skip to main content
DOE PAGES title logo U.S. Department of Energy
Office of Scientific and Technical Information

Title: Enhanced Charge Transport by Incorporating Formamidinium and Cesium Cations into Two-Dimensional Perovskite Solar Cells

Abstract

Organic-inorganic hybrid two-dimensional (2D) perovskites (n≤5) have recently attracted significant attention due to their promising stability and optoelectronic properties. Normally, 2D perovskites contain a mono cation (e.g., methylammonium (MA+) or formamidinium (FA+)]. Here, we report for the first time on fabricating 2D perovskites (n=5) with mixed cations of MA+, FA+, and cesium (Cs+). The use of these triple cations leads to the formation of a smooth, compact surface morphology with larger grain size and fewer grain boundaries compared to the conventional MA-based counterpart. The resulting perovskite also exhibits longer carrier lifetime and higher conductivity in triple-cation 2D perovskite solar cells (PSCs). Furthermore, the power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 2D PSCs with triple cations was enhanced by more than 80% (from 7.80% to 14.23%) compared to PSCs fabricated with a mono cation; the PCE is also higher than that of PSCs based on binary-cation (MA+-FA+ or MA+-Cs+) 2D structures.

Authors:
 [1];  [2]; ORCiD logo [2];  [2];  [2];  [3];  [2]; ORCiD logo [2]
  1. National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO (United States)
  2. National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)
  3. National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), Renewable Power Office. Solar Energy Technologies Office; USDOE Office of Science (SC), Basic Energy Sciences (BES)
OSTI Identifier:
1529867
Alternate Identifier(s):
OSTI ID: 1548759
Report Number(s):
NREL/JA-5900-73862
Journal ID: ISSN 1433-7851
Grant/Contract Number:  
AC36-08GO28308
Resource Type:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Angewandte Chemie (International Edition)
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Name: Angewandte Chemie (International Edition); Journal Volume: 58; Journal Issue: 34; Journal ID: ISSN 1433-7851
Publisher:
Wiley
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
14 SOLAR ENERGY; 36 MATERIALS SCIENCE; perovskite solar cells; triple cations; charge transport; cation doping

Citation Formats

Gao, Liguo, Zhang, Fei, Chen, Xihan, Xiao, Chuanxiao, Larson, Bryon W., Dunfield, Sean P., Berry, Joseph J., and Zhu, Kai. Enhanced Charge Transport by Incorporating Formamidinium and Cesium Cations into Two-Dimensional Perovskite Solar Cells. United States: N. p., 2019. Web. doi:10.1002/anie.201905690.
Gao, Liguo, Zhang, Fei, Chen, Xihan, Xiao, Chuanxiao, Larson, Bryon W., Dunfield, Sean P., Berry, Joseph J., & Zhu, Kai. Enhanced Charge Transport by Incorporating Formamidinium and Cesium Cations into Two-Dimensional Perovskite Solar Cells. United States. doi:10.1002/anie.201905690.
Gao, Liguo, Zhang, Fei, Chen, Xihan, Xiao, Chuanxiao, Larson, Bryon W., Dunfield, Sean P., Berry, Joseph J., and Zhu, Kai. Wed . "Enhanced Charge Transport by Incorporating Formamidinium and Cesium Cations into Two-Dimensional Perovskite Solar Cells". United States. doi:10.1002/anie.201905690. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1529867.
@article{osti_1529867,
title = {Enhanced Charge Transport by Incorporating Formamidinium and Cesium Cations into Two-Dimensional Perovskite Solar Cells},
author = {Gao, Liguo and Zhang, Fei and Chen, Xihan and Xiao, Chuanxiao and Larson, Bryon W. and Dunfield, Sean P. and Berry, Joseph J. and Zhu, Kai},
abstractNote = {Organic-inorganic hybrid two-dimensional (2D) perovskites (n≤5) have recently attracted significant attention due to their promising stability and optoelectronic properties. Normally, 2D perovskites contain a mono cation (e.g., methylammonium (MA+) or formamidinium (FA+)]. Here, we report for the first time on fabricating 2D perovskites (n=5) with mixed cations of MA+, FA+, and cesium (Cs+). The use of these triple cations leads to the formation of a smooth, compact surface morphology with larger grain size and fewer grain boundaries compared to the conventional MA-based counterpart. The resulting perovskite also exhibits longer carrier lifetime and higher conductivity in triple-cation 2D perovskite solar cells (PSCs). Furthermore, the power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 2D PSCs with triple cations was enhanced by more than 80% (from 7.80% to 14.23%) compared to PSCs fabricated with a mono cation; the PCE is also higher than that of PSCs based on binary-cation (MA+-FA+ or MA+-Cs+) 2D structures.},
doi = {10.1002/anie.201905690},
journal = {Angewandte Chemie (International Edition)},
number = 34,
volume = 58,
place = {United States},
year = {2019},
month = {6}
}

Journal Article:
Free Publicly Available Full Text
Publisher's Version of Record

Citation Metrics:
Cited by: 13 works
Citation information provided by
Web of Science

Save / Share:

Works referenced in this record:

Photocarrier Recombination Dynamics in Perovskite CH 3 NH 3 PbI 3 for Solar Cell Applications
journal, August 2014

  • Yamada, Yasuhiro; Nakamura, Toru; Endo, Masaru
  • Journal of the American Chemical Society, Vol. 136, Issue 33
  • DOI: 10.1021/ja506624n

Vertically Oriented 2D Layered Perovskite Solar Cells with Enhanced Efficiency and Good Stability
journal, July 2017


Not All That Glitters Is Gold: Metal-Migration-Induced Degradation in Perovskite Solar Cells
journal, May 2016

  • Domanski, Konrad; Correa-Baena, Juan-Pablo; Mine, Nicolas
  • ACS Nano, Vol. 10, Issue 6
  • DOI: 10.1021/acsnano.6b02613

Cation-Induced Band-Gap Tuning in Organohalide Perovskites: Interplay of Spin–Orbit Coupling and Octahedra Tilting
journal, May 2014

  • Amat, Anna; Mosconi, Edoardo; Ronca, Enrico
  • Nano Letters, Vol. 14, Issue 6
  • DOI: 10.1021/nl5012992

In situ fabrication of 2D SnS2 nanosheets as a new electron transport layer for perovskite solar cells
journal, June 2018


Enhanced charge carrier mobility and lifetime suppress hysteresis and improve efficiency in planar perovskite solar cells
journal, January 2018

  • Turren-Cruz, Silver-Hamill; Saliba, Michael; Mayer, Matthew T.
  • Energy & Environmental Science, Vol. 11, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1039/C7EE02901B

Exploration of Crystallization Kinetics in Quasi Two-Dimensional Perovskite and High Performance Solar Cells
journal, December 2017

  • Zhou, Ning; Shen, Yiheng; Li, Liang
  • Journal of the American Chemical Society, Vol. 140, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1021/jacs.7b11157

Functionalization of perovskite thin films with moisture-tolerant molecules
journal, January 2016


A Layered Hybrid Perovskite Solar-Cell Absorber with Enhanced Moisture Stability
journal, September 2014

  • Smith, Ian C.; Hoke, Eric T.; Solis-Ibarra, Diego
  • Angewandte Chemie, Vol. 126, Issue 42
  • DOI: 10.1002/ange.201406466

Grain-Size-Limited Mobility in Methylammonium Lead Iodide Perovskite Thin Films
journal, August 2016


Caesium for Perovskite Solar Cells: An Overview
journal, June 2018

  • Bella, Federico; Renzi, Polyssena; Cavallo, Carmen
  • Chemistry - A European Journal, Vol. 24, Issue 47
  • DOI: 10.1002/chem.201801096

Organometal Halide Perovskites as Visible-Light Sensitizers for Photovoltaic Cells
journal, May 2009

  • Kojima, Akihiro; Teshima, Kenjiro; Shirai, Yasuo
  • Journal of the American Chemical Society, Vol. 131, Issue 17, p. 6050-6051
  • DOI: 10.1021/ja809598r

Insights into operational stability and processing of halide perovskite active layers
journal, January 2019

  • Schelhas, Laura T.; Li, Zhen; Christians, Jeffrey A.
  • Energy & Environmental Science, Vol. 12, Issue 4
  • DOI: 10.1039/C8EE03051K

Effect of High Dipole Moment Cation on Layered 2D Organic–Inorganic Halide Perovskite Solar Cells
journal, December 2018


The merit of perovskite's dimensionality; can this replace the 3D halide perovskite?
journal, January 2018


Suppressing defects through the synergistic effect of a Lewis base and a Lewis acid for highly efficient and stable perovskite solar cells
journal, January 2018

  • Zhang, Fei; Bi, Dongqin; Pellet, Norman
  • Energy & Environmental Science, Vol. 11, Issue 12
  • DOI: 10.1039/C8EE02252F

Maximizing and stabilizing luminescence from halide perovskites with potassium passivation
journal, March 2018

  • Abdi-Jalebi, Mojtaba; Andaji-Garmaroudi, Zahra; Cacovich, Stefania
  • Nature, Vol. 555, Issue 7697
  • DOI: 10.1038/nature25989

Two-dimensional halide perovskite nanomaterials and heterostructures
journal, January 2018

  • Shi, Enzheng; Gao, Yao; Finkenauer, Blake P.
  • Chemical Society Reviews, Vol. 47, Issue 16
  • DOI: 10.1039/C7CS00886D

3D/2D multidimensional perovskites: Balance of high performance and stability for perovskite solar cells
journal, October 2018


Cesium power: low Cs + levels impart stability to perovskite solar cells
journal, January 2017

  • Deepa, Melepurath; Salado, Manuel; Calio, Laura
  • Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics, Vol. 19, Issue 5
  • DOI: 10.1039/C6CP08022G

Tailoring Organic Cation of 2D Air-Stable Organometal Halide Perovskites for Highly Efficient Planar Solar Cells
journal, May 2017


Cesium-containing triple cation perovskite solar cells: improved stability, reproducibility and high efficiency
journal, January 2016

  • Saliba, Michael; Matsui, Taisuke; Seo, Ji-Youn
  • Energy & Environmental Science, Vol. 9, Issue 6
  • DOI: 10.1039/C5EE03874J

Controllable Grain Morphology of Perovskite Absorber Film by Molecular Self-Assembly toward Efficient Solar Cell Exceeding 17%
journal, August 2015

  • Li, Wenzhe; Fan, Jiandong; Li, Jiangwei
  • Journal of the American Chemical Society, Vol. 137, Issue 32
  • DOI: 10.1021/jacs.5b06444

Low-Dimensional Perovskites: From Synthesis to Stability in Perovskite Solar Cells
journal, December 2017

  • Yusoff, Abd. Rashid bin Mohd.; Nazeeruddin, Mohammad Khaja
  • Advanced Energy Materials, Vol. 8, Issue 26
  • DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201702073

Phase Transition Control for High Performance Ruddlesden-Popper Perovskite Solar Cells
journal, April 2018


Stable high efficiency two-dimensional perovskite solar cells via cesium doping
journal, January 2017

  • Zhang, Xu; Ren, Xiaodong; Liu, Bin
  • Energy & Environmental Science, Vol. 10, Issue 10
  • DOI: 10.1039/C7EE01145H

A Layered Hybrid Perovskite Solar-Cell Absorber with Enhanced Moisture Stability
journal, September 2014

  • Smith, Ian C.; Hoke, Eric T.; Solis-Ibarra, Diego
  • Angewandte Chemie International Edition, Vol. 53, Issue 42
  • DOI: 10.1002/anie.201406466

Suppressed Ion Migration in Low-Dimensional Perovskites
journal, June 2017


High efficiency stable inverted perovskite solar cells without current hysteresis
journal, January 2015

  • Wu, Chun-Guey; Chiang, Chien-Hung; Tseng, Zong-Liang
  • Energy & Environmental Science, Vol. 8, Issue 9
  • DOI: 10.1039/C5EE00645G

A mixed-cation lead mixed-halide perovskite absorber for tandem solar cells
journal, January 2016


Improving Charge Transport via Intermediate‐Controlled Crystal Growth in 2D Perovskite Solar Cells
journal, April 2019

  • Gao, Liguo; Zhang, Fei; Xiao, Chuanxiao
  • Advanced Functional Materials, Vol. 29, Issue 47
  • DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201901652

Electron–Phonon Scattering in Atomically Thin 2D Perovskites
journal, October 2016


Entropic stabilization of mixed A-cation ABX 3 metal halide perovskites for high performance perovskite solar cells
journal, January 2016

  • Yi, Chenyi; Luo, Jingshan; Meloni, Simone
  • Energy & Environmental Science, Vol. 9, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1039/C5EE03255E

Aligned and Graded Type-II Ruddlesden-Popper Perovskite Films for Efficient Solar Cells
journal, May 2018

  • Qing, Jian; Liu, Xiao-Ke; Li, Mingjie
  • Advanced Energy Materials, Vol. 8, Issue 21
  • DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201800185

Perovskite-Based Solar Cells
journal, October 2013


Enhancing moisture tolerance in efficient hybrid 3D/2D perovskite photovoltaics
journal, January 2018

  • Koh, Teck Ming; Shanmugam, Vignesh; Guo, Xintong
  • Journal of Materials Chemistry A, Vol. 6, Issue 5
  • DOI: 10.1039/C7TA09657G

Enhanced Charge Transport in 2D Perovskites via Fluorination of Organic Cation
journal, March 2019

  • Zhang, Fei; Kim, Dong Hoe; Lu, Haipeng
  • Journal of the American Chemical Society, Vol. 141, Issue 14
  • DOI: 10.1021/jacs.9b00972

Self-Seeding Growth for Perovskite Solar Cells with Enhanced Stability
journal, June 2019


Identifying the charge generation dynamics in Cs + -based triple cation mixed perovskite solar cells
journal, January 2017

  • Salado, Manuel; Kokal, Ramesh K.; Calio, Laura
  • Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics, Vol. 19, Issue 34
  • DOI: 10.1039/C7CP03760K

Isomer-Pure Bis-PCBM-Assisted Crystal Engineering of Perovskite Solar Cells Showing Excellent Efficiency and Stability
journal, February 2017


    Works referencing / citing this record:

    Improving Charge Transport via Intermediate‐Controlled Crystal Growth in 2D Perovskite Solar Cells
    journal, April 2019

    • Gao, Liguo; Zhang, Fei; Xiao, Chuanxiao
    • Advanced Functional Materials, Vol. 29, Issue 47
    • DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201901652

    Isomer-Pure Bis-PCBM-Assisted Crystal Engineering of Perovskite Solar Cells Showing Excellent Efficiency and Stability
    journal, February 2017


    Phase Transition Control for High Performance Ruddlesden-Popper Perovskite Solar Cells
    journal, April 2018


    Tailoring Organic Cation of 2D Air-Stable Organometal Halide Perovskites for Highly Efficient Planar Solar Cells
    journal, May 2017


    Low-Dimensional Perovskites: From Synthesis to Stability in Perovskite Solar Cells
    journal, December 2017

    • Yusoff, Abd. Rashid bin Mohd.; Nazeeruddin, Mohammad Khaja
    • Advanced Energy Materials, Vol. 8, Issue 26
    • DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201702073

    Aligned and Graded Type-II Ruddlesden-Popper Perovskite Films for Efficient Solar Cells
    journal, May 2018

    • Qing, Jian; Liu, Xiao-Ke; Li, Mingjie
    • Advanced Energy Materials, Vol. 8, Issue 21
    • DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201800185

    Effect of High Dipole Moment Cation on Layered 2D Organic–Inorganic Halide Perovskite Solar Cells
    journal, December 2018


    A Layered Hybrid Perovskite Solar-Cell Absorber with Enhanced Moisture Stability
    journal, September 2014

    • Smith, Ian C.; Hoke, Eric T.; Solis-Ibarra, Diego
    • Angewandte Chemie, Vol. 126, Issue 42
    • DOI: 10.1002/ange.201406466

    A Layered Hybrid Perovskite Solar-Cell Absorber with Enhanced Moisture Stability
    journal, September 2014

    • Smith, Ian C.; Hoke, Eric T.; Solis-Ibarra, Diego
    • Angewandte Chemie International Edition, Vol. 53, Issue 42
    • DOI: 10.1002/anie.201406466

    Caesium for Perovskite Solar Cells: An Overview
    journal, June 2018

    • Bella, Federico; Renzi, Polyssena; Cavallo, Carmen
    • Chemistry - A European Journal, Vol. 24, Issue 47
    • DOI: 10.1002/chem.201801096

    Vertically Oriented 2D Layered Perovskite Solar Cells with Enhanced Efficiency and Good Stability
    journal, July 2017


    In situ fabrication of 2D SnS2 nanosheets as a new electron transport layer for perovskite solar cells
    journal, June 2018


    3D/2D multidimensional perovskites: Balance of high performance and stability for perovskite solar cells
    journal, October 2018


    Self-Seeding Growth for Perovskite Solar Cells with Enhanced Stability
    journal, June 2019


    Grain-Size-Limited Mobility in Methylammonium Lead Iodide Perovskite Thin Films
    journal, August 2016


    Suppressed Ion Migration in Low-Dimensional Perovskites
    journal, June 2017


    Not All That Glitters Is Gold: Metal-Migration-Induced Degradation in Perovskite Solar Cells
    journal, May 2016

    • Domanski, Konrad; Correa-Baena, Juan-Pablo; Mine, Nicolas
    • ACS Nano, Vol. 10, Issue 6
    • DOI: 10.1021/acsnano.6b02613

    Electron–Phonon Scattering in Atomically Thin 2D Perovskites
    journal, October 2016


    Photocarrier Recombination Dynamics in Perovskite CH 3 NH 3 PbI 3 for Solar Cell Applications
    journal, August 2014

    • Yamada, Yasuhiro; Nakamura, Toru; Endo, Masaru
    • Journal of the American Chemical Society, Vol. 136, Issue 33
    • DOI: 10.1021/ja506624n

    Organometal Halide Perovskites as Visible-Light Sensitizers for Photovoltaic Cells
    journal, May 2009

    • Kojima, Akihiro; Teshima, Kenjiro; Shirai, Yasuo
    • Journal of the American Chemical Society, Vol. 131, Issue 17, p. 6050-6051
    • DOI: 10.1021/ja809598r

    Controllable Grain Morphology of Perovskite Absorber Film by Molecular Self-Assembly toward Efficient Solar Cell Exceeding 17%
    journal, August 2015

    • Li, Wenzhe; Fan, Jiandong; Li, Jiangwei
    • Journal of the American Chemical Society, Vol. 137, Issue 32
    • DOI: 10.1021/jacs.5b06444

    Exploration of Crystallization Kinetics in Quasi Two-Dimensional Perovskite and High Performance Solar Cells
    journal, December 2017

    • Zhou, Ning; Shen, Yiheng; Li, Liang
    • Journal of the American Chemical Society, Vol. 140, Issue 1
    • DOI: 10.1021/jacs.7b11157

    Enhanced Charge Transport in 2D Perovskites via Fluorination of Organic Cation
    journal, March 2019

    • Zhang, Fei; Kim, Dong Hoe; Lu, Haipeng
    • Journal of the American Chemical Society, Vol. 141, Issue 14
    • DOI: 10.1021/jacs.9b00972

    Cation-Induced Band-Gap Tuning in Organohalide Perovskites: Interplay of Spin–Orbit Coupling and Octahedra Tilting
    journal, May 2014

    • Amat, Anna; Mosconi, Edoardo; Ronca, Enrico
    • Nano Letters, Vol. 14, Issue 6
    • DOI: 10.1021/nl5012992

    Maximizing and stabilizing luminescence from halide perovskites with potassium passivation
    journal, March 2018

    • Abdi-Jalebi, Mojtaba; Andaji-Garmaroudi, Zahra; Cacovich, Stefania
    • Nature, Vol. 555, Issue 7697
    • DOI: 10.1038/nature25989

    Functionalization of perovskite thin films with moisture-tolerant molecules
    journal, January 2016


    Cesium-containing triple cation perovskite solar cells: improved stability, reproducibility and high efficiency
    journal, January 2016

    • Saliba, Michael; Matsui, Taisuke; Seo, Ji-Youn
    • Energy & Environmental Science, Vol. 9, Issue 6
    • DOI: 10.1039/c5ee03874j

    Enhanced charge carrier mobility and lifetime suppress hysteresis and improve efficiency in planar perovskite solar cells
    journal, January 2018

    • Turren-Cruz, Silver-Hamill; Saliba, Michael; Mayer, Matthew T.
    • Energy & Environmental Science, Vol. 11, Issue 1
    • DOI: 10.1039/c7ee02901b

    Perovskite-Based Solar Cells
    journal, October 2013


    A mixed-cation lead mixed-halide perovskite absorber for tandem solar cells
    journal, January 2016