## Exploring the posterior surface of the large scale structure reconstruction

## Abstract

The large scale structure (LSS) of the universe is generated by the linear density gaussian modes, which are evolved into the observed nonlinear LSS. Given a set of data the posterior surface of the modes is convex in the linear regime, leading to a unique global maximum (MAP), but this is no longer guaranteed in the nonlinear regime. In this paper we investigate the nature of posterior surface using the recently developed MAP reconstruction method, with a simplified but realistic N-body simulation as the forward model. The reconstruction method uses optimization with analytic gradients from back-propagation through the simulation. For low noise cases we recover the initial conditions well into the nonlinear regime (k~ 1 h/Mpc) nearly perfectly. We show that the large scale modes can be recovered more precisely than the linear expectation, which we argue is a consequence of nonlinear mode coupling. For noise levels achievable with current and planned LSS surveys the reconstruction cannot recover very small scales due to noise. We see some evidence of non-convexity, specially for smaller scales where the non-injective nature of the mappings: several very different initial conditions leading to the same near perfect final data reconstruction. We investigate the nature ofmore »

- Authors:

- Publication Date:

- Research Org.:
- Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). National Energy Research Scientific Computing Center (NERSC)

- Sponsoring Org.:
- USDOE

- OSTI Identifier:
- 1543936

- Resource Type:
- Accepted Manuscript

- Journal Name:
- Journal of Cosmology and Astroparticle Physics

- Additional Journal Information:
- Journal Volume: 2018; Journal Issue: 07; Journal ID: ISSN 1475-7516

- Publisher:
- Institute of Physics (IOP)

- Country of Publication:
- United States

- Language:
- English

- Subject:
- 79 ASTRONOMY AND ASTROPHYSICS; Astronomy & Astrophysics; Physics; cosmological simulations; power spectrum

### Citation Formats

```
Feng, Yu, Seljak, Uroš, and Zaldarriaga, Matias. Exploring the posterior surface of the large scale structure reconstruction. United States: N. p., 2018.
Web. doi:10.1088/1475-7516/2018/07/043.
```

```
Feng, Yu, Seljak, Uroš, & Zaldarriaga, Matias. Exploring the posterior surface of the large scale structure reconstruction. United States. doi:10.1088/1475-7516/2018/07/043.
```

```
Feng, Yu, Seljak, Uroš, and Zaldarriaga, Matias. Fri .
"Exploring the posterior surface of the large scale structure reconstruction". United States. doi:10.1088/1475-7516/2018/07/043. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1543936.
```

```
@article{osti_1543936,
```

title = {Exploring the posterior surface of the large scale structure reconstruction},

author = {Feng, Yu and Seljak, Uroš and Zaldarriaga, Matias},

abstractNote = {The large scale structure (LSS) of the universe is generated by the linear density gaussian modes, which are evolved into the observed nonlinear LSS. Given a set of data the posterior surface of the modes is convex in the linear regime, leading to a unique global maximum (MAP), but this is no longer guaranteed in the nonlinear regime. In this paper we investigate the nature of posterior surface using the recently developed MAP reconstruction method, with a simplified but realistic N-body simulation as the forward model. The reconstruction method uses optimization with analytic gradients from back-propagation through the simulation. For low noise cases we recover the initial conditions well into the nonlinear regime (k~ 1 h/Mpc) nearly perfectly. We show that the large scale modes can be recovered more precisely than the linear expectation, which we argue is a consequence of nonlinear mode coupling. For noise levels achievable with current and planned LSS surveys the reconstruction cannot recover very small scales due to noise. We see some evidence of non-convexity, specially for smaller scales where the non-injective nature of the mappings: several very different initial conditions leading to the same near perfect final data reconstruction. We investigate the nature of these phenomena further using a 1-d toy gravity model, where many well separated local maximas are found to have identical data likelihood but differ in the prior. We also show that in 1-d the prior favors some solutions over the true solution, though no clear evidence of these in 3-d. Our main conclusion is that on very small scales and for a very low noise the posterior surface is multi-modal and the global maximum may be unreachable with standard methods, while for realistic noise levels in the context of the current and next generation LSS surveys MAP optimization method is likely to be nearly optimal.},

doi = {10.1088/1475-7516/2018/07/043},

journal = {Journal of Cosmology and Astroparticle Physics},

number = 07,

volume = 2018,

place = {United States},

year = {2018},

month = {7}

}

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