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Title: LiMn 2O 4 Surface Chemistry Evolution during Cycling Revealed by in Situ Auger Electron Spectroscopy and X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy

Abstract

This work utilizes in situ electrochemical and analytical characterization during cycling of LiMn 2O 4 (LMO) equilibrated at different potentials in an ultrahigh vacuum (UHV) environment. The LMO reacts with organic molecules in the vacuum to form a high surface concentration of Li 2CO 3 (≈50% C) during initial charging to 4.05 V. Charging to higher potentials reduces the overall Li 2CO 3 concentration (≈15% C). Discharging to 3.0 V increases the Li 2CO 3 concentration (≈30% C) and over discharging to 0.1 V again reduces its concentration (≈15% C). This behavior is reproducible over 5 cycles. The model geometry utilized suggests that oxygen from LMO can participate in redox of carbon, where LMO contributes oxygen to form the carbonate in the solid electrolyte interphase (SEI). Similar results were obtained from samples cycled ex situ, suggesting that the model in situ geometry provides reasonably representative information about surface chemistry evolution. Finally, carbon redox at LMO and the inherent voltage instability of the Li 2CO 3 likely contributes significantly to its capacity fade.

Authors:
ORCiD logo [1]; ORCiD logo [2]; ORCiD logo [3];  [4]
  1. Univ. of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, IL (United States). Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering
  2. Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)
  3. Univ. of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, IL (United States). Materials Research Lab.
  4. Univ. of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, IL (United States). Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering, and Materials Research Lab.
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Energy Frontier Research Centers (EFRC) (United States). Nanostructures for Electrical Energy Storage (NEES)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Science (SC), Basic Energy Sciences (BES) (SC-22); USDOE National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)
OSTI Identifier:
1469860
Grant/Contract Number:  
[SC0001160; NA0003525]
Resource Type:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
ACS Applied Materials and Interfaces
Additional Journal Information:
[ Journal Volume: 9; Journal Issue: 39; Related Information: NEES partners with University of Maryland (lead); University of California, Irvine; University of Florida; Los Alamos National Laboratory; Sandia National Laboratories; Yale University]; Journal ID: ISSN 1944-8244
Publisher:
American Chemical Society (ACS)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
36 MATERIALS SCIENCE; 42 ENGINEERING; 25 ENERGY STORAGE; bio-inspired; energy storage (including batteries and capacitors); defects; charge transport; synthesis (novel materials); synthesis (self-assembly); synthesis (scalable processing); LiMn2O4; cathode material; surface reactions; Li-ion battery; in situ X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS); in situ Auger electron spectroscopy (AES)

Citation Formats

Tang, Ching-Yen, Leung, Kevin, Haasch, Richard T., and Dillon, Shen J. LiMn2O4 Surface Chemistry Evolution during Cycling Revealed by in Situ Auger Electron Spectroscopy and X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy. United States: N. p., 2017. Web. doi:10.1021/acsami.7b10442.
Tang, Ching-Yen, Leung, Kevin, Haasch, Richard T., & Dillon, Shen J. LiMn2O4 Surface Chemistry Evolution during Cycling Revealed by in Situ Auger Electron Spectroscopy and X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy. United States. doi:10.1021/acsami.7b10442.
Tang, Ching-Yen, Leung, Kevin, Haasch, Richard T., and Dillon, Shen J. Wed . "LiMn2O4 Surface Chemistry Evolution during Cycling Revealed by in Situ Auger Electron Spectroscopy and X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy". United States. doi:10.1021/acsami.7b10442. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1469860.
@article{osti_1469860,
title = {LiMn2O4 Surface Chemistry Evolution during Cycling Revealed by in Situ Auger Electron Spectroscopy and X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy},
author = {Tang, Ching-Yen and Leung, Kevin and Haasch, Richard T. and Dillon, Shen J.},
abstractNote = {This work utilizes in situ electrochemical and analytical characterization during cycling of LiMn2O4 (LMO) equilibrated at different potentials in an ultrahigh vacuum (UHV) environment. The LMO reacts with organic molecules in the vacuum to form a high surface concentration of Li2CO3 (≈50% C) during initial charging to 4.05 V. Charging to higher potentials reduces the overall Li2CO3 concentration (≈15% C). Discharging to 3.0 V increases the Li2CO3 concentration (≈30% C) and over discharging to 0.1 V again reduces its concentration (≈15% C). This behavior is reproducible over 5 cycles. The model geometry utilized suggests that oxygen from LMO can participate in redox of carbon, where LMO contributes oxygen to form the carbonate in the solid electrolyte interphase (SEI). Similar results were obtained from samples cycled ex situ, suggesting that the model in situ geometry provides reasonably representative information about surface chemistry evolution. Finally, carbon redox at LMO and the inherent voltage instability of the Li2CO3 likely contributes significantly to its capacity fade.},
doi = {10.1021/acsami.7b10442},
journal = {ACS Applied Materials and Interfaces},
number = [39],
volume = [9],
place = {United States},
year = {2017},
month = {9}
}

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Cited by: 10 works
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