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Title: Cosmic-ray propagation with DRAGON2: II. Nuclear interactions with the interstellar gas

Abstract

Understanding the isotopic composition of cosmic rays (CRs) observed near Earth represents a milestone towards the identification of their origin. Local fluxes contain all the known stable and long-lived isotopes, reflecting the complex history of primaries and secondaries as they traverse the interstellar medium. For that reason, a numerical code which aims at describing the CR transport in the Galaxy must unavoidably rely on accurate modelling of the production of secondary particles. Here, we provide a detailed description of the nuclear cross sections and decay network as implemented in the forthcoming release of the galactic propagation code DRAGON2. We present the secondary production models implemented in the code and we apply the different prescriptions to compute quantities of interest to interpret local CR fluxes (e.g., nuclear fragmentation timescales, secondary and tertiary source terms). In particular, we develop a nuclear secondary production model aimed at accurately computing the light secondary fluxes (namely: Li, Be, B) above 1 GeV/n. This result is achieved by fitting existing empirical or semi-empirical formalisms to a large sample of measurements in the energy range 100 MeV/n to 100 GeV/n and by considering the contribution of the most relevant decaying isotopes up to iron. Concerning secondary antiparticlesmore » (positrons and antiprotons), we describe a collection of models taken from the literature, and provide a detailed quantitative comparison.« less

Authors:
ORCiD logo [1];  [2];  [3];  [4];  [5];  [6]
  1. Gran Sasso Science Inst. and National Inst. of Nuclear Physics (INFN), L'Aquila (Italy). Gran Sasso National Lab. (INFN-LNGS)
  2. Univ. of Amsterdam (Netherlands). Inst. of Physics and Gravitation & Astroparticle Physics Amsterdam (GRAPPA)
  3. Technical Univ. Munchen, Garching (Germany). Dept. of Physics; RWTH Aachen Univ. (Germany). Inst. for Theoretical Particle Physics and Cosmology (TTK)
  4. SLAC National Accelerator Lab. and Stanford Univ., Stanford, CA (United States). W.W. Hansen Experimental Physics Lab., Kavli Inst. for Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology and Dept. of Physics
  5. National Inst. of Nuclear Physics (INFN), Pisa (Italy)
  6. National Inst. of Nuclear Physics (INFN), Bari (Italy)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE; European Commission (EC); German-Israeli Foundation for Scientific Research and Development (GIF); National Aeronautic and Space Administration (NASA)
OSTI Identifier:
1461832
Grant/Contract Number:  
AC02-76SF00515; 751311; 81303
Resource Type:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Journal of Cosmology and Astroparticle Physics
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 2018; Journal Issue: 07; Journal ID: ISSN 1475-7516
Publisher:
Institute of Physics (IOP)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
79 ASTRONOMY AND ASTROPHYSICS; galactic cosmic rays; cross sections; numerical methods

Citation Formats

Evoli, Carmelo, Gaggero, Daniele, Vittino, Andrea, Di Mauro, Mattia, Grasso, Dario, and Mazziotta, Mario Nicola. Cosmic-ray propagation with DRAGON2: II. Nuclear interactions with the interstellar gas. United States: N. p., 2018. Web. doi:10.1088/1475-7516/2018/07/006.
Evoli, Carmelo, Gaggero, Daniele, Vittino, Andrea, Di Mauro, Mattia, Grasso, Dario, & Mazziotta, Mario Nicola. Cosmic-ray propagation with DRAGON2: II. Nuclear interactions with the interstellar gas. United States. doi:10.1088/1475-7516/2018/07/006.
Evoli, Carmelo, Gaggero, Daniele, Vittino, Andrea, Di Mauro, Mattia, Grasso, Dario, and Mazziotta, Mario Nicola. Mon . "Cosmic-ray propagation with DRAGON2: II. Nuclear interactions with the interstellar gas". United States. doi:10.1088/1475-7516/2018/07/006. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1461832.
@article{osti_1461832,
title = {Cosmic-ray propagation with DRAGON2: II. Nuclear interactions with the interstellar gas},
author = {Evoli, Carmelo and Gaggero, Daniele and Vittino, Andrea and Di Mauro, Mattia and Grasso, Dario and Mazziotta, Mario Nicola},
abstractNote = {Understanding the isotopic composition of cosmic rays (CRs) observed near Earth represents a milestone towards the identification of their origin. Local fluxes contain all the known stable and long-lived isotopes, reflecting the complex history of primaries and secondaries as they traverse the interstellar medium. For that reason, a numerical code which aims at describing the CR transport in the Galaxy must unavoidably rely on accurate modelling of the production of secondary particles. Here, we provide a detailed description of the nuclear cross sections and decay network as implemented in the forthcoming release of the galactic propagation code DRAGON2. We present the secondary production models implemented in the code and we apply the different prescriptions to compute quantities of interest to interpret local CR fluxes (e.g., nuclear fragmentation timescales, secondary and tertiary source terms). In particular, we develop a nuclear secondary production model aimed at accurately computing the light secondary fluxes (namely: Li, Be, B) above 1 GeV/n. This result is achieved by fitting existing empirical or semi-empirical formalisms to a large sample of measurements in the energy range 100 MeV/n to 100 GeV/n and by considering the contribution of the most relevant decaying isotopes up to iron. Concerning secondary antiparticles (positrons and antiprotons), we describe a collection of models taken from the literature, and provide a detailed quantitative comparison.},
doi = {10.1088/1475-7516/2018/07/006},
journal = {Journal of Cosmology and Astroparticle Physics},
number = 07,
volume = 2018,
place = {United States},
year = {2018},
month = {7}
}

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Cited by: 4 works
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    Works referencing / citing this record:

    Systematic uncertainties on the cosmic-ray transport parameters: Is it possible to reconcile B/C data with
    journal, June 2010


    Diffractive interactions of hadrons at high energies
    journal, December 1983


    Production and Propagation of Cosmic‐Ray Positrons and Electrons
    journal, February 1998

    • Moskalenko, I. V.; Strong, A. W.
    • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 493, Issue 2
    • DOI: 10.1086/305152

    Electron capture decay of cosmic rays
    journal, September 1985

    • Letaw, John R.; Adams, J. H.; Silberberg, Rein
    • Astrophysics and Space Science, Vol. 114, Issue 2
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    Diffractive Interaction and Scaling Violation in pp  →π  0 Interaction and GeV Excess in Galactic Diffuse Gamma‐Ray Spectrum of EGRET
    journal, February 2005

    • Kamae, Tuneyoshi; Abe, Toshinori; Koi, Tatsumi
    • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 620, Issue 1
    • DOI: 10.1086/426935

    Baryon Yields, Isospin Effects and Strangeness Production in Elementary Hadronic Interactions
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    AMS-02 antiprotons, at last! Secondary astrophysical component and immediate implications for Dark Matter
    journal, September 2015

    • Giesen, Gaëlle; Boudaud, Mathieu; Génolini, Yoann
    • Journal of Cosmology and Astroparticle Physics, Vol. 2015, Issue 09
    • DOI: 10.1088/1475-7516/2015/9/023

    Cosmic Antiprotons as a Probe for Supersymmetric Dark Matter?
    journal, November 1999

    • Bergstrom, Lars; Edsjo, Joakim; Ullio, Piero
    • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 526, Issue 1
    • DOI: 10.1086/307975

    Galactic cosmic rays after the AMS-02 observations
    journal, May 2019


    Cosmic-ray propagation with DRAGON2: I. numerical solver and astrophysical ingredients
    journal, February 2017

    • Evoli, Carmelo; Gaggero, Daniele; Vittino, Andrea
    • Journal of Cosmology and Astroparticle Physics, Vol. 2017, Issue 02
    • DOI: 10.1088/1475-7516/2017/02/015

    Binary collision rates of relativistic thermal plasmas. II - Spectra
    journal, August 1986

    • Dermer, C. D.
    • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 307
    • DOI: 10.1086/164391

    Theoretical uncertainties in extracting cosmic-ray diffusion parameters: the boron-to-carbon ratio
    journal, July 2015


    Spiral arms as cosmic ray source distributions
    journal, April 2015


    The DArk Matter Particle Explorer mission
    journal, October 2017


    Isotopic cross sections of 12C fragmentation on hydrogen measured at 1.87 and 2.69 GeV/nucleon
    journal, April 2002

    • Korejwo, A.; Giller, M.; Dzikowski, T.
    • Journal of Physics G: Nuclear and Particle Physics, Vol. 28, Issue 6
    • DOI: 10.1088/0954-3899/28/6/304

    Cosmic ray antiprotons at high energies
    journal, February 2017


    Cosmic Ray Energetics And Mass for the International Space Station (ISS-CREAM)
    journal, May 2014


    Antiprotons and Cosmic‐Ray Propagation in the Galaxy
    journal, May 2008

    • Shibata, T.; Futo, Y.; Sekiguchi, S.
    • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 678, Issue 2
    • DOI: 10.1086/529427

    Production of secondary particles and nuclei in cosmic rays collisions with the interstellar gas using the FLUKA code
    journal, August 2016


    Challenging Cosmic‐Ray Propagation with Antiprotons: Evidence for a “Fresh” Nuclei Component?
    journal, April 2003

    • Moskalenko, Igor V.; Strong, Andrew W.; Mashnik, Stepan G.
    • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 586, Issue 2
    • DOI: 10.1086/367697

    Cosmic Rays below Z  = 30 in a Diffusion Model: New Constraints on Propagation Parameters
    journal, July 2001

    • Maurin, D.; Donato, F.; Taillet, R.
    • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 555, Issue 2
    • DOI: 10.1086/321496

    A database of charged cosmic rays
    journal, September 2014


    Updated Formula for Calculating Partial Cross Sections for Nuclear Reactions of Nuclei with Z ≤ 28 and E > 150 MeV Nucleon −1 in Hydrogen Targets
    journal, January 2003

    • Webber, W. R.; Soutoul, A.; Kish, J. C.
    • The Astrophysical Journal Supplement Series, Vol. 144, Issue 1
    • DOI: 10.1086/344051

    Factorization and scaling in hadronic diffraction
    journal, May 1999


    The results from BESS-Polar experiment
    journal, August 2017


    Parameterized total cross sections for pion production in nuclear collisions
    journal, January 2007

    • Norbury, John W.; Townsend, Lawrence W.
    • Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section B: Beam Interactions with Materials and Atoms, Vol. 254, Issue 2
    • DOI: 10.1016/j.nimb.2006.11.054

    Parameterization of \documentclass{aastex} \usepackage{amsbsy} \usepackage{amsfonts} \usepackage{amssymb} \usepackage{bm} \usepackage{mathrsfs} \usepackage{pifont} \usepackage{stmaryrd} \usepackage{textcomp} \usepackage{portland,xspace} \usepackage{amsmath,amsxtra} \usepackage[OT2,OT1]{fontenc} \newcommand\cyr{ \renewcommand\rmdefault{wncyr} \renewcommand\sfdefault{wncyss} \renewcommand\encodingdefault{OT2} \normalfont \selectfont} \DeclareTextFontCommand{\textcyr}{\cyr} \pagestyle{empty} \DeclareMathSizes{10}{9}{7}{6} \begin{document} \landscape $\gamma ,\, e^{\pm }$ \end{document} , and Neutrino Spectra Produced by p‐p Interaction in Astronomical Environments
    journal, August 2006

    • Kamae, Tuneyoshi; Karlsson, Niklas; Mizuno, Tsunefumi
    • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 647, Issue 1
    • DOI: 10.1086/505189

    Calculation of the equilibrium antiproton spectrum
    journal, February 1983


    PICARD: A novel code for the Galactic Cosmic Ray propagation problem
    journal, March 2014


    The measurement of isotopic cross sections of 12 C beam fragmentation on liquid hydrogen at 3.66 GeV/nucleon
    journal, June 2000

    • Korejwo, A.; Dzikowski, T.; Giller, M.
    • Journal of Physics G: Nuclear and Particle Physics, Vol. 26, Issue 8
    • DOI: 10.1088/0954-3899/26/8/306

    The FLUKA Code: Developments and Challenges for High Energy and Medical Applications
    journal, June 2014


    The nuclear symmetry energy
    journal, November 2016


    Partial Cross-Sections in High-Energy Nuclear Reactions, and Astrophysical Applications. I. Targets WITh Z <= 28. II. Targets Heavier than Nickel
    journal, April 1973

    • Silberberg, R.; Tsao, C. H.
    • The Astrophysical Journal Supplement Series, Vol. 25
    • DOI: 10.1086/190271

    Propagation of Cosmic‐Ray Nucleons in the Galaxy
    journal, December 1998

    • Strong, Andrew W.; Moskalenko, Igor V.
    • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 509, Issue 1
    • DOI: 10.1086/306470

    Secondary antiprotons as a Galactic Dark Matter probe
    journal, December 2015

    • Evoli, Carmelo; Gaggero, Daniele; Grasso, Dario
    • Journal of Cosmology and Astroparticle Physics, Vol. 2015, Issue 12
    • DOI: 10.1088/1475-7516/2015/12/039

    Propagation of heavy cosmic-ray nuclei
    journal, November 1984

    • Letaw, J. R.; Silberberg, R.; Tsao, C. H.
    • The Astrophysical Journal Supplement Series, Vol. 56
    • DOI: 10.1086/190989

    Gamma-rays produced in cosmic-ray interactions and the TeV-band spectrum of RX J1713.7-3946
    journal, June 2007


    Non-parametric determination of H and He interstellar fluxes from cosmic-ray data
    journal, June 2016


    Secondary Antiprotons and Propagation of Cosmic Rays in the Galaxy and Heliosphere
    journal, January 2002

    • Moskalenko, Igor V.; Strong, Andrew W.; Ormes, Jonathan F.
    • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 565, Issue 1
    • DOI: 10.1086/324402

    The cosmic ray antiproton background for AMS-02
    journal, September 2014


    Constraining Galactic cosmic-ray parameters with Z   ≤  2 nuclei
    journal, February 2012