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Title: Strong texturing of lithium metal in batteries

Lithium, with its high theoretical specific capacity and lowest electrochemical potential, has been recognized as the ultimate negative electrode material for next-generation lithium-based high-energy-density batteries. However, a key challenge that has yet to be overcome is the inferior reversibility of Li plating and stripping, typically thought to be related to the uncontrollable morphology evolution of the Li anode during cycling. Here we show that Li-metal texturing (preferential crystallographic orientation) occurs during electrochemical deposition, which governs the morphological change of the Li anode. X-ray diffraction pole-figure analysis demonstrates that the texture of Li deposits is primarily dependent on the type of additive or cross-over molecule from the cathode side. With adsorbed additives, like LiNO 3 and polysulfide, the lithium deposits are strongly textured, with Li (110) planes parallel to the substrate, and thus exhibit uniform, rounded morphology. A growth diagram of lithium deposits is given to connect various texture and morphology scenarios for different battery electrolytes. In conclusion, this understanding of lithium electrocrystallization from the crystallographic point of view provides significant insight for future lithium anode materials design in high-energy-density batteries.
Authors:
 [1] ; ORCiD logo [1] ;  [1] ; ORCiD logo [1] ;  [1] ;  [1] ;  [1] ;  [2]
  1. Stanford Univ., Stanford, CA (United States)
  2. Stanford Univ., Stanford, CA (United States); SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States)
Publication Date:
Grant/Contract Number:
AC02-76SF00515
Type:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 114; Journal Issue: 46; Journal ID: ISSN 0027-8424
Publisher:
National Academy of Sciences, Washington, DC (United States)
Research Org:
SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States)
Sponsoring Org:
USDOE
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
25 ENERGY STORAGE; lithium metal; texture; battery; electrocrystallization; morphology
OSTI Identifier:
1439108

Shi, Feifei, Pei, Allen, Vailionis, Arturas, Xie, Jin, Liu, Bofei, Zhao, Jie, Gong, Yongji, and Cui, Yi. Strong texturing of lithium metal in batteries. United States: N. p., Web. doi:10.1073/pnas.1708224114.
Shi, Feifei, Pei, Allen, Vailionis, Arturas, Xie, Jin, Liu, Bofei, Zhao, Jie, Gong, Yongji, & Cui, Yi. Strong texturing of lithium metal in batteries. United States. doi:10.1073/pnas.1708224114.
Shi, Feifei, Pei, Allen, Vailionis, Arturas, Xie, Jin, Liu, Bofei, Zhao, Jie, Gong, Yongji, and Cui, Yi. 2017. "Strong texturing of lithium metal in batteries". United States. doi:10.1073/pnas.1708224114. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1439108.
@article{osti_1439108,
title = {Strong texturing of lithium metal in batteries},
author = {Shi, Feifei and Pei, Allen and Vailionis, Arturas and Xie, Jin and Liu, Bofei and Zhao, Jie and Gong, Yongji and Cui, Yi},
abstractNote = {Lithium, with its high theoretical specific capacity and lowest electrochemical potential, has been recognized as the ultimate negative electrode material for next-generation lithium-based high-energy-density batteries. However, a key challenge that has yet to be overcome is the inferior reversibility of Li plating and stripping, typically thought to be related to the uncontrollable morphology evolution of the Li anode during cycling. Here we show that Li-metal texturing (preferential crystallographic orientation) occurs during electrochemical deposition, which governs the morphological change of the Li anode. X-ray diffraction pole-figure analysis demonstrates that the texture of Li deposits is primarily dependent on the type of additive or cross-over molecule from the cathode side. With adsorbed additives, like LiNO3 and polysulfide, the lithium deposits are strongly textured, with Li (110) planes parallel to the substrate, and thus exhibit uniform, rounded morphology. A growth diagram of lithium deposits is given to connect various texture and morphology scenarios for different battery electrolytes. In conclusion, this understanding of lithium electrocrystallization from the crystallographic point of view provides significant insight for future lithium anode materials design in high-energy-density batteries.},
doi = {10.1073/pnas.1708224114},
journal = {Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America},
number = 46,
volume = 114,
place = {United States},
year = {2017},
month = {10}
}

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