skip to main content
DOE PAGES title logo U.S. Department of Energy
Office of Scientific and Technical Information

Title: A Review of Global Precipitation Data Sets: Data Sources, Estimation, and Intercomparisons

Abstract

In this paper, we present a comprehensive review of the data sources and estimation methods of 30 currently available global precipitation data sets, including gauge-based, satellite-related, and reanalysis data sets. We analyzed the discrepancies between the data sets from daily to annual timescales and found large differences in both the magnitude and the variability of precipitation estimates. The magnitude of annual precipitation estimates over global land deviated by as much as 300 mm/yr among the products. Reanalysis data sets had a larger degree of variability than the other types of data sets. The degree of variability in precipitation estimates also varied by region. Large differences in annual and seasonal estimates were found in tropical oceans, complex mountain areas, northern Africa, and some high-latitude regions. Overall, the variability associated with extreme precipitation estimates was slightly greater at lower latitudes than at higher latitudes. The reliability of precipitation data sets is mainly limited by the number and spatial coverage of surface stations, the satellite algorithms, and the data assimilation models. The inconsistencies described limit the capability of the products for climate monitoring, attribution, and model validation.

Authors:
 [1]; ORCiD logo [1]; ORCiD logo [1]; ORCiD logo [2]; ORCiD logo [2];  [2]
  1. State Key Laboratory of Earth Surface Processes and Resource Ecology, Faculty of Geographical ScienceBeijing Normal University Beijing China
  2. Department of Civil and Environmental EngineeringUniversity of California Irvine CA USA
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Univ. of California, Oakland, CA (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of International Affairs (IA)
OSTI Identifier:
1416236
Alternate Identifier(s):
OSTI ID: 1416237; OSTI ID: 1537332
Grant/Contract Number:  
DE‐IA0000018; IA0000018
Resource Type:
Published Article
Journal Name:
Reviews of Geophysics (1985)
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Name: Reviews of Geophysics (1985) Journal Volume: 56 Journal Issue: 1; Journal ID: ISSN 8755-1209
Publisher:
American Geophysical Union (AGU)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
54 ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES; Geochemistry & Geophysics

Citation Formats

Sun, Qiaohong, Miao, Chiyuan, Duan, Qingyun, Ashouri, Hamed, Sorooshian, Soroosh, and Hsu, Kuo‐Lin. A Review of Global Precipitation Data Sets: Data Sources, Estimation, and Intercomparisons. United States: N. p., 2018. Web. doi:10.1002/2017RG000574.
Sun, Qiaohong, Miao, Chiyuan, Duan, Qingyun, Ashouri, Hamed, Sorooshian, Soroosh, & Hsu, Kuo‐Lin. A Review of Global Precipitation Data Sets: Data Sources, Estimation, and Intercomparisons. United States. doi:10.1002/2017RG000574.
Sun, Qiaohong, Miao, Chiyuan, Duan, Qingyun, Ashouri, Hamed, Sorooshian, Soroosh, and Hsu, Kuo‐Lin. Fri . "A Review of Global Precipitation Data Sets: Data Sources, Estimation, and Intercomparisons". United States. doi:10.1002/2017RG000574.
@article{osti_1416236,
title = {A Review of Global Precipitation Data Sets: Data Sources, Estimation, and Intercomparisons},
author = {Sun, Qiaohong and Miao, Chiyuan and Duan, Qingyun and Ashouri, Hamed and Sorooshian, Soroosh and Hsu, Kuo‐Lin},
abstractNote = {In this paper, we present a comprehensive review of the data sources and estimation methods of 30 currently available global precipitation data sets, including gauge-based, satellite-related, and reanalysis data sets. We analyzed the discrepancies between the data sets from daily to annual timescales and found large differences in both the magnitude and the variability of precipitation estimates. The magnitude of annual precipitation estimates over global land deviated by as much as 300 mm/yr among the products. Reanalysis data sets had a larger degree of variability than the other types of data sets. The degree of variability in precipitation estimates also varied by region. Large differences in annual and seasonal estimates were found in tropical oceans, complex mountain areas, northern Africa, and some high-latitude regions. Overall, the variability associated with extreme precipitation estimates was slightly greater at lower latitudes than at higher latitudes. The reliability of precipitation data sets is mainly limited by the number and spatial coverage of surface stations, the satellite algorithms, and the data assimilation models. The inconsistencies described limit the capability of the products for climate monitoring, attribution, and model validation.},
doi = {10.1002/2017RG000574},
journal = {Reviews of Geophysics (1985)},
number = 1,
volume = 56,
place = {United States},
year = {2018},
month = {1}
}

Journal Article:
Free Publicly Available Full Text
Publisher's Version of Record
DOI: 10.1002/2017RG000574

Citation Metrics:
Cited by: 62 works
Citation information provided by
Web of Science

Save / Share:

Works referenced in this record:

Status of satellite precipitation retrievals
journal, January 2011


Precipitation recycling
journal, August 1996

  • Eltahir, Elfatih A. B.; Bras, Rafael L.
  • Reviews of Geophysics, Vol. 34, Issue 3
  • DOI: 10.1029/96RG01927

Comparison of TMPA-3B42 Versions 6 and 7 Precipitation Products with Gauge-Based Data over India for the Southwest Monsoon Period
journal, February 2015

  • Prakash, Satya; Mitra, Ashis K.; Momin, Imranali M.
  • Journal of Hydrometeorology, Vol. 16, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1175/JHM-D-14-0024.1

Precipitation Estimation from Remotely Sensed Imagery Using an Artificial Neural Network Cloud Classification System
journal, December 2004

  • Hong, Yang; Hsu, Kuo-Lin; Sorooshian, Soroosh
  • Journal of Applied Meteorology, Vol. 43, Issue 12
  • DOI: 10.1175/JAM2173.1

The Status of the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) after Two Years in Orbit
journal, December 2000


A Review of Merged High-Resolution Satellite Precipitation Product Accuracy during the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) Era
journal, April 2016

  • Maggioni, Viviana; Meyers, Patrick C.; Robinson, Monique D.
  • Journal of Hydrometeorology, Vol. 17, Issue 4
  • DOI: 10.1175/JHM-D-15-0190.1

Consistency of Temperature and Precipitation Extremes across Various Global Gridded In Situ and Reanalysis Datasets
journal, July 2014


Evaluation of high-resolution satellite precipitation estimates over southern South America using a dense rain gauge network
journal, September 2015


The East African Long Rains in Observations and Models
journal, October 2014


The Relationship between Large-Scale Convective Rainfall and Cold Cloud over the Western Hemisphere during 1982-84
journal, January 1987


Global gridded precipitation over land: a description of the new GPCC First Guess Daily product
journal, January 2014


Documenting and detecting long-term precipitation trends: Where we are and what should be done
journal, December 1995

  • Groisman, Pavel Ya.; Legates, David R.
  • Climatic Change, Vol. 31, Issue 2-4
  • DOI: 10.1007/BF01095163

Global Precipitation: A 17-Year Monthly Analysis Based on Gauge Observations, Satellite Estimates, and Numerical Model Outputs
journal, November 1997


Precipitation retrieval from space: An overview
journal, April 2010


Assessment of summer monsoon precipitation derived from five reanalysis datasets over East Asia: EASM in Reanalysis Data
journal, September 2015

  • Huang, Dan-Qing; Zhu, Jian; Zhang, Yao-Cun
  • Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society, Vol. 142, Issue 694
  • DOI: 10.1002/qj.2634

Global hourly land surface air temperature datasets: inter-comparison and climate change: GLOBAL HOURLY LSAT: INTER-COMP, CLIMATE CHANGE
journal, January 2015

  • Wang, Aihui; Zeng, Xubin
  • International Journal of Climatology, Vol. 35, Issue 13
  • DOI: 10.1002/joc.4257

Comparison of Global Precipitation Estimates across a Range of Temporal and Spatial Scales
journal, November 2016

  • Gehne, Maria; Hamill, Thomas M.; Kiladis, George N.
  • Journal of Climate, Vol. 29, Issue 21
  • DOI: 10.1175/JCLI-D-15-0618.1

The advanced microwave scanning radiometer for the earth observing system (AMSR-E), NASDA's contribution to the EOS for global energy and water cycle studies
journal, February 2003

  • Kawanishi, T.; Sezai, T.; Ito, Y.
  • IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing, Vol. 41, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1109/TGRS.2002.808331

MERRA: NASA’s Modern-Era Retrospective Analysis for Research and Applications
journal, July 2011


Summarizing multiple aspects of model performance in a single diagram
journal, April 2001

  • Taylor, Karl E.
  • Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, Vol. 106, Issue D7
  • DOI: 10.1029/2000JD900719

Detection and attribution of human influence on regional precipitation
journal, June 2016

  • Sarojini, Beena Balan; Stott, Peter A.; Black, Emily
  • Nature Climate Change, Vol. 6, Issue 7
  • DOI: 10.1038/nclimate2976

Evaluating the streamflow simulation capability of PERSIANN-CDR daily rainfall products in two river basins on the Tibetan Plateau
journal, January 2017

  • Liu, Xiaomang; Yang, Tiantian; Hsu, Koulin
  • Hydrology and Earth System Sciences, Vol. 21, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.5194/hess-21-169-2017

Evaluation of NASA’s MERRA Precipitation Product in Reproducing the Observed Trend and Distribution of Extreme Precipitation Events in the United States
journal, February 2016

  • Ashouri, Hamed; Sorooshian, Soroosh; Hsu, Kuo-Lin
  • Journal of Hydrometeorology, Vol. 17, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1175/JHM-D-15-0097.1

So, How Much of the Earth’s Surface Is Covered by Rain Gauges?
journal, January 2017

  • Kidd, Chris; Becker, Andreas; Huffman, George J.
  • Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, Vol. 98, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1175/BAMS-D-14-00283.1

Verification of High-Resolution Satellite-Based Rainfall Estimates around Japan Using a Gauge-Calibrated Ground-Radar Dataset
journal, January 2009

  • Kubota, Takuji; Ushio, Tomoo; Shige, Shoichi
  • Journal of the Meteorological Society of Japan, Vol. 87A
  • DOI: 10.2151/jmsj.87A.203

A near real-time satellite-based global drought climate data record
journal, December 2012


Precipitation measurements and trends in the twentieth century
journal, December 2001

  • New, Mark; Todd, Martin; Hulme, Mike
  • International Journal of Climatology, Vol. 21, Issue 15
  • DOI: 10.1002/joc.680

Homogeneity adjustments ofin situ atmospheric climate data: a review
journal, November 1998


Validation of Satellite-Based Precipitation Products over Sparsely Gauged African River Basins
journal, December 2012

  • Thiemig, Vera; Rojas, Rodrigo; Zambrano-Bigiarini, Mauricio
  • Journal of Hydrometeorology, Vol. 13, Issue 6
  • DOI: 10.1175/JHM-D-12-032.1

How well do reanalyses represent the southern African precipitation?
journal, June 2012


Precipitation over Monsoon Asia: A Comparison of Reanalyses and Observations
journal, January 2017


Evaluation of the High-Resolution CMORPH Satellite Rainfall Product Using Dense Rain Gauge Observations and Radar-Based Estimates
journal, December 2012

  • Habib, Emad; Haile, Alemseged Tamiru; Tian, Yudong
  • Journal of Hydrometeorology, Vol. 13, Issue 6
  • DOI: 10.1175/JHM-D-12-017.1

NCEP–DOE AMIP-II Reanalysis (R-2)
journal, November 2002

  • Kanamitsu, Masao; Ebisuzaki, Wesley; Woollen, Jack
  • Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, Vol. 83, Issue 11
  • DOI: 10.1175/BAMS-83-11-1631

The Japanese 55-year Reanalysis “JRA-55”: An Interim Report
journal, January 2011


Would the ‘real’ observed dataset stand up? A critical examination of eight observed gridded climate datasets for China
journal, January 2014


Global observed changes in daily climate extremes of temperature and precipitation
journal, January 2006

  • Alexander, L. V.; Zhang, X.; Peterson, T. C.
  • Journal of Geophysical Research, Vol. 111, Issue D5
  • DOI: 10.1029/2005JD006290

PERSIANN-CDR: Daily Precipitation Climate Data Record from Multisatellite Observations for Hydrological and Climate Studies
journal, January 2015

  • Ashouri, Hamed; Hsu, Kuo-Lin; Sorooshian, Soroosh
  • Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, Vol. 96, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1175/BAMS-D-13-00068.1

The Global Climate Observing System (GCOS): An Editorial
journal, December 1995

  • Spence, Thomas; Townshend, John
  • Climatic Change, Vol. 31, Issue 2-4
  • DOI: 10.1007/BF01095141

Validation of Satellite-Based High-Resolution Rainfall Products over the Korean Peninsula Using Data from a Dense Rain Gauge Network
journal, April 2010

  • Sohn, B. J.; Han, Hyo-Jin; Seo, Eun-Kyoung
  • Journal of Applied Meteorology and Climatology, Vol. 49, Issue 4
  • DOI: 10.1175/2009JAMC2266.1

Analysis of extreme precipitation over Europe from different reanalyses: a comparative assessment
journal, December 2004


Over-Ocean Rainfall Retrieval from Multisensor Data of the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission. Part II: Algorithm Implementation
journal, November 2001


The Changing Character of Precipitation
journal, September 2003

  • Trenberth, Kevin E.; Dai, Aiguo; Rasmussen, Roy M.
  • Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, Vol. 84, Issue 9
  • DOI: 10.1175/BAMS-84-9-1205

Evaluation of Multiple Satellite-Based Precipitation Products over Complex Topography
journal, August 2014


CMORPH: A Method that Produces Global Precipitation Estimates from Passive Microwave and Infrared Data at High Spatial and Temporal Resolution
journal, June 2004


Evaluation of the PERSIANN-CDR Daily Rainfall Estimates in Capturing the Behavior of Extreme Precipitation Events over China
journal, June 2015

  • Miao, Chiyuan; Ashouri, Hamed; Hsu, Kuo-Lin
  • Journal of Hydrometeorology, Vol. 16, Issue 3
  • DOI: 10.1175/JHM-D-14-0174.1

Precipitation in the Hindu-Kush Karakoram Himalaya: Observations and future scenarios: PRECIPITATION IN HINDU-KUSH KARAKORAM HIMALAYA
journal, January 2013

  • Palazzi, E.; von Hardenberg, J.; Provenzale, A.
  • Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, Vol. 118, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1029/2012JD018697

Low-frequency variations in surface atmospheric humidity, temperature, and precipitation: Inferences from reanalyses and monthly gridded observational data sets
journal, January 2010

  • Simmons, A. J.; Willett, K. M.; Jones, P. D.
  • Journal of Geophysical Research, Vol. 115, Issue D1
  • DOI: 10.1029/2009JD012442

Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) Precipitation Data and Services for Research and Applications
journal, September 2012

  • Liu, Zhong; Ostrenga, Dana; Teng, William
  • Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, Vol. 93, Issue 9
  • DOI: 10.1175/BAMS-D-11-00152.1

Global precipitation measurements for validating climate models
journal, November 2017


Smart Interpolation of Annually Averaged Air Temperature in the United States
journal, December 1995


Intermittency in Precipitation: Duration, Frequency, Intensity, and Amounts Using Hourly Data
journal, May 2017

  • Trenberth, Kevin E.; Zhang, Yongxin; Gehne, Maria
  • Journal of Hydrometeorology, Vol. 18, Issue 5
  • DOI: 10.1175/JHM-D-16-0263.1

Is the monthly temperature climate of the United States becoming more extreme?: Is the Temperature Climate More Extreme
journal, January 2015

  • Kunkel, Kenneth E.; Vose, Russell S.; Stevens, Laura E.
  • Geophysical Research Letters, Vol. 42, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1002/2014GL062035

Changes to the temporal distribution of daily precipitation: Changing precipitation temporal patterns
journal, December 2014

  • Rajah, Kailash; O'Leary, Tess; Turner, Alice
  • Geophysical Research Letters, Vol. 41, Issue 24
  • DOI: 10.1002/2014GL062156

Intercomparison of High-Resolution Precipitation Products over Northwest Europe
journal, February 2012


Intercomparison of Rain Gauge, Radar, and Satellite-Based Precipitation Estimates with Emphasis on Hydrologic Forecasting
journal, August 2005

  • Yilmaz, Koray K.; Hogue, Terri S.; Hsu, Kuo-lin
  • Journal of Hydrometeorology, Vol. 6, Issue 4
  • DOI: 10.1175/JHM431.1

An Overview of the Global Historical Climatology Network Temperature Database
journal, December 1997


Updated high-resolution grids of monthly climatic observations - the CRU TS3.10 Dataset: UPDATED HIGH-RESOLUTION GRIDS OF MONTHLY CLIMATIC OBSERVATIONS
journal, May 2013

  • Harris, I.; Jones, P. D.; Osborn, T. J.
  • International Journal of Climatology, Vol. 34, Issue 3
  • DOI: 10.1002/joc.3711

Seasonal intercomparison of observational rainfall datasets over India during the southwest monsoon season: COMPARISON OF MONSOON RAINFALL
journal, August 2014

  • Prakash, Satya; Mitra, Ashis K.; Momin, Imran M.
  • International Journal of Climatology, Vol. 35, Issue 9
  • DOI: 10.1002/joc.4129

Evaluation of satellite-retrieved extreme precipitation rates across the central United States
journal, January 2011

  • AghaKouchak, A.; Behrangi, A.; Sorooshian, S.
  • Journal of Geophysical Research, Vol. 116, Issue D2
  • DOI: 10.1029/2010JD014741

Assessment and Enhancement of MERRA Land Surface Hydrology Estimates
journal, December 2011

  • Reichle, Rolf H.; Koster, Randal D.; De Lannoy, Gabriëlle J. M.
  • Journal of Climate, Vol. 24, Issue 24
  • DOI: 10.1175/JCLI-D-10-05033.1

Evaluation of the Reanalysis Products for the Monsoon Season Droughts in India
journal, August 2014


Precipitation Seasonality over the Indian Subcontinent: An Evaluation of Gauge, Reanalyses, and Satellite Retrievals
journal, April 2015

  • Rana, Sapna; McGregor, James; Renwick, James
  • Journal of Hydrometeorology, Vol. 16, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1175/JHM-D-14-0106.1

The TRMM Multisatellite Precipitation Analysis (TMPA): Quasi-Global, Multiyear, Combined-Sensor Precipitation Estimates at Fine Scales
journal, February 2007

  • Huffman, George J.; Bolvin, David T.; Nelkin, Eric J.
  • Journal of Hydrometeorology, Vol. 8, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1175/JHM560.1

Daily Precipitation Statistics for South America: An Intercomparison between NCEP Reanalyses and Observations
journal, February 2011

  • Silva, Viviane B. S.; Kousky, Vernon E.; Higgins, R. Wayne
  • Journal of Hydrometeorology, Vol. 12, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1175/2010JHM1303.1

Evaluation of reanalysis, spatially interpolated and satellite remotely sensed precipitation data sets in central Asia: Central Asia Precipitation
journal, May 2016

  • Hu, Zengyun; Hu, Qi; Zhang, Chi
  • Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, Vol. 121, Issue 10
  • DOI: 10.1002/2016JD024781

The Version-2 Global Precipitation Climatology Project (GPCP) Monthly Precipitation Analysis (1979–Present)
journal, December 2003


Evaluation of PERSIANN System Satellite–Based Estimates of Tropical Rainfall
journal, September 2000


Global precipitation measurement: Global precipitation measurement
journal, August 2011

  • Kidd, Chris; Huffman, George
  • Meteorological Applications, Vol. 18, Issue 3
  • DOI: 10.1002/met.284

A Satellite Infrared Technique to Estimate Tropical Convective and Stratiform Rainfall
journal, January 1988


Comparison of Precipitation Datasets over the Tropical South American and African Continents
journal, February 2009

  • Negrón Juárez, Robinson I.; Li, Wenhong; Fu, Rong
  • Journal of Hydrometeorology, Vol. 10, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1175/2008JHM1023.1

Precipitation retrieval from spaceborne microwave radiometers based on maximum a a posteriori probability estimation
journal, July 1996

  • Pierdicca, N.; Marzano, F. S.; d'Auria, G.
  • IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing, Vol. 34, Issue 4
  • DOI: 10.1109/36.508401

Rainfall measurement by radar: a review
journal, October 1994


Accuracy of precipitation measurements for hydrologic modeling
journal, August 1974


Validation and comparison of a new gauge-based precipitation analysis over mainland China: NEW GAUGE-BASED PRECIPITATION OVER CHINA
journal, April 2015

  • Shen, Yan; Xiong, Anyuan
  • International Journal of Climatology, Vol. 36, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1002/joc.4341

A Kalman Filter Approach to the Global Satellite Mapping of Precipitation (GSMaP) from Combined Passive Microwave and Infrared Radiometric Data
journal, January 2009

  • Ushio, Tomoo; Sasashige, Kazushi; Kubota, Takuji
  • Journal of the Meteorological Society of Japan, Vol. 87A
  • DOI: 10.2151/jmsj.87A.137

Real-time global flood estimation using satellite-based precipitation and a coupled land surface and routing model
journal, March 2014

  • Wu, Huan; Adler, Robert F.; Tian, Yudong
  • Water Resources Research, Vol. 50, Issue 3
  • DOI: 10.1002/2013WR014710

Physical retrievals of over-ocean rain rate from multichannel microwave imagery. Part II: Algorithm implementation
journal, January 1994

  • Petty, G. W.
  • Meteorology and Atmospheric Physics, Vol. 54, Issue 1-4
  • DOI: 10.1007/BF01030054

An Over-Ocean Precipitation Retrieval Using SS]M/I Nlultichannel Brightness Temperatures [SSM/Iの多チャンネルの輝度温度を用いた海上での降水強度リトリーバルアルゴリズム]
journal, January 1996

  • Aonashi, Kazumasa; Shibata, Akira; Liu, Guosheng
  • Journal of the Meteorological Society of Japan. Ser. II, Vol. 74, Issue 5
  • DOI: 10.2151/jmsj1965.74.5_617

MSWEP: 3-hourly 0.25° global gridded precipitation (1979–2015) by merging gauge, satellite, and reanalysis data
journal, January 2017

  • Beck, Hylke E.; van Dijk, Albert I. J. M.; Levizzani, Vincenzo
  • Hydrology and Earth System Sciences, Vol. 21, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.5194/hess-21-589-2017

Systematic correction of precipitation gauge observations using analyzed meteorological variables
journal, May 2004


Challenges of satellite rainfall estimation over mountainous and arid parts of east Africa
journal, July 2011

  • Dinku, Tufa; Ceccato, Pietro; Connor, Stephen J.
  • International Journal of Remote Sensing, Vol. 32, Issue 21
  • DOI: 10.1080/01431161.2010.499381

Evaluation of TMPA 3B42 daily precipitation estimates of tropical cyclone rainfall over Australia: EVALUATE TMPA 3B42 OF AUSTRALIAN TC RAIN
journal, November 2013

  • Chen, Yingjun; Ebert, Elizabeth E.; Walsh, Kevin J. E.
  • Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, Vol. 118, Issue 21
  • DOI: 10.1002/2013JD020319

Evaluation of Satellite-Based and Reanalysis Precipitation Data in the Tropical Pacific
journal, March 2013

  • Pfeifroth, Uwe; Mueller, Richard; Ahrens, Bodo
  • Journal of Applied Meteorology and Climatology, Vol. 52, Issue 3
  • DOI: 10.1175/JAMC-D-12-049.1

Remote sensing of drought: Progress, challenges and opportunities: REMOTE SENSING OF DROUGHT
journal, June 2015

  • AghaKouchak, A.; Farahmand, A.; Melton, F. S.
  • Reviews of Geophysics, Vol. 53, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1002/2014RG000456

Global Precipitation at One-Degree Daily Resolution from Multisatellite Observations
journal, February 2001


Variations in global temperature and precipitation for the period of 1948 to 2010
journal, May 2014

  • Sun, Qiaohong; Kong, Dongxian; Miao, Chiyuan
  • Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, Vol. 186, Issue 9
  • DOI: 10.1007/s10661-014-3811-9

Multitemporal Analysis of TRMM-Based Satellite Precipitation Products for Land Data Assimilation Applications
journal, December 2007

  • Tian, Yudong; Peters-Lidard, Christa D.; Choudhury, Bhaskar J.
  • Journal of Hydrometeorology, Vol. 8, Issue 6
  • DOI: 10.1175/2007JHM859.1

Precipitation: Measurement, remote sensing, climatology and modeling
journal, December 2009


The ERA-Interim reanalysis: configuration and performance of the data assimilation system
journal, April 2011

  • Dee, D. P.; Uppala, S. M.; Simmons, A. J.
  • Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society, Vol. 137, Issue 656
  • DOI: 10.1002/qj.828

Rain Estimation from Geosynchronous Satellite Imagery—Visible and Infrared Studies
journal, August 1978


Comparison of the GPCP and CMAP Merged Gauge–Satellite Monthly Precipitation Products for the Period 1979–2001
journal, December 2004

  • Yin, Xungang; Gruber, Arnold; Arkin, Phil
  • Journal of Hydrometeorology, Vol. 5, Issue 6
  • DOI: 10.1175/JHM-392.1

Performance of high-resolution satellite precipitation products over China
journal, January 2010

  • Shen, Yan; Xiong, Anyuan; Wang, Ying
  • Journal of Geophysical Research, Vol. 115, Issue D2
  • DOI: 10.1029/2009JD012097

On the Validation of Models
journal, July 1981


Large uncertainties in observed daily precipitation extremes over land: Uncertainties in Precipitation Extremes
journal, January 2017

  • Herold, Nicholas; Behrangi, Ali; Alexander, Lisa V.
  • Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, Vol. 122, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1002/2016JD025842

Verification of Tropical Cyclone–Related Satellite Precipitation Estimates in Mainland China
journal, November 2009

  • Yu, Zifeng; Yu, Hui; Chen, Peiyan
  • Journal of Applied Meteorology and Climatology, Vol. 48, Issue 11
  • DOI: 10.1175/2009JAMC2143.1

Precipitation Estimation from Remotely Sensed Information Using Artificial Neural Networks
journal, September 1997


It never rains on Sunday: the prevalence and implications of untagged multi-day rainfall accumulations in the Australian high quality data set
journal, June 2004

  • Viney, Neil R.; Bates, Bryson C.
  • International Journal of Climatology, Vol. 24, Issue 9
  • DOI: 10.1002/joc.1053

Evaluation of Monthly Satellite-Derived Precipitation Products over East Africa
journal, October 2016

  • Cattani, E.; Merino, A.; Levizzani, V.
  • Journal of Hydrometeorology, Vol. 17, Issue 10
  • DOI: 10.1175/JHM-D-15-0042.1

The ERA-40 re-analysis
journal, October 2005

  • Uppala, S. M.; KÅllberg, P. W.; Simmons, A. J.
  • Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society, Vol. 131, Issue 612
  • DOI: 10.1256/qj.04.176

Evaluation of Global Precipitation in Reanalyses
journal, September 2008

  • Bosilovich, Michael G.; Chen, Junye; Robertson, Franklin R.
  • Journal of Applied Meteorology and Climatology, Vol. 47, Issue 9
  • DOI: 10.1175/2008JAMC1921.1

The Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) Sensor Package
journal, June 1998


How Well Do Gridded Datasets of Observed Daily Precipitation Compare over Australia?
journal, January 2015

  • Contractor, Steefan; Alexander, Lisa V.; Donat, Markus G.
  • Advances in Meteorology, Vol. 2015
  • DOI: 10.1155/2015/325718

GOES Multispectral Rainfall Algorithm (GMSRA)
journal, August 2001


Evaluation of a satellite-based global flood monitoring system
journal, August 2010

  • Yilmaz, Koray K.; Adler, Robert F.; Tian, Yudong
  • International Journal of Remote Sensing, Vol. 31, Issue 14
  • DOI: 10.1080/01431161.2010.483489

Quality control of daily meteorological data in China, 1951–2000: a new dataset
journal, May 2004

  • Feng, Song; Hu, Qi; Qian, Weihong
  • International Journal of Climatology, Vol. 24, Issue 7
  • DOI: 10.1002/joc.1047

A history of rain gauges
journal, May 2010


The Global Precipitation Measurement Mission
journal, May 2014

  • Hou, Arthur Y.; Kakar, Ramesh K.; Neeck, Steven
  • Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, Vol. 95, Issue 5
  • DOI: 10.1175/BAMS-D-13-00164.1

Mean seasonal and spatial variability in gauge-corrected, global precipitation
journal, March 1990

  • Legates, David R.; Willmott, Cort J.
  • International Journal of Climatology, Vol. 10, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1002/joc.3370100202

Satellite rainfall climatology: a review
journal, January 2001

  • Kidd, C.
  • International Journal of Climatology, Vol. 21, Issue 9
  • DOI: 10.1002/joc.635

Evaluation of Precipitation Estimation Accuracy in Reanalyses, Satellite Products, and an Ensemble Method for Regions in Australia and South and East Asia
journal, August 2013

  • Peña-Arancibia, Jorge L.; van Dijk, Albert I. J. M.; Renzullo, Luigi J.
  • Journal of Hydrometeorology, Vol. 14, Issue 4
  • DOI: 10.1175/JHM-D-12-0132.1

The Twentieth Century Reanalysis Project
journal, January 2011

  • Compo, G. P.; Whitaker, J. S.; Sardeshmukh, P. D.
  • Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society, Vol. 137, Issue 654
  • DOI: 10.1002/qj.776

Evaluation of PERSIANN-CCS Rainfall Measurement Using the NAME Event Rain Gauge Network
journal, June 2007

  • Hong, Yang; Gochis, David; Cheng, Jiang-tao
  • Journal of Hydrometeorology, Vol. 8, Issue 3
  • DOI: 10.1175/JHM574.1

The Evolution of the Goddard Profiling Algorithm (GPROF) for Rainfall Estimation from Passive Microwave Sensors
journal, November 2001


Evaluation of precipitation from the ERA-40, NCEP-1, and NCEP-2 Reanalyses and CMAP-1, CMAP-2, and GPCP-2 with ground-based measurements in China
journal, January 2009

  • Ma, Lijuan; Zhang, Tingjun; Frauenfeld, Oliver W.
  • Journal of Geophysical Research, Vol. 114, Issue D9
  • DOI: 10.1029/2008JD011178

An improved method of constructing a database of monthly climate observations and associated high-resolution grids
journal, January 2005

  • Mitchell, Timothy D.; Jones, Philip D.
  • International Journal of Climatology, Vol. 25, Issue 6
  • DOI: 10.1002/joc.1181

The NCEP Climate Forecast System Reanalysis
journal, August 2010

  • Saha, Suranjana; Moorthi, Shrinivas; Pan, Hua-Lu
  • Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, Vol. 91, Issue 8
  • DOI: 10.1175/2010BAMS3001.1

SSM/I Rain Retrievals within a Unified All-Weather Ocean Algorithm
journal, May 1998


GPCP Pentad Precipitation Analyses: An Experimental Dataset Based on Gauge Observations and Satellite Estimates
journal, July 2003

  • Xie, Pingping; Janowiak, John E.; Arkin, Phillip A.
  • Journal of Climate, Vol. 16, Issue 13
  • DOI: 10.1175/2769.1

Challenges in Quantifying Changes in the Global Water Cycle
journal, July 2015

  • Hegerl, Gabriele C.; Black, Emily; Allan, Richard P.
  • Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, Vol. 96, Issue 7
  • DOI: 10.1175/BAMS-D-13-00212.1

Evaluation of Global Satellite Rainfall Products over Continental Europe
journal, April 2012

  • Stampoulis, Dimitrios; Anagnostou, Emmanouil N.
  • Journal of Hydrometeorology, Vol. 13, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1175/JHM-D-11-086.1

The NCEP/NCAR 40-Year Reanalysis Project
journal, March 1996


Evaluation of TRMM 3B42 product using a new gauge-based analysis of daily precipitation over China: EVALUATION OF TRMM 3B42 PRODUCT OVER CHINA
journal, November 2013

  • Zhao, Tianbao; Yatagai, Akiyo
  • International Journal of Climatology, Vol. 34, Issue 8
  • DOI: 10.1002/joc.3872

Comprehensive evaluation of multisatellite precipitation estimates over India using gridded rainfall data
journal, September 2015

  • Sunilkumar, K.; Narayana Rao, T.; Saikranthi, K.
  • Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, Vol. 120, Issue 17
  • DOI: 10.1002/2015JD023437

Global Land Precipitation: A 50-yr Monthly Analysis Based on Gauge Observations
journal, June 2002


Global precipitation measurement: Methods, datasets and applications
journal, February 2012