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Title: Simulated responses of terrestrial aridity to black carbon and sulfate aerosols

Abstract

Aridity index (AI), defined as the ratio of precipitation to potential evapotranspiration (PET), is a measure of the dryness of terrestrial climate. Global climate models generally project future decreases of AI (drying) associated with global warming scenarios driven by increasing greenhouse gas and declining aerosols. Given their different effects in the climate system, scattering and absorbing aerosols may affect AI differently. In this work, we explore the terrestrial aridity responses to anthropogenic black carbon (BC) and sulfate (SO 4) aerosols with Community Earth System Model simulations. Positive BC radiative forcing decreases precipitation averaged over global land at a rate of 0.9%/°C of global mean surface temperature increase (moderate drying), while BC radiative forcing increases PET by 1.0%/°C (also drying). BC leads to a global decrease of 1.9%/°C in AI (drying). SO 4 forcing is negative and causes precipitation a decrease at a rate of 6.7%/°C cooling (strong drying). PET also decreases in response to SO 4 aerosol cooling by 6.3%/°C cooling (contributing to moistening). Thus, SO 4 cooling leads to a small decrease in AI (drying) by 0.4%/°C cooling. Despite the opposite effects on global mean temperature, BC and SO 4 both contribute to the twentieth century drying (AI decrease).more » Sensitivity test indicates that surface temperature and surface available energy changes dominate BC- and SO 4-induced PET changes.« less

Authors:
 [1];  [2];  [2];  [3]
  1. Lanzhou Univ. (China). College of Atmospheric Sciences
  2. National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, CO (United States)
  3. Lanzhou Univ. (China). College of Atmospheric Sciences; Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States). Dept. of Atmospheric Sciences
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, CO (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Science (SC), Biological and Environmental Research (BER) (SC-23); National Natural Science Foundation of China (NNSFC); National Basic Research Program of China; Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities (China); National Science Foundation (NSF)
OSTI Identifier:
1438461
Grant/Contract Number:  
FC02-97ER62402; 41521004; 41275070; 41405010; 2012CB955303; lzujbky‐2015‐k02
Resource Type:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 121; Journal Issue: 2; Journal ID: ISSN 2169-897X
Publisher:
American Geophysical Union
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
54 ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES; aridity; precipitation; PET; sulfate; black carbon; CO2

Citation Formats

Lin, L., Gettelman, A., Xu, Y., and Fu, Q. Simulated responses of terrestrial aridity to black carbon and sulfate aerosols. United States: N. p., 2016. Web. doi:10.1002/2015JD024100.
Lin, L., Gettelman, A., Xu, Y., & Fu, Q. Simulated responses of terrestrial aridity to black carbon and sulfate aerosols. United States. doi:10.1002/2015JD024100.
Lin, L., Gettelman, A., Xu, Y., and Fu, Q. Wed . "Simulated responses of terrestrial aridity to black carbon and sulfate aerosols". United States. doi:10.1002/2015JD024100. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1438461.
@article{osti_1438461,
title = {Simulated responses of terrestrial aridity to black carbon and sulfate aerosols},
author = {Lin, L. and Gettelman, A. and Xu, Y. and Fu, Q.},
abstractNote = {Aridity index (AI), defined as the ratio of precipitation to potential evapotranspiration (PET), is a measure of the dryness of terrestrial climate. Global climate models generally project future decreases of AI (drying) associated with global warming scenarios driven by increasing greenhouse gas and declining aerosols. Given their different effects in the climate system, scattering and absorbing aerosols may affect AI differently. In this work, we explore the terrestrial aridity responses to anthropogenic black carbon (BC) and sulfate (SO4) aerosols with Community Earth System Model simulations. Positive BC radiative forcing decreases precipitation averaged over global land at a rate of 0.9%/°C of global mean surface temperature increase (moderate drying), while BC radiative forcing increases PET by 1.0%/°C (also drying). BC leads to a global decrease of 1.9%/°C in AI (drying). SO4 forcing is negative and causes precipitation a decrease at a rate of 6.7%/°C cooling (strong drying). PET also decreases in response to SO4 aerosol cooling by 6.3%/°C cooling (contributing to moistening). Thus, SO4 cooling leads to a small decrease in AI (drying) by 0.4%/°C cooling. Despite the opposite effects on global mean temperature, BC and SO4 both contribute to the twentieth century drying (AI decrease). Sensitivity test indicates that surface temperature and surface available energy changes dominate BC- and SO4-induced PET changes.},
doi = {10.1002/2015JD024100},
journal = {Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres},
number = 2,
volume = 121,
place = {United States},
year = {2016},
month = {1}
}

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