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Title: Parrotfish Teeth: Stiff Biominerals Whose Microstructure Makes Them Tough and Abrasion-Resistant To Bite Stony Corals

Abstract

Parrotfish (Scaridae) feed by biting stony corals. To investigate how their teeth endure the associated contact stresses, we examine the chemical composition, nano- and microscale structure, and the mechanical properties of the steephead parrotfish Chlorurus microrhinos tooth. Its enameloid is a fluorapatite (Ca 5(PO 4) 3F) biomineral with outstanding mechanical characteristics: the mean elastic modulus is 124 GPa, and the mean hardness near the biting surface is 7.3 GPa, making this one of the stiffest and hardest biominerals measured; the mean indentation yield strength is above 6 GPa, and the mean fracture toughness is ~.5 MPa·m 1/2 , relatively high for a highly mineralized material. This combination of properties results in high abrasion resistance. Fluorapatite X-ray absorption spectroscopy exhibits linear dichroism at the Ca L-edge, an effect that makes peak intensities vary with crystal orientation, under linearly polarized X-ray illumination. This observation enables polarization-dependent imaging contrast mapping of apatite, a method to quantitatively measure and display nanocrystal orientations in large, pristine arrays of nano- and microcrystalline structures. Parrotfish enameloid consists of 100 nm-wide, microns long crystals co-oriented and assembled into bundles interwoven as the warp and the weave in fabric and therefore termed fibers here. These fibers gradually decrease inmore » average diameter from 5 μm at the back to 2 μm at the tip of the tooth. Intriguingly, this size decrease is spatially correlated with an increase in hardness.« less

Authors:
 [1];  [2];  [3];  [3];  [1];  [1]; ORCiD logo [1];  [1];  [1];  [4]; ORCiD logo [2]; ORCiD logo [3]
  1. Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Advanced Light Source (ALS)
  2. Nanyang Technological Univ. (Singapore)
  3. Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States)
  4. Biological and Biomimetic Material Laboratory, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, 637553 Singapore
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Science (SC), Basic Energy Sciences (BES) (SC-22)
OSTI Identifier:
1439227
Grant/Contract Number:  
[AC02-05CH11231]
Resource Type:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
ACS Nano
Additional Journal Information:
[ Journal Volume: 11; Journal Issue: 12; Related Information: © 2017 American Chemical Society.]; Journal ID: ISSN 1936-0851
Publisher:
American Chemical Society (ACS)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
36 MATERIALS SCIENCE

Citation Formats

Marcus, Matthew A., Amini, Shahrouz, Stifler, Cayla A., Sun, Chang-Yu, Tamura, Nobumichi, Bechtel, Hans A., Parkinson, Dilworth Y., Barnard, Harold S., Zhang, Xiyue X. X., Chua, J. Q. Isaiah, Miserez, Ali, and Gilbert, Pupa U. P. A. Parrotfish Teeth: Stiff Biominerals Whose Microstructure Makes Them Tough and Abrasion-Resistant To Bite Stony Corals. United States: N. p., 2017. Web. doi:10.1021/acsnano.7b05044.
Marcus, Matthew A., Amini, Shahrouz, Stifler, Cayla A., Sun, Chang-Yu, Tamura, Nobumichi, Bechtel, Hans A., Parkinson, Dilworth Y., Barnard, Harold S., Zhang, Xiyue X. X., Chua, J. Q. Isaiah, Miserez, Ali, & Gilbert, Pupa U. P. A. Parrotfish Teeth: Stiff Biominerals Whose Microstructure Makes Them Tough and Abrasion-Resistant To Bite Stony Corals. United States. doi:10.1021/acsnano.7b05044.
Marcus, Matthew A., Amini, Shahrouz, Stifler, Cayla A., Sun, Chang-Yu, Tamura, Nobumichi, Bechtel, Hans A., Parkinson, Dilworth Y., Barnard, Harold S., Zhang, Xiyue X. X., Chua, J. Q. Isaiah, Miserez, Ali, and Gilbert, Pupa U. P. A. Fri . "Parrotfish Teeth: Stiff Biominerals Whose Microstructure Makes Them Tough and Abrasion-Resistant To Bite Stony Corals". United States. doi:10.1021/acsnano.7b05044. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1439227.
@article{osti_1439227,
title = {Parrotfish Teeth: Stiff Biominerals Whose Microstructure Makes Them Tough and Abrasion-Resistant To Bite Stony Corals},
author = {Marcus, Matthew A. and Amini, Shahrouz and Stifler, Cayla A. and Sun, Chang-Yu and Tamura, Nobumichi and Bechtel, Hans A. and Parkinson, Dilworth Y. and Barnard, Harold S. and Zhang, Xiyue X. X. and Chua, J. Q. Isaiah and Miserez, Ali and Gilbert, Pupa U. P. A.},
abstractNote = {Parrotfish (Scaridae) feed by biting stony corals. To investigate how their teeth endure the associated contact stresses, we examine the chemical composition, nano- and microscale structure, and the mechanical properties of the steephead parrotfish Chlorurus microrhinos tooth. Its enameloid is a fluorapatite (Ca5(PO4)3F) biomineral with outstanding mechanical characteristics: the mean elastic modulus is 124 GPa, and the mean hardness near the biting surface is 7.3 GPa, making this one of the stiffest and hardest biominerals measured; the mean indentation yield strength is above 6 GPa, and the mean fracture toughness is ~.5 MPa·m1/2 , relatively high for a highly mineralized material. This combination of properties results in high abrasion resistance. Fluorapatite X-ray absorption spectroscopy exhibits linear dichroism at the Ca L-edge, an effect that makes peak intensities vary with crystal orientation, under linearly polarized X-ray illumination. This observation enables polarization-dependent imaging contrast mapping of apatite, a method to quantitatively measure and display nanocrystal orientations in large, pristine arrays of nano- and microcrystalline structures. Parrotfish enameloid consists of 100 nm-wide, microns long crystals co-oriented and assembled into bundles interwoven as the warp and the weave in fabric and therefore termed fibers here. These fibers gradually decrease in average diameter from 5 μm at the back to 2 μm at the tip of the tooth. Intriguingly, this size decrease is spatially correlated with an increase in hardness.},
doi = {10.1021/acsnano.7b05044},
journal = {ACS Nano},
number = [12],
volume = [11],
place = {United States},
year = {2017},
month = {10}
}

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