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Title: Modeling of proton-induced radioactivation background in hard X-ray telescopes: Geant4-based simulation and its demonstration by Hitomi ’s measurement in a low Earth orbit

Hard X-ray astronomical observatories in orbit suffer from a significant amount of background due to radioactivation induced by cosmic-ray protons and/or geomagnetically trapped protons. Within the framework of a full Monte Carlo simulation, we present modeling of in-orbit instrumental background which is dominated by radioactivation. To reduce the computation time required by straightforward simulations of delayed emissions from activated isotopes, we insert a semi-analytical calculation that converts production probabilities of radioactive isotopes by interaction of the primary protons into decay rates at measurement time of all secondary isotopes. Therefore, our simulation method is separated into three steps: (1) simulation of isotope production, (2) semi-analytical conversion to decay rates, and (3) simulation of decays of the isotopes at measurement time. This method is verified by a simple setup that has a CdTe semiconductor detector, and shows a 100-fold improvement in efficiency over the straightforward simulation. To demonstrate its experimental performance, the simulation framework was tested against data measured with a CdTe sensor in the Hard X-ray Imager onboard the Hitomi X-ray Astronomy Satellite, which was put into a low Earth orbit with an altitude of 570 km and an inclination of 31°, and thus experienced a large amount of irradiation frommore » geomagnetically trapped protons during its passages through the South Atlantic Anomaly. The simulation is able to treat full histories of the proton irradiation and multiple measurement windows. As a result, the simulation results agree very well with the measured data, showing that the measured background is well described by the combination of proton-induced radioactivation of the CdTe detector itself and thick Bi 4Ge 3O 12 scintillator shields, leakage of cosmic X-ray background and albedo gamma-ray radiation, and emissions from naturally contaminated isotopes in the detector system.« less
Authors:
 [1] ;  [2] ;  [3] ;  [2] ;  [4] ;  [5] ;  [6] ;  [7] ;  [8] ;  [2] ;  [9] ;  [6] ;  [10] ;  [11] ;  [6] ;  [12] ;  [9] ;  [12] ;  [13] ;  [14] more »;  [15] ;  [15] ;  [16] ;  [11] ;  [17] ;  [12] ;  [17] ;  [18] ;  [19] ;  [17] ;  [20] ;  [12] ;  [12] ;  [12] ;  [12] ;  [21] ;  [6] ;  [12] ;  [22] ;  [9] ;  [5] ;  [23] ;  [24] ;  [7] ;  [12] ;  [25] ;  [23] ;  [26] ;  [19] ;  [27] « less
  1. Stanford Univ., Stanford, CA (United States); Nishina Center for Accelerator-Based Science, Saitama (Japan)
  2. SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States)
  3. Tokyo Univ. of Science, Chiba (Japan)
  4. Stanford Univ., Stanford, CA (United States); SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States)
  5. Hiroshima Univ., Hiroshima (Japan)
  6. Hiroshima Univ., Higashi-Hiroshima (Japan)
  7. Rikkyo Univ., Tokyo (Japan)
  8. The Univ. of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan); Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency, Kanagawa (Japan)
  9. Kyoto Univ., Kyoto (Japan)
  10. Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency, Kanagawa (Japan); Nagoya Univ., Aichi (Japan)
  11. Waseda Univ., Tokyo (Japan)
  12. Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency, Kanagawa (Japan)
  13. Lab. APC, Paris (France); CEA Saclay, Gif-sur-Yvette (France)
  14. Lab. APC, Paris (France)
  15. CEA Saclay, Gif-sur-Yvette (France)
  16. RIKEN, Saitama (Japan)
  17. The Univ. of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan)
  18. Yamagata Univ., Yamagata (Japan)
  19. Nishina Center for Accelerator-Based Science, Saitama (Japan)
  20. Tohoku Univ., Miyagi (Japan)
  21. Nagoya Univ., Nagoya (Japan)
  22. Okinawa Institute of Science and Technology Graduate Univ., Onnason Okinawa (Japan)
  23. Saitama Univ., Saitama (Japan)
  24. Shizuoka Univ., Shizuoka (Japan)
  25. Nagoya Univ., Aichi (Japan)
  26. Tokyo Institute of Technology, Tokyo (Japan)
  27. Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)
Publication Date:
Grant/Contract Number:
AC02-76SF00515; AC3-76SF00515; NNX15AM19G
Type:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research. Section A, Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated Equipment
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 891; Journal Issue: C; Journal ID: ISSN 0168-9002
Publisher:
Elsevier
Research Org:
SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States)
Sponsoring Org:
USDOE
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
79 ASTRONOMY AND ASTROPHYSICS; X-ray astronomy; In-orbit background; Radioactivation; Monte-Carlo simulation
OSTI Identifier:
1434673

Odaka, Hirokazu, Asai, Makoto, Hagino, Kouichi, Koi, Tatsumi, Madejski, Greg, Mizuno, Tsunefumi, Ohno, Masanori, Saito, Shinya, Sato, Tamotsu, Wright, Dennis H., Enoto, Teruaki, Fukazawa, Yasushi, Hayashi, Katsuhiro, Kataoka, Jun, Katsuta, Junichiro, Kawaharada, Madoka, Kobayashi, Shogo B., Kokubun, Motohide, Laurent, Philippe, Lebrun, Francois, Limousin, Olivier, Maier, Daniel, Makishima, Kazuo, Mimura, Taketo, Miyake, Katsuma, Mori, Kunishiro, Murakami, Hiroaki, Nakamori, Takeshi, Nakano, Toshio, Nakazawa, Kazuhiro, Noda, Hirofumi, Ohta, Masayuki, Ozaki, Masanobu, Sato, Goro, Sato, Rie, Tajima, Hiroyasu, Takahashi, Hiromitsu, Takahashi, Tadayuki, Takeda, Shin?ichiro, Tanaka, Takaaki, Tanaka, Yasuyuki, Terada, Yukikatsu, Uchiyama, Hideki, Uchiyama, Yasunobu, Watanabe, Shin, Yamaoka, Kazutaka, Yasuda, Tetsuya, Yatsu, Yoichi, Yuasa, Takayuki, and Zoglauer, Andreas. Modeling of proton-induced radioactivation background in hard X-ray telescopes: Geant4-based simulation and its demonstration by Hitomi ’s measurement in a low Earth orbit. United States: N. p., Web. doi:10.1016/j.nima.2018.02.071.
Odaka, Hirokazu, Asai, Makoto, Hagino, Kouichi, Koi, Tatsumi, Madejski, Greg, Mizuno, Tsunefumi, Ohno, Masanori, Saito, Shinya, Sato, Tamotsu, Wright, Dennis H., Enoto, Teruaki, Fukazawa, Yasushi, Hayashi, Katsuhiro, Kataoka, Jun, Katsuta, Junichiro, Kawaharada, Madoka, Kobayashi, Shogo B., Kokubun, Motohide, Laurent, Philippe, Lebrun, Francois, Limousin, Olivier, Maier, Daniel, Makishima, Kazuo, Mimura, Taketo, Miyake, Katsuma, Mori, Kunishiro, Murakami, Hiroaki, Nakamori, Takeshi, Nakano, Toshio, Nakazawa, Kazuhiro, Noda, Hirofumi, Ohta, Masayuki, Ozaki, Masanobu, Sato, Goro, Sato, Rie, Tajima, Hiroyasu, Takahashi, Hiromitsu, Takahashi, Tadayuki, Takeda, Shin?ichiro, Tanaka, Takaaki, Tanaka, Yasuyuki, Terada, Yukikatsu, Uchiyama, Hideki, Uchiyama, Yasunobu, Watanabe, Shin, Yamaoka, Kazutaka, Yasuda, Tetsuya, Yatsu, Yoichi, Yuasa, Takayuki, & Zoglauer, Andreas. Modeling of proton-induced radioactivation background in hard X-ray telescopes: Geant4-based simulation and its demonstration by Hitomi ’s measurement in a low Earth orbit. United States. doi:10.1016/j.nima.2018.02.071.
Odaka, Hirokazu, Asai, Makoto, Hagino, Kouichi, Koi, Tatsumi, Madejski, Greg, Mizuno, Tsunefumi, Ohno, Masanori, Saito, Shinya, Sato, Tamotsu, Wright, Dennis H., Enoto, Teruaki, Fukazawa, Yasushi, Hayashi, Katsuhiro, Kataoka, Jun, Katsuta, Junichiro, Kawaharada, Madoka, Kobayashi, Shogo B., Kokubun, Motohide, Laurent, Philippe, Lebrun, Francois, Limousin, Olivier, Maier, Daniel, Makishima, Kazuo, Mimura, Taketo, Miyake, Katsuma, Mori, Kunishiro, Murakami, Hiroaki, Nakamori, Takeshi, Nakano, Toshio, Nakazawa, Kazuhiro, Noda, Hirofumi, Ohta, Masayuki, Ozaki, Masanobu, Sato, Goro, Sato, Rie, Tajima, Hiroyasu, Takahashi, Hiromitsu, Takahashi, Tadayuki, Takeda, Shin?ichiro, Tanaka, Takaaki, Tanaka, Yasuyuki, Terada, Yukikatsu, Uchiyama, Hideki, Uchiyama, Yasunobu, Watanabe, Shin, Yamaoka, Kazutaka, Yasuda, Tetsuya, Yatsu, Yoichi, Yuasa, Takayuki, and Zoglauer, Andreas. 2018. "Modeling of proton-induced radioactivation background in hard X-ray telescopes: Geant4-based simulation and its demonstration by Hitomi ’s measurement in a low Earth orbit". United States. doi:10.1016/j.nima.2018.02.071.
@article{osti_1434673,
title = {Modeling of proton-induced radioactivation background in hard X-ray telescopes: Geant4-based simulation and its demonstration by Hitomi ’s measurement in a low Earth orbit},
author = {Odaka, Hirokazu and Asai, Makoto and Hagino, Kouichi and Koi, Tatsumi and Madejski, Greg and Mizuno, Tsunefumi and Ohno, Masanori and Saito, Shinya and Sato, Tamotsu and Wright, Dennis H. and Enoto, Teruaki and Fukazawa, Yasushi and Hayashi, Katsuhiro and Kataoka, Jun and Katsuta, Junichiro and Kawaharada, Madoka and Kobayashi, Shogo B. and Kokubun, Motohide and Laurent, Philippe and Lebrun, Francois and Limousin, Olivier and Maier, Daniel and Makishima, Kazuo and Mimura, Taketo and Miyake, Katsuma and Mori, Kunishiro and Murakami, Hiroaki and Nakamori, Takeshi and Nakano, Toshio and Nakazawa, Kazuhiro and Noda, Hirofumi and Ohta, Masayuki and Ozaki, Masanobu and Sato, Goro and Sato, Rie and Tajima, Hiroyasu and Takahashi, Hiromitsu and Takahashi, Tadayuki and Takeda, Shin?ichiro and Tanaka, Takaaki and Tanaka, Yasuyuki and Terada, Yukikatsu and Uchiyama, Hideki and Uchiyama, Yasunobu and Watanabe, Shin and Yamaoka, Kazutaka and Yasuda, Tetsuya and Yatsu, Yoichi and Yuasa, Takayuki and Zoglauer, Andreas},
abstractNote = {Hard X-ray astronomical observatories in orbit suffer from a significant amount of background due to radioactivation induced by cosmic-ray protons and/or geomagnetically trapped protons. Within the framework of a full Monte Carlo simulation, we present modeling of in-orbit instrumental background which is dominated by radioactivation. To reduce the computation time required by straightforward simulations of delayed emissions from activated isotopes, we insert a semi-analytical calculation that converts production probabilities of radioactive isotopes by interaction of the primary protons into decay rates at measurement time of all secondary isotopes. Therefore, our simulation method is separated into three steps: (1) simulation of isotope production, (2) semi-analytical conversion to decay rates, and (3) simulation of decays of the isotopes at measurement time. This method is verified by a simple setup that has a CdTe semiconductor detector, and shows a 100-fold improvement in efficiency over the straightforward simulation. To demonstrate its experimental performance, the simulation framework was tested against data measured with a CdTe sensor in the Hard X-ray Imager onboard the Hitomi X-ray Astronomy Satellite, which was put into a low Earth orbit with an altitude of 570 km and an inclination of 31°, and thus experienced a large amount of irradiation from geomagnetically trapped protons during its passages through the South Atlantic Anomaly. The simulation is able to treat full histories of the proton irradiation and multiple measurement windows. As a result, the simulation results agree very well with the measured data, showing that the measured background is well described by the combination of proton-induced radioactivation of the CdTe detector itself and thick Bi4Ge3O12 scintillator shields, leakage of cosmic X-ray background and albedo gamma-ray radiation, and emissions from naturally contaminated isotopes in the detector system.},
doi = {10.1016/j.nima.2018.02.071},
journal = {Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research. Section A, Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated Equipment},
number = C,
volume = 891,
place = {United States},
year = {2018},
month = {2}
}