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Title: Comparing ecosystem and soil respiration: Review and key challenges of tower-based and soil measurements

Abstract

The net ecosystem exchange (NEE) is the difference between ecosystem CO2 assimilation and CO2 losses to the atmosphere. Ecosystem respiration (Reco), the efflux of CO2 from the ecosystem to the atmosphere, includes the soil-to-atmosphere carbon flux (i.e., soil respiration; Rsoil) and aboveground plant respiration. Therefore, Rsoil is a fraction of Reco and theoretically has to be smaller than Reco at daily, seasonal, and annual scales. But, several studies estimating Reco with the eddy covariance technique and measuring Rsoil within the footprint of the tower have reported higher Rsoil than Reco at different time scales. Here, we compare four different and contrasting ecosystems (from forest to grasslands, and from boreal to semiarid) to test if measurements of Reco are consistently higher than Rsoil. In general, both fluxes showed similar temporal patterns, but Reco was not consistently higher than Rsoil from daily to annual scales across sites. We also identified several issues that apply for measuring NEE and measuring/upscaling Rsoil that could result in an underestimation of Reco and/or an overestimation of Rsoil. These issues are discussed based on (a) nighttime measurements of NEE, (b) Rsoil measurements, and (c) the interpretation of the functional relationships of these fluxes with temperature (i.e., Q10).more » Finally, we highlight that there is still a need for better integration of Rsoil with eddy covariance measurements to address challenges related to the spatial and temporal variability of Reco and Rsoil.« less

Authors:
 [1];  [2];  [3];  [4];  [5];  [6];  [1];  [7];  [8];  [9];  [3];  [1]
  1. Univ. of Delaware, Newark, DE (United States). Dept. of Plant and Soil Science
  2. Center for Scientific Research and Higher Education at Ensenada , BC (Mexico). Dept. of Biological Conservation
  3. Univ. of Innsbruck (Austria). Inst. of Ecology
  4. Univ. of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States). School of Geography and Development, B2 Earth Science
  5. Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States). Joint Global Change Research Inst.
  6. Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Environmental Science Division
  7. Univ. of Helsinki (Finland). Dept. of Forest Sciences
  8. Univ. of Eastern Finland, Kuopio (Finland). Dept. of Environmental and Biological Sciences
  9. Southwest Watershed Research Center, Tucson, AZ (United States)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
National Science Foundation (NSF); National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA); United States Department of Agriculture (USDA); USDOE Office of Science (SC), Biological and Environmental Research (BER)
OSTI Identifier:
1413484
Alternate Identifier(s):
OSTI ID: 1429200; OSTI ID: 1549124
Report Number(s):
PNNL-SA-124283
Journal ID: ISSN 0168-1923; PII: S0168192317303556
Grant/Contract Number:  
AC05-76RL01830; 1137178; NNX13AQ06G; 2014-67003-22070; AC05-00OR22725
Resource Type:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Agricultural and Forest Meteorology
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 249; Journal ID: ISSN 0168-1923
Publisher:
Elsevier
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
54 ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES; net ecosystem exchange (NEE); soil CO2 efflux; temperature sensitivity; Q10; eddy covariance; AmeriFlux; FluxNet

Citation Formats

Barba, Josep, Cueva, Alejandro, Bahn, Michael, Barron-Gafford, Greg A., Bond-Lamberty, Benjamin, Hanson, Paul J., Jaimes, Aline, Kulmala, Liisa, Pumpanen, Jukka, Scott, Russell L., Wohlfahrt, Georg, and Vargas, Rodrigo. Comparing ecosystem and soil respiration: Review and key challenges of tower-based and soil measurements. United States: N. p., 2017. Web. https://doi.org/10.1016/J.AGRFORMET.2017.10.028.
Barba, Josep, Cueva, Alejandro, Bahn, Michael, Barron-Gafford, Greg A., Bond-Lamberty, Benjamin, Hanson, Paul J., Jaimes, Aline, Kulmala, Liisa, Pumpanen, Jukka, Scott, Russell L., Wohlfahrt, Georg, & Vargas, Rodrigo. Comparing ecosystem and soil respiration: Review and key challenges of tower-based and soil measurements. United States. https://doi.org/10.1016/J.AGRFORMET.2017.10.028
Barba, Josep, Cueva, Alejandro, Bahn, Michael, Barron-Gafford, Greg A., Bond-Lamberty, Benjamin, Hanson, Paul J., Jaimes, Aline, Kulmala, Liisa, Pumpanen, Jukka, Scott, Russell L., Wohlfahrt, Georg, and Vargas, Rodrigo. Wed . "Comparing ecosystem and soil respiration: Review and key challenges of tower-based and soil measurements". United States. https://doi.org/10.1016/J.AGRFORMET.2017.10.028. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1413484.
@article{osti_1413484,
title = {Comparing ecosystem and soil respiration: Review and key challenges of tower-based and soil measurements},
author = {Barba, Josep and Cueva, Alejandro and Bahn, Michael and Barron-Gafford, Greg A. and Bond-Lamberty, Benjamin and Hanson, Paul J. and Jaimes, Aline and Kulmala, Liisa and Pumpanen, Jukka and Scott, Russell L. and Wohlfahrt, Georg and Vargas, Rodrigo},
abstractNote = {The net ecosystem exchange (NEE) is the difference between ecosystem CO2 assimilation and CO2 losses to the atmosphere. Ecosystem respiration (Reco), the efflux of CO2 from the ecosystem to the atmosphere, includes the soil-to-atmosphere carbon flux (i.e., soil respiration; Rsoil) and aboveground plant respiration. Therefore, Rsoil is a fraction of Reco and theoretically has to be smaller than Reco at daily, seasonal, and annual scales. But, several studies estimating Reco with the eddy covariance technique and measuring Rsoil within the footprint of the tower have reported higher Rsoil than Reco at different time scales. Here, we compare four different and contrasting ecosystems (from forest to grasslands, and from boreal to semiarid) to test if measurements of Reco are consistently higher than Rsoil. In general, both fluxes showed similar temporal patterns, but Reco was not consistently higher than Rsoil from daily to annual scales across sites. We also identified several issues that apply for measuring NEE and measuring/upscaling Rsoil that could result in an underestimation of Reco and/or an overestimation of Rsoil. These issues are discussed based on (a) nighttime measurements of NEE, (b) Rsoil measurements, and (c) the interpretation of the functional relationships of these fluxes with temperature (i.e., Q10). Finally, we highlight that there is still a need for better integration of Rsoil with eddy covariance measurements to address challenges related to the spatial and temporal variability of Reco and Rsoil.},
doi = {10.1016/J.AGRFORMET.2017.10.028},
journal = {Agricultural and Forest Meteorology},
number = ,
volume = 249,
place = {United States},
year = {2017},
month = {11}
}

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Figures / Tables:

Table 1 Table 1: General information of study sites. Annual Reco and Rsoil represent the cumulative sum for all days of the year. Uncertainty in the cumulative flux is calculated by the sum of daily standard deviations and random errors (see Sup. Table 1). Growing season length represents the days of themore » year (DOY) where there is a net ecosystem carbon uptake.« less

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Works referencing / citing this record:

Soil respiration of four forests along elevation gradient in northern subtropical China
journal, November 2019

  • Ma, Mingzhe; Zang, Zhenhua; Xie, Zongqiang
  • Ecology and Evolution, Vol. 9, Issue 22
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Soil Respiration Variability and Correlation Across a Wide Range of Temporal Scales
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  • Bond‐Lamberty, Ben; Pennington, Stephanie C.; Jian, Jinshi
  • Journal of Geophysical Research: Biogeosciences, Vol. 124, Issue 11
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  • DOI: 10.1038/s41598-019-55390-6

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  • Messori, G.; Ruiz-Pérez, G.; Manzoni, S.
  • Environmental Research Letters, Vol. 14, Issue 6
  • DOI: 10.1088/1748-9326/ab1ac0

From microhabitat to ecosystem: identifying the biophysical factors controlling soil CO 2 dynamics in a karst shrubland: Biophysical factors controlling soil CO 2 dynamics
journal, August 2018

  • Lopez, C. J. R.; Sánchez-Cañete, E. P.; Serrano-Ortiz, P.
  • European Journal of Soil Science, Vol. 69, Issue 6
  • DOI: 10.1111/ejss.12710

Environmental and Vegetative Controls on Soil CO2 Efflux in Three Semiarid Ecosystems
journal, January 2019


Reconciling Negative Soil CO2 Fluxes: Insights from a Large-Scale Experimental Hillslope
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California air resources board forest carbon protocol invalidates offsets
journal, January 2019

  • Marino, Bruno D. V.; Mincheva, Martina; Doucett, Aaron
  • PeerJ, Vol. 7
  • DOI: 10.7717/peerj.7606

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