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Title: Experimental quantification of vent mechanism flow parameters in 18650 format lithium ion batteries

Abstract

Lithium ion batteries have a well documented tendency to fail energetically under various abuse conditions. These conditions frequently result in decomposition of the electrochemical components within the battery resulting in gas generation and increased internal pressure which can lead to an explosive case rupture. The 18650 format cell incorporates a vent mechanism located within a crimped cap to relieve pressure and mitigate the risk of case rupture. Cell venting, however, introduces additional safety concerns associated with the flow of flammable gases and liquid electrolyte into the environment. Experiments to quantify key parameters are performed to elucidate the external dynamics of battery venting. A first experiment measures the vent burst pressure. Burst vent caps are then tested with a second experimental fixture to measure vent opening area and discharge coefficient during choked-flow venting, which occurs during battery failure. Vent opening area and discharge coefficient are calculated from stagnation temperature, stagnation pressure, and static pressure measurements along with compressible-isentropic flow equations and conservation of mass. Commercially-sourced vent caps are used with repeated tests run to quantify repeatability and variability. Validation experiments confirmed accuracy of opening area and discharge coefficient measurement. Moreover, trials conducted on vent caps from two sources demonstrate the potentialmore » for variation between manufacturers.« less

Authors:
 [1];  [1];  [2]
  1. New Mexico Inst. of Mining and Technology, Socorro, NM (United States)
  2. Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability (OE)
OSTI Identifier:
1498760
Report Number(s):
SAND-2018-9403J
Journal ID: ISSN 0098-2202; 667391
Grant/Contract Number:  
AC04-94AL85000
Resource Type:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Journal of Fluids Engineering
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Name: Journal of Fluids Engineering; Journal ID: ISSN 0098-2202
Publisher:
ASME
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
25 ENERGY STORAGE

Citation Formats

Mier, Frank Austin, Hargather, Michael J., and Ferreira, Summer R. Experimental quantification of vent mechanism flow parameters in 18650 format lithium ion batteries. United States: N. p., 2019. Web. doi:10.1115/1.4042962.
Mier, Frank Austin, Hargather, Michael J., & Ferreira, Summer R. Experimental quantification of vent mechanism flow parameters in 18650 format lithium ion batteries. United States. doi:10.1115/1.4042962.
Mier, Frank Austin, Hargather, Michael J., and Ferreira, Summer R. Tue . "Experimental quantification of vent mechanism flow parameters in 18650 format lithium ion batteries". United States. doi:10.1115/1.4042962.
@article{osti_1498760,
title = {Experimental quantification of vent mechanism flow parameters in 18650 format lithium ion batteries},
author = {Mier, Frank Austin and Hargather, Michael J. and Ferreira, Summer R.},
abstractNote = {Lithium ion batteries have a well documented tendency to fail energetically under various abuse conditions. These conditions frequently result in decomposition of the electrochemical components within the battery resulting in gas generation and increased internal pressure which can lead to an explosive case rupture. The 18650 format cell incorporates a vent mechanism located within a crimped cap to relieve pressure and mitigate the risk of case rupture. Cell venting, however, introduces additional safety concerns associated with the flow of flammable gases and liquid electrolyte into the environment. Experiments to quantify key parameters are performed to elucidate the external dynamics of battery venting. A first experiment measures the vent burst pressure. Burst vent caps are then tested with a second experimental fixture to measure vent opening area and discharge coefficient during choked-flow venting, which occurs during battery failure. Vent opening area and discharge coefficient are calculated from stagnation temperature, stagnation pressure, and static pressure measurements along with compressible-isentropic flow equations and conservation of mass. Commercially-sourced vent caps are used with repeated tests run to quantify repeatability and variability. Validation experiments confirmed accuracy of opening area and discharge coefficient measurement. Moreover, trials conducted on vent caps from two sources demonstrate the potential for variation between manufacturers.},
doi = {10.1115/1.4042962},
journal = {Journal of Fluids Engineering},
number = ,
volume = ,
place = {United States},
year = {2019},
month = {2}
}

Journal Article:
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This content will become publicly available on February 19, 2020
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