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Title: Multi-Step Lithiation of Tin Sulfide: An Investigation Using In Situ Electron Microscopy

Two-dimensional metal sulfides have been widely explored as promising electrodes for lithium ion batteries since their two-dimensional layered structure allows lithium ions to intercalate between layers. For tin disulfide, the lithiation process proceeds via a sequence of three different types of reactions: intercalation, conversion, and alloying but the full scenario of reaction dynamics remains nebulous. In this paper, we investigate the dynamical process of the multi-step reactions using in situ electron microscopy and discover an intermediate rock-salt phase with the disordering of Li and Sn cations, after the initial 2-dimensional intercalation. The disordered cations occupy all the octahedral sites and block the channels for intercalation, which alter the reaction pathways during further lithiation. Our first principles calculations of the non-equilibrium lithiation of SnS2 corroborate the energetic preference of the disordered rock-salt structure over known layered polymorphs. The in situ observations and calculations suggest a two-phase reaction nature for intercalation, disordering, and following conversion reactions. In addition, in situ de-lithiation observation confirms that the alloying reaction is reversible while the conversion reaction is not, which is consistent to the ex situ analysis. This work reveals the full lithiation characteristic of SnS2 and sheds light on the understanding of complex multistep reactionsmore » in two-dimensional materials.« less
 [1] ;  [2] ;  [3] ;  [4] ;  [2] ;  [3] ;  [2] ;  [1]
  1. Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Center for Functional Nanomaterials (CFN)
  2. Northwestern Univ., Evanston, IL (United States). Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering
  3. Wuhan Univ. of Technology (China). State Key Lab. of Advanced Technology for Materials Synthesis and Processing
  4. Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Center for Functional Nanomaterials (CFN); Northwestern Polytechnical Univ., Xi'an (China). Shanxi Materials Analysis and Research Center and School of Materials Science and Engineering
Publication Date:
Report Number(s):
Journal ID: ISSN 1936-0851
Grant/Contract Number:
SC0012704; AC02-06CH11357
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
ACS Nano
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Name: ACS Nano; Journal ID: ISSN 1936-0851
American Chemical Society (ACS)
Research Org:
Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)
Sponsoring Org:
USDOE Office of Science (SC), Basic Energy Sciences (BES) (SC-22)
Country of Publication:
United States
25 ENERGY STORAGE; 36 MATERIALS SCIENCE; lithium ion batteries; in situ TEM; tin disulfide; multi-step lithiation; DFT
OSTI Identifier: