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Title: Work Function Variations in Twisted Graphene Layers

By combining optical imaging, Raman spectroscopy, kelvin probe force microscopy (KFPM), and photoemission electron microscopy (PEEM), we show that graphene’s layer orientation, as well as layer thickness, measurably changes the surface potential (Φ). Detailed mapping of variable-thickness, rotationally-faulted graphene films allows us to correlate Φ with specific morphological features. Using KPFM and PEEM we measure ΔΦ up to 39 mV for layers with different twist angles, while ΔΦ ranges from 36–129 mV for different layer thicknesses. The surface potential between different twist angles or layer thicknesses is measured at the KPFM instrument resolution of ≤ 200 nm. The PEEM measured work function of 4.4 eV for graphene is consistent with doping levels on the order of 10 12cm -2. Here, we find that Φ scales linearly with Raman G-peak wavenumber shift (slope = 22.2 mV/cm -1) for all layers and twist angles, which is consistent with doping-dependent changes to graphene’s Fermi energy in the ‘high’ doping limit. Our results here emphasize that layer orientation is equally important as layer thickness when designing multilayer two-dimensional systems where surface potential is considered.
Authors:
ORCiD logo [1] ;  [1] ;  [2] ;  [2]
  1. Naval Research Lab. (NRL), Washington, DC (United States). Electronics Science and Technology Division
  2. Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Center for Integrated Nanotechnologies
Publication Date:
Report Number(s):
SAND-2018-1772J
Journal ID: ISSN 2045-2322; 660738
Grant/Contract Number:
AC04-94AL85000; NA0003525
Type:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Scientific Reports
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 8; Journal Issue: 1; Journal ID: ISSN 2045-2322
Publisher:
Nature Publishing Group
Research Org:
Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)
Sponsoring Org:
USDOE Office of Science (SC), Basic Energy Sciences (BES) (SC-22); US Department of the Navy, Office of Naval Research (ONR)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
36 MATERIALS SCIENCE
OSTI Identifier:
1426807