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Title: Correlated In Situ Low-Frequency Noise and Impedance Spectroscopy Reveal Recombination Dynamics in Organic Solar Cells Using Fullerene and Non-Fullerene Acceptors

Abstract

Non-fullerene acceptors based on perylenediimides (PDIs) have garnered significant interest as an alternative to fullerene acceptors in organic photovoltaics (OPVs), but their charge transport phenomena are not well understood, especially in bulk heterojunctions (BHJs). Here, charge transport and current fluctuations are investigated by performing correlated low-frequency noise and impedance spectroscopy measurements on two BHJ OPV systems, one employing a fullerene acceptor and the other employing a dimeric PDI acceptor. In the dark, these measurements reveal that PDI-based OPVs have a greater degree of recombination in comparison to fullerene-based OPVs. Moreover, for the first time in organic solar cells, 1/f noise data are fit to the Kleinpenning model to reveal underlying current fluctuations in different transport regimes. Under illumination, 1/f noise increases by approximately four orders of magnitude for the fullerene-based OPVs and three orders of magnitude for the PDI-based OPVs. An inverse correlation is also observed between noise spectral density and power conversion efficiency. In general, these findings reflect that low-frequency noise spectroscopy is an effective in situ diagnostic tool to assess charge transport in emerging photovoltaic materials, thereby providing quantitative guidance for the design of next-generation solar cell materials and technologies.

Authors:
 [1];  [1];  [1];  [1];  [1];  [1]; ORCiD logo [1]
  1. Northwestern Univ., Evanston, IL (United States)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Northwestern Univ., Evanston, IL (United States). Energy Frontier Research Center (EFRC) Argonne-Northwestern Solar Energy Research Center (ANSER)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Science (SC), Basic Energy Sciences (BES) (SC-22); National Science Foundation (NSF)
OSTI Identifier:
1470382
Alternate Identifier(s):
OSTI ID: 1407815
Grant/Contract Number:  
SC0001059
Resource Type:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Advanced Functional Materials
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 27; Journal Issue: 48; Related Information: ANSER partners with Northwestern University (lead); Argonne National Laboratory; University of Chicago; University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign; Yale University; Journal ID: ISSN 1616-301X
Publisher:
Wiley
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
14 SOLAR ENERGY; 36 MATERIALS SCIENCE; 42 ENGINEERING; 1/f noise; alternate acceptors; organic photovoltaics; PBDTTT‐EFT; PC71BM

Citation Formats

Luck, Kyle A., Sangwan, Vinod K., Hartnett, Patrick E., Arnold, Heather N., Wasielewski, Michael R., Marks, Tobin J., and Hersam, Mark C. Correlated In Situ Low-Frequency Noise and Impedance Spectroscopy Reveal Recombination Dynamics in Organic Solar Cells Using Fullerene and Non-Fullerene Acceptors. United States: N. p., 2017. Web. doi:10.1002/adfm.201703805.
Luck, Kyle A., Sangwan, Vinod K., Hartnett, Patrick E., Arnold, Heather N., Wasielewski, Michael R., Marks, Tobin J., & Hersam, Mark C. Correlated In Situ Low-Frequency Noise and Impedance Spectroscopy Reveal Recombination Dynamics in Organic Solar Cells Using Fullerene and Non-Fullerene Acceptors. United States. doi:10.1002/adfm.201703805.
Luck, Kyle A., Sangwan, Vinod K., Hartnett, Patrick E., Arnold, Heather N., Wasielewski, Michael R., Marks, Tobin J., and Hersam, Mark C. Thu . "Correlated In Situ Low-Frequency Noise and Impedance Spectroscopy Reveal Recombination Dynamics in Organic Solar Cells Using Fullerene and Non-Fullerene Acceptors". United States. doi:10.1002/adfm.201703805. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1470382.
@article{osti_1470382,
title = {Correlated In Situ Low-Frequency Noise and Impedance Spectroscopy Reveal Recombination Dynamics in Organic Solar Cells Using Fullerene and Non-Fullerene Acceptors},
author = {Luck, Kyle A. and Sangwan, Vinod K. and Hartnett, Patrick E. and Arnold, Heather N. and Wasielewski, Michael R. and Marks, Tobin J. and Hersam, Mark C.},
abstractNote = {Non-fullerene acceptors based on perylenediimides (PDIs) have garnered significant interest as an alternative to fullerene acceptors in organic photovoltaics (OPVs), but their charge transport phenomena are not well understood, especially in bulk heterojunctions (BHJs). Here, charge transport and current fluctuations are investigated by performing correlated low-frequency noise and impedance spectroscopy measurements on two BHJ OPV systems, one employing a fullerene acceptor and the other employing a dimeric PDI acceptor. In the dark, these measurements reveal that PDI-based OPVs have a greater degree of recombination in comparison to fullerene-based OPVs. Moreover, for the first time in organic solar cells, 1/f noise data are fit to the Kleinpenning model to reveal underlying current fluctuations in different transport regimes. Under illumination, 1/f noise increases by approximately four orders of magnitude for the fullerene-based OPVs and three orders of magnitude for the PDI-based OPVs. An inverse correlation is also observed between noise spectral density and power conversion efficiency. In general, these findings reflect that low-frequency noise spectroscopy is an effective in situ diagnostic tool to assess charge transport in emerging photovoltaic materials, thereby providing quantitative guidance for the design of next-generation solar cell materials and technologies.},
doi = {10.1002/adfm.201703805},
journal = {Advanced Functional Materials},
number = 48,
volume = 27,
place = {United States},
year = {2017},
month = {11}
}

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Narrowband light detection via internal quantum efficiency manipulation of organic photodiodes
journal, February 2015

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Inverted Polymer Solar Cells Integrated with a Low-Temperature-Annealed Sol-Gel-Derived ZnO Film as an Electron Transport Layer
journal, February 2011

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Aggregation and morphology control enables multiple cases of high-efficiency polymer solar cells
journal, November 2014

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Organic solar cells: A new look at traditional models
journal, January 2011

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Non-fullerene acceptors for organic photovoltaics: an emerging horizon
journal, January 2014


Origin of low-frequency noise in pentacene field-effect transistors
journal, July 2011


Analysis of fluctuation processes in forward-biased solar cells using noise spectroscopy
journal, June 2010


Simultaneous determination of carrier lifetime and electron density-of-states in P3HT:PCBM organic solar cells under illumination by impedance spectroscopy
journal, February 2010

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Discussion of recent experiments on 1/ƒ noise
journal, July 1972


On hot-electron noise in GaAs and Si
journal, October 1986


Fused Nonacyclic Electron Acceptors for Efficient Polymer Solar Cells
journal, January 2017

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Reducing flicker noise in chemical vapor deposition graphene field-effect transistors
journal, February 2016

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Current noise spectroscopy on mLPPP based organic light emitting diodes
journal, March 2002


Cyclic Voltammetry Studies of Nanoporous Semiconductors. Capacitive and Reactive Properties of Nanocrystalline TiO 2 Electrodes in Aqueous Electrolyte
journal, January 2003

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Molecular Donor–Bridge–Acceptor Strategies for High-Capacitance Organic Dielectric Materials
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Bulk heterojunction solar cells with internal quantum efficiency approaching 100%
journal, April 2009

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The impact of thermal annealing temperature on the low-frequency noise characteristics of P3HT:PCBM bulk heterojunction organic solar cells
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Plastic Near-Infrared Photodetectors Utilizing Low Band Gap Polymer
journal, November 2007


1/f noise as a sensitive parameter in the life prediction testing of photovoltaic modules
journal, September 1984


Charge trapping and low frequency noise in SOI buried oxides
journal, December 2004

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Electron Transport and Recombination in Solid-State Dye Solar Cell with Spiro-OMeTAD as Hole Conductor
journal, January 2009

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Recombination in Annealed and Nonannealed Polythiophene/Fullerene Solar Cells: Transient Photovoltage Studies versus Numerical Modeling
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Single-Junction Polymer Solar Cells Exceeding 10% Power Conversion Efficiency
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Photovoltaic Function and Exciton/Charge Transfer Dynamics in a Highly Efficient Semiconducting Copolymer
journal, July 2013

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The future of organic photovoltaics
journal, January 2015

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For the Bright Future-Bulk Heterojunction Polymer Solar Cells with Power Conversion Efficiency of 7.4%
journal, May 2010

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In Situ Characterization of Lifetime and Morphology in Operating Bulk Heterojunction Organic Photovoltaic Devices by Impedance Spectroscopy
journal, December 2011

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Charge carrier mobility and lifetime of organic bulk heterojunctions analyzed by impedance spectroscopy
journal, October 2008

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White noise in MOS transistors and resistors
journal, November 1993

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Large Gain, Low Noise Nanocomposite Ultraviolet Photodetectors with a Linear Dynamic Range of 120 dB
journal, February 2014

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Correlation between microstructure, electronic properties and flicker noise in organic thin film transistors
journal, March 2008

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From lab to fab: how must the polymer solar cell materials design change? – an industrial perspective
journal, January 2014

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