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Title: Bulk-Explosion-Induced Metal Spattering During Laser Processing

Abstract

Spattering has been a problem in metal processing involving high-power lasers, like laser welding, machining, and recently, additive manufacturing. Limited by the capabilities of in situ diagnostic techniques, typically imaging with visible light or laboratory x-ray sources, a comprehensive understanding of the laser-spattering phenomenon, particularly the extremely fast spatters, has not been achieved yet. In this work, using MHz single-pulse synchrotron-x-ray imaging, we probe the spattering behavior of Ti-6Al-4V with micrometer spatial resolution and subnanosecond temporal resolution. Combining direct experimental observations, quantitative image analysis, as well as numerical simulations, our study unravels a novel mechanism of laser spattering: The bulk explosion of a tonguelike protrusion forming on the front keyhole wall leads to the ligamentation of molten metal at the keyhole rims and the subsequent spattering. Our report confirms the critical role of melt and vapor flow in the laser-spattering process and opens a door to manufacturing spatter- and defect-free metal parts via precise control of keyhole dynamics.

Authors:
 [1];  [2];  [3];  [1];  [1];  [3];  [2];  [1]
  1. Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Lemont, IL (United States)
  2. Missouri Univ. of Science and Technology, Rolla, MO (United States)
  3. Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
National Science Foundation (NSF); USDOE Office of Science (SC)
OSTI Identifier:
1526327
Alternate Identifier(s):
OSTI ID: 1530389
Grant/Contract Number:  
AC02-06CH11357
Resource Type:
Published Article
Journal Name:
Physical Review. X
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 9; Journal Issue: 2; Journal ID: ISSN 2160-3308
Publisher:
American Physical Society
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
75 CONDENSED MATTER PHYSICS, SUPERCONDUCTIVITY AND SUPERFLUIDITY; laser additive manufacturing; spattering; x-ray imaging

Citation Formats

Zhao, Cang, Guo, Qilin, Li, Xuxiao, Parab, Niranjan, Fezzaa, Kamel, Tan, Wenda, Chen, Lianyi, and Sun, Tao. Bulk-Explosion-Induced Metal Spattering During Laser Processing. United States: N. p., 2019. Web. doi:10.1103/PhysRevX.9.021052.
Zhao, Cang, Guo, Qilin, Li, Xuxiao, Parab, Niranjan, Fezzaa, Kamel, Tan, Wenda, Chen, Lianyi, & Sun, Tao. Bulk-Explosion-Induced Metal Spattering During Laser Processing. United States. doi:10.1103/PhysRevX.9.021052.
Zhao, Cang, Guo, Qilin, Li, Xuxiao, Parab, Niranjan, Fezzaa, Kamel, Tan, Wenda, Chen, Lianyi, and Sun, Tao. Fri . "Bulk-Explosion-Induced Metal Spattering During Laser Processing". United States. doi:10.1103/PhysRevX.9.021052.
@article{osti_1526327,
title = {Bulk-Explosion-Induced Metal Spattering During Laser Processing},
author = {Zhao, Cang and Guo, Qilin and Li, Xuxiao and Parab, Niranjan and Fezzaa, Kamel and Tan, Wenda and Chen, Lianyi and Sun, Tao},
abstractNote = {Spattering has been a problem in metal processing involving high-power lasers, like laser welding, machining, and recently, additive manufacturing. Limited by the capabilities of in situ diagnostic techniques, typically imaging with visible light or laboratory x-ray sources, a comprehensive understanding of the laser-spattering phenomenon, particularly the extremely fast spatters, has not been achieved yet. In this work, using MHz single-pulse synchrotron-x-ray imaging, we probe the spattering behavior of Ti-6Al-4V with micrometer spatial resolution and subnanosecond temporal resolution. Combining direct experimental observations, quantitative image analysis, as well as numerical simulations, our study unravels a novel mechanism of laser spattering: The bulk explosion of a tonguelike protrusion forming on the front keyhole wall leads to the ligamentation of molten metal at the keyhole rims and the subsequent spattering. Our report confirms the critical role of melt and vapor flow in the laser-spattering process and opens a door to manufacturing spatter- and defect-free metal parts via precise control of keyhole dynamics.},
doi = {10.1103/PhysRevX.9.021052},
journal = {Physical Review. X},
number = 2,
volume = 9,
place = {United States},
year = {2019},
month = {6}
}

Journal Article:
Free Publicly Available Full Text
Publisher's Version of Record
DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevX.9.021052

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