829,
title = {Deuterium retention in re-solidified tungsten and beryllium},
author = {Yu, J. H. and Simmonds, M. J. and Baldwin, M. J. and Doerner, R. P.},
abstractNote = {Leading edges of the ITER tungsten (W) divertor are expected to melt due to transient heat loads from edge localized modes (ELMs), and melting of the entire divertor surface will occur during vertical displacement events (VDEs) and disruptions. In addition, understanding tritium retention in plasma facing materials is critical for the successful operation of ITER due to safety reasons. Thus, the question of how melting affects hydrogenic retention is highly relevant for fusion devices. Here we use an Nd:YAG laser to melt tungsten and beryllium in vacuo, and the samples are subsequently exposed to deuterium plasma with sample temperatures ranging from 370 to 750 K. The deuterium content in re-solidified and reference (no laser) samples is measured using thermal desorption spectroscopy and modeled using TMAP-7. In all cases, the re-solidified samples have lower retention compared to the reference samples. For re-solidified tungsten, the most significant effect is in the 1.8 eV trap with peak thermal desorption temperature of ~750 K, which had a 77% reduction in the peak release rate compared with the reference sample. SEM imaging indicates that laser melting and re-solidification of tungsten anneals intrinsic defects that act as nucleation sites for larger-scale defects that develop during plasma exposure. However, melting does not significantly affect traps with lower de-trapping energies of 1.0 eV and 1.4 eV. In beryllium, melting and cracking results in lower retention compared to the reference sample by 40%, and thermal desorption profiles indicate that the diffusion depth of deuterium into re-solidified beryllium is lower than that of the reference sample.},
doi = {10.1016/j.nme.2019.01.011},
journal = {Nuclear Materials and Energy},
number = C,
volume = 18,
place = {Netherlands},
year = {2019},
month = {1}
}

Journal Article:
Free Publicly Available Full Text
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DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.nme.2019.01.011

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