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Title: Spiraling pathways of global deep waters to the surface of the Southern Ocean

Upwelling of global deep waters to the sea surface in the Southern Ocean closes the global overturning circulation and is fundamentally important for oceanic uptake of carbon and heat, nutrient resupply for sustaining oceanic biological production, and the melt rate of ice shelves. However, the exact pathways and role of topography in Southern Ocean upwelling remain largely unknown. Here in this paper we show detailed upwelling pathways in three dimensions, using hydrographic observations and particle tracking in high-resolution models. The analysis reveals that the northern-sourced deep waters enter the Antarctic Circumpolar Current via southward flow along the boundaries of the three ocean basins, before spiraling southeastward and upward through the Antarctic Circumpolar Current. Upwelling is greatly enhanced at five major topographic features, associated with vigorous mesoscale eddy activity. Deep water reaches the upper ocean predominantly south of the Antarctic Circumpolar Current, with a spatially nonuniform distribution. The timescale for half of the deep water to upwell from 30° S to the mixed layer is ~60–90 years.
Authors:
ORCiD logo [1] ; ORCiD logo [2] ;  [3] ; ORCiD logo [1] ;  [4] ; ORCiD logo [4] ;  [5] ;  [1] ;  [4] ;  [6] ; ORCiD logo [7]
  1. Univ. of California, San Diego, CA (United States). Scripps Inst. of Oceanography
  2. Princeton Univ., NJ (United States); Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States); Woods Hole Oceanographic Inst. Joint Program in Oceanography, Cambridge, MA (United States)
  3. Princeton Univ., NJ (United States); Australian National Univ., Canberra, ACT (Australia)
  4. Princeton Univ., NJ (United States)
  5. Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Lab., Princeton, NJ (United States)
  6. California Inst. of Technology (CalTech), La Canada Flintridge, CA (United States). Jet Propulsion Lab.
  7. Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)
Publication Date:
Report Number(s):
LA-UR-18-21357
Journal ID: ISSN 2041-1723
Grant/Contract Number:
AC52-06NA25396; OCE130007
Type:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Nature Communications
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 8; Journal Issue: 1; Journal ID: ISSN 2041-1723
Publisher:
Nature Publishing Group
Research Org:
Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)
Sponsoring Org:
USDOE Office of Science (SC), Biological and Environmental Research (BER) (SC-23); National Science Foundation (NSF); National Aeronautic and Space Administration (NASA)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
58 GEOSCIENCES; Earth Sciences
OSTI Identifier:
1463556