skip to main content
DOE PAGES title logo U.S. Department of Energy
Office of Scientific and Technical Information

Title: Sniffle: a step forward to measure in situ CO2 fluxes with the floating chamber technique

Abstract

Understanding how the ocean absorbs anthropogenic CO2 is critical for predicting climate change. We designed Sniffle, a new autonomous drifting buoy with a floating chamber, to measure gas transfer velocities and air-sea CO2 fluxes with high spatiotemporal resolution. Currently, insufficient in situ data exist to verify gas transfer parameterizations at low wind speeds (<4 m s-1), which leads to underestimation of gas transfer velocities and, therefore, of air-sea CO2 fluxes. The Sniffle is equipped with a sensor to consecutively measure aqueous and atmospheric pCO2 and to monitor increases or decreases of CO2 inside the chamber. During autonomous operation, a complete cycle lasts 40 minutes, with a new cycle initiated after flushing the chamber. The Sniffle can be deployed for up to 15 hours at wind speeds up to 10 m s-1. Floating chambers often overestimate fluxes because they create additional turbulence at the water surface. We correct fluxes by measuring turbulence with two acoustic Doppler velocimeters, one positioned directly under the floating chamber and the other positioned sideways, to compare artificial disturbance caused by the chamber and natural turbulence. The first results of deployment in the North Sea during the summer of 2016 demonstrate that the new drifting buoy ismore » a useful tool that can improve our understanding of gas transfer velocity with in situ measurements. At low and moderate wind speeds and different conditions, the results obtained indicate that the observed tidal basin was acting as a source of atmospheric CO2. Wind speed and turbulence alone could not fully explain the variance in gas transfer velocity. We suggest therefore, that other factors like surfactants, rain or tidal current will have an impact on gas transfer parameterizations.« less

Authors:
 [1];  [2];  [1]
  1. Univ. of Oldenburg (Germany). Inst. for Chemistry and Biology of the Marine Environment (ICBM)
  2. National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States). National Wind Technology Center
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE); Scientific Committee for Oceanic Research (SCOR); Inst. for Chemistry and Biology of the Marine Environment (ICBM); European Research Council (ERC)
OSTI Identifier:
1431413
Report Number(s):
NREL/JA-5000-71252
Journal ID: ISSN 2325-1026
Grant/Contract Number:  
AC36-08GO28308; GA336408
Resource Type:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Elementa
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 6; Journal Issue: 1; Journal ID: ISSN 2325-1026
Publisher:
University of California Press
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
16 TIDAL AND WAVE POWER; 47 OTHER INSTRUMENTATION; air-water CO2 flux; coastal area; ocean technology; gas transfer velocity; carbon cycle; Wadden Sea

Citation Formats

Ribas-Ribas, Mariana, Kilcher, Levi F., and Wurl, Oliver. Sniffle: a step forward to measure in situ CO2 fluxes with the floating chamber technique. United States: N. p., 2018. Web. https://doi.org/10.1525/elementa.275.
Ribas-Ribas, Mariana, Kilcher, Levi F., & Wurl, Oliver. Sniffle: a step forward to measure in situ CO2 fluxes with the floating chamber technique. United States. https://doi.org/10.1525/elementa.275
Ribas-Ribas, Mariana, Kilcher, Levi F., and Wurl, Oliver. Tue . "Sniffle: a step forward to measure in situ CO2 fluxes with the floating chamber technique". United States. https://doi.org/10.1525/elementa.275. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1431413.
@article{osti_1431413,
title = {Sniffle: a step forward to measure in situ CO2 fluxes with the floating chamber technique},
author = {Ribas-Ribas, Mariana and Kilcher, Levi F. and Wurl, Oliver},
abstractNote = {Understanding how the ocean absorbs anthropogenic CO2 is critical for predicting climate change. We designed Sniffle, a new autonomous drifting buoy with a floating chamber, to measure gas transfer velocities and air-sea CO2 fluxes with high spatiotemporal resolution. Currently, insufficient in situ data exist to verify gas transfer parameterizations at low wind speeds (<4 m s-1), which leads to underestimation of gas transfer velocities and, therefore, of air-sea CO2 fluxes. The Sniffle is equipped with a sensor to consecutively measure aqueous and atmospheric pCO2 and to monitor increases or decreases of CO2 inside the chamber. During autonomous operation, a complete cycle lasts 40 minutes, with a new cycle initiated after flushing the chamber. The Sniffle can be deployed for up to 15 hours at wind speeds up to 10 m s-1. Floating chambers often overestimate fluxes because they create additional turbulence at the water surface. We correct fluxes by measuring turbulence with two acoustic Doppler velocimeters, one positioned directly under the floating chamber and the other positioned sideways, to compare artificial disturbance caused by the chamber and natural turbulence. The first results of deployment in the North Sea during the summer of 2016 demonstrate that the new drifting buoy is a useful tool that can improve our understanding of gas transfer velocity with in situ measurements. At low and moderate wind speeds and different conditions, the results obtained indicate that the observed tidal basin was acting as a source of atmospheric CO2. Wind speed and turbulence alone could not fully explain the variance in gas transfer velocity. We suggest therefore, that other factors like surfactants, rain or tidal current will have an impact on gas transfer parameterizations.},
doi = {10.1525/elementa.275},
journal = {Elementa},
number = 1,
volume = 6,
place = {United States},
year = {2018},
month = {1}
}

Journal Article:
Free Publicly Available Full Text
Publisher's Version of Record

Save / Share:

Works referenced in this record:

Inorganic Carbon Fluxes in the Inner Elbe Estuary, Germany
journal, March 2014


Consistent assessment of trace metal contamination in surface sediments and suspended particulate matter: A case study from the Jade Bay in NW Germany
journal, May 2013


Particulate amino acids in Wadden Sea waters — seasonal and tidal variations
journal, March 1999


Acquiring Long-Term Turbulence Measurements from Moored Platforms Impacted by Motion
journal, November 2016

  • Bluteau, Cynthia E.; Jones, Nicole L.; Ivey, Gregory N.
  • Journal of Atmospheric and Oceanic Technology, Vol. 33, Issue 11
  • DOI: 10.1175/JTECH-D-16-0041.1

Gas transfer velocities of CO 2 in three European estuaries (Randers Fjord, Scheldt, and Thames)
journal, September 2004

  • Borges, Alberto Vieira; Delille, Bruno; Schiettecatte, Laure-Sophie
  • Limnology and Oceanography, Vol. 49, Issue 5
  • DOI: 10.4319/lo.2004.49.5.1630

Carbon dioxide in European coastal waters
journal, November 2006

  • Borges, A. V.; Schiettecatte, L. -S.; Abril, G.
  • Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science, Vol. 70, Issue 3
  • DOI: 10.1016/j.ecss.2006.05.046

Variability of the gas transfer velocity of CO2 in a macrotidal estuary (the Scheldt)
journal, August 2004

  • Borges, Alberto Vieira; Vanderborght, Jean-Pierre; Schiettecatte, Laure-Sophie
  • Estuaries, Vol. 27, Issue 4
  • DOI: 10.1007/BF02907647

The continental shelf pump for CO2 in the North Sea—evidence from summer observation
journal, January 2005


Artificial surface films in the sea area near Sylt1: Artificial surface films
journal, November 1982

  • Brockmann, Uwe H.; Huhnerfuss, Heinrich; Kattner, Gerhard
  • Limnology and Oceanography, Vol. 27, Issue 6
  • DOI: 10.4319/lo.1982.27.6.1050

Evidence for surface organic matter modulation of air-sea CO2 gas exchange
journal, January 2009


Air–sea exchanges of CO 2 in the world's coastal seas
journal, January 2013


Multiple approaches to estimating air-water gas exchange in small lakes: Gas exchange in lakes
journal, June 2010

  • Cole, Jonathan J.; Bade, Darren L.; Bastviken, David
  • Limnology and Oceanography: Methods, Vol. 8, Issue 6
  • DOI: 10.4319/lom.2010.8.285

Atmospheric exchange of carbon dioxide in a low-wind oligotrophic lake measured by the addition of SF 6
journal, June 1998


Is phytoplankton growth in the Wadden Sea light or nitrogen limited?
journal, March 2003


Influence of the surface microlayer on the flux of nonconservative trace gases (CO, H2, CH4, N2O) across the ocean-atmosphere interface
journal, January 1988

  • Conrad, Ralf; Seiler, Wolfgang
  • Journal of Atmospheric Chemistry, Vol. 6, Issue 1-2
  • DOI: 10.1007/BF00048333

Automated Flux Chamber for Investigating Gas Flux at Water–Air Interfaces
journal, December 2012

  • Duc, Nguyen Thanh; Silverstein, Samuel; Lundmark, Lars
  • Environmental Science & Technology, Vol. 47, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1021/es303848x

Air-sea gas transfer: Its dependence on wind stress, small-scale roughness, and surface films: GAS TRANSFER AND SURFACE ROUGHNESS
journal, August 2004

  • Frew, Nelson M.; Bock, Erik J.; Schimpf, Uwe
  • Journal of Geophysical Research: Oceans, Vol. 109, Issue C8
  • DOI: 10.1029/2003JC002131

Determination of the piston velocity for water-air interfaces using flux chambers, acoustic Doppler velocimetry, and IR imaging of the water surface: COMPARISON AND DEVELOPMENT OF
journal, May 2013

  • Gålfalk, Magnus; Bastviken, David; Fredriksson, Sam
  • Journal of Geophysical Research: Biogeosciences, Vol. 118, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1002/jgrg.20064

Despiking Acoustic Doppler Velocimeter Data
journal, January 2002


Gas transfer velocities of CO2 and CH4 in a tropical reservoir and its river downstream
journal, June 2007


Influence of rain on air-sea gas exchange: Lessons from a model ocean: RAIN AND AIR-SEA GAS EXCHANGE
journal, July 2004

  • Ho, David T.; Zappa, Christopher J.; McGillis, Wade R.
  • Journal of Geophysical Research: Oceans, Vol. 109, Issue C8
  • DOI: 10.1029/2003JC001806

Turbulence Measurements from Compliant Moorings. Part II: Motion Correction
journal, June 2017

  • Kilcher, Levi F.; Thomson, Jim; Harding, Samuel
  • Journal of Atmospheric and Oceanic Technology, Vol. 34, Issue 6
  • DOI: 10.1175/JTECH-D-16-0213.1

First laboratory study of air–sea gas exchange at hurricane wind speeds
journal, January 2014


Technical note: Conditions for using the floating chamber method to estimate air-water gas exchange
journal, August 2003

  • Kremer, James N.; Nixon, Scott W.; Buckley, Betty
  • Estuaries, Vol. 26, Issue 4
  • DOI: 10.1007/BF02803357

Evaluation of sinks and sources of CO 2 in the global coastal ocean using a spatially-explicit typology of estuaries and continental shelves : GLOBAL CO
journal, August 2010

  • Laruelle, Goulven G.; Dürr, Hans H.; Slomp, Caroline P.
  • Geophysical Research Letters, Vol. 37, Issue 15
  • DOI: 10.1029/2010GL043691

Comparison of Three Techniques Used To Measure Diffusive Gas Exchange from Sheltered Aquatic Surfaces
journal, February 2003

  • Matthews, Cory J. D.; St. Louis, Vincent L.; Hesslein, Raymond H.
  • Environmental Science & Technology, Vol. 37, Issue 4
  • DOI: 10.1021/es0205838

Air-sea CO 2 exchange in the equatorial Pacific : EQUATORIAL PACIFIC CO
journal, August 2004

  • McGillis, Wade R.; Edson, James B.; Zappa, Christopher J.
  • Journal of Geophysical Research: Oceans, Vol. 109, Issue C8
  • DOI: 10.1029/2003JC002256

In situ evaluation of air-sea gas exchange parameterizations using novel conservative and volatile tracers
journal, March 2000

  • Nightingale, Philip D.; Malin, Gill; Law, Cliff S.
  • Global Biogeochemical Cycles, Vol. 14, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1029/1999GB900091

Comparison of floating chamber and eddy covariance measurements of lake greenhouse gas fluxes
journal, January 2014


Gas Exchange in Rivers and Estuaries: Choosing a Gas Transfer Velocity
journal, April 2001

  • Raymond, Peter A.; Cole, Jonathan J.
  • Estuaries, Vol. 24, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.2307/1352954

Sea Surface Scanner (S3): A Catamaran for High-Resolution Measurements of Biogeochemical Properties of the Sea Surface Microlayer
journal, July 2017

  • Ribas-Ribas, Mariana; Hamizah Mustaffa, Nur Ili; Rahlff, Janina
  • Journal of Atmospheric and Oceanic Technology, Vol. 34, Issue 7
  • DOI: 10.1175/JTECH-D-17-0017.1

Oceanic convective mixing and the impact on air-sea gas transfer velocity: CONVECTIVE MIXING AND AIR-SEA EXCHANGE
journal, January 2011

  • Rutgersson, A.; Smedman, A.; Sahlée, E.
  • Geophysical Research Letters, Vol. 38, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1029/2010GL045581

Climatological mean and decadal change in surface ocean pCO2, and net sea–air CO2 flux over the global oceans
journal, April 2009

  • Takahashi, Taro; Sutherland, Stewart C.; Wanninkhof, Rik
  • Deep Sea Research Part II: Topical Studies in Oceanography, Vol. 56, Issue 8-10
  • DOI: 10.1016/j.dsr2.2008.12.009

High gas-transfer velocity in coastal regions with high energy-dissipation rates
journal, January 2008

  • Tokoro, Tatsuki; Kayanne, Hajime; Watanabe, Atsushi
  • Journal of Geophysical Research, Vol. 113, Issue C11
  • DOI: 10.1029/2007JC004528

Measurement of air–water CO2 transfer at four coastal sites using a chamber method
journal, June 2007


Relationship between wind speed and gas exchange over the ocean
journal, January 1992

  • Wanninkhof, Rik
  • Journal of Geophysical Research, Vol. 97, Issue C5
  • DOI: 10.1029/92JC00188

Relationship between wind speed and gas exchange over the ocean revisited: Gas exchange and wind speed over the ocean
journal, June 2014


Advances in Quantifying Air-Sea Gas Exchange and Environmental Forcing
journal, January 2009


Carbon dioxide in water and seawater: the solubility of a non-ideal gas
journal, November 1974


Formation and global distribution of sea-surface microlayers
journal, January 2011


Microbreaking and the enhancement of air-water transfer velocity: MICROBREAKING-GAS TRANSFER ENHANCEMENT
journal, August 2004

  • Zappa, C. J.; Asher, W. E.; Jessup, A. T.
  • Journal of Geophysical Research: Oceans, Vol. 109, Issue C8
  • DOI: 10.1029/2003JC001897

Environmental turbulent mixing controls on air-water gas exchange in marine and aquatic systems
journal, January 2007

  • Zappa, Christopher J.; McGillis, Wade R.; Raymond, Peter A.
  • Geophysical Research Letters, Vol. 34, Issue 10
  • DOI: 10.1029/2006GL028790

Variation in surface turbulence and the gas transfer velocity over a tidal cycle in a macro-tidal estuary
journal, December 2003

  • Zappa, Christopher J.; Raymond, Peter A.; Terray, Eugene A.
  • Estuaries, Vol. 26, Issue 6
  • DOI: 10.1007/BF02803649

    Works referencing / citing this record:

    Impact of Nonzero Intercept Gas Transfer Velocity Parameterizations on Global and Regional Ocean–Atmosphere CO2 Fluxes
    journal, May 2019


    Global reduction of in situ CO 2 transfer velocity by natural surfactants in the sea-surface microlayer
    journal, February 2020

    • Mustaffa, Nur Ili Hamizah; Ribas-Ribas, Mariana; Banko-Kubis, Hanne M.
    • Proceedings of the Royal Society A: Mathematical, Physical and Engineering Sciences, Vol. 476, Issue 2234
    • DOI: 10.1098/rspa.2019.0763