skip to main content
DOE PAGES title logo U.S. Department of Energy
Office of Scientific and Technical Information

Title: Ultra-thin metasurface microwave flat lens for broadband applications

Abstract

In this paper, we demonstrate a metasurface-based ultrathin flat lens operating at microwave frequencies. A series of subwavelength metallic split-ring resonators, which are sandwiched between two cross-polarized metallic gratings, are defined to obtain a radially symmetric parabolic phase distribution, covering relative phase differences ranging from 0 to 2.5π radians to create a lens. The tri-layer lens exhibits focusing/collimating of broadband microwaves from 7.0 to 10.0 GHz, with a gain enhancement of 17 dBi at a central wavelength 9.0 GHz while fed by a rectangular horn antenna. The measured focal length agrees reasonably well with design, achieving a 3 dB directionality <4.5° and confirming high-quality beam collimation along the propagation direction. Finally, the demonstrated metasurface flat lens enables light-weight, low-cost, and easily deployable flat transceivers for microwave communication, detection, and imaging applications.

Authors:
 [1];  [1];  [1];  [1];  [1]; ORCiD logo [1]
  1. Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Science (SC), Basic Energy Sciences (BES) (SC-22); USDOE National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA); LANL Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) Program
OSTI Identifier:
1409765
Alternate Identifier(s):
OSTI ID: 1361913
Report Number(s):
LA-UR-17-21923
Journal ID: ISSN 0003-6951
Grant/Contract Number:  
AC52-06NA25396
Resource Type:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Applied Physics Letters
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 110; Journal Issue: 22; Journal ID: ISSN 0003-6951
Publisher:
American Institute of Physics (AIP)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
36 MATERIALS SCIENCE; antennas; microwaves; lenses; polarization; optical resonators

Citation Formats

Azad, Abul K., Efimov, Anatoly V., Ghosh, Shuprio, Singleton, John, Taylor, Antoinette J., and Chen, Hou-Tong. Ultra-thin metasurface microwave flat lens for broadband applications. United States: N. p., 2017. Web. doi:10.1063/1.4984219.
Azad, Abul K., Efimov, Anatoly V., Ghosh, Shuprio, Singleton, John, Taylor, Antoinette J., & Chen, Hou-Tong. Ultra-thin metasurface microwave flat lens for broadband applications. United States. doi:10.1063/1.4984219.
Azad, Abul K., Efimov, Anatoly V., Ghosh, Shuprio, Singleton, John, Taylor, Antoinette J., and Chen, Hou-Tong. Wed . "Ultra-thin metasurface microwave flat lens for broadband applications". United States. doi:10.1063/1.4984219. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1409765.
@article{osti_1409765,
title = {Ultra-thin metasurface microwave flat lens for broadband applications},
author = {Azad, Abul K. and Efimov, Anatoly V. and Ghosh, Shuprio and Singleton, John and Taylor, Antoinette J. and Chen, Hou-Tong},
abstractNote = {In this paper, we demonstrate a metasurface-based ultrathin flat lens operating at microwave frequencies. A series of subwavelength metallic split-ring resonators, which are sandwiched between two cross-polarized metallic gratings, are defined to obtain a radially symmetric parabolic phase distribution, covering relative phase differences ranging from 0 to 2.5π radians to create a lens. The tri-layer lens exhibits focusing/collimating of broadband microwaves from 7.0 to 10.0 GHz, with a gain enhancement of 17 dBi at a central wavelength 9.0 GHz while fed by a rectangular horn antenna. The measured focal length agrees reasonably well with design, achieving a 3 dB directionality <4.5° and confirming high-quality beam collimation along the propagation direction. Finally, the demonstrated metasurface flat lens enables light-weight, low-cost, and easily deployable flat transceivers for microwave communication, detection, and imaging applications.},
doi = {10.1063/1.4984219},
journal = {Applied Physics Letters},
number = 22,
volume = 110,
place = {United States},
year = {2017},
month = {5}
}

Journal Article:
Free Publicly Available Full Text
Publisher's Version of Record

Save / Share:

Works referenced in this record:

Broadband Focusing Flat Mirrors Based on Plasmonic Gradient Metasurfaces
journal, January 2013

  • Pors, Anders; Nielsen, Michael G.; Eriksen, René Lynge
  • Nano Letters, Vol. 13, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1021/nl304761m

Aberration-Free Ultrathin Flat Lenses and Axicons at Telecom Wavelengths Based on Plasmonic Metasurfaces
journal, January 2012

  • Aieta, Francesco; Genevet, Patrice; Kats, Mikhail A.
  • Nano Letters, Vol. 12, Issue 9, p. 4932-4936
  • DOI: 10.1021/nl302516v

From metamaterials to metadevices
journal, October 2012

  • Zheludev, Nikolay I.; Kivshar, Yuri S.
  • Nature Materials, Vol. 11, Issue 11
  • DOI: 10.1038/nmat3431

Analysis of an EHF aplanatic zoned dielectric lens antenna
journal, June 1984


Flat optics with designer metasurfaces
journal, February 2014

  • Yu, Nanfang; Capasso, Federico
  • Nature Materials, Vol. 13, Issue 2, p. 139-150
  • DOI: 10.1038/nmat3839

Dielectric gradient metasurface optical elements
journal, July 2014


Terahertz Metamaterials for Linear Polarization Conversion and Anomalous Refraction
journal, May 2013


Broadband True-Time-Delay Microwave Lenses Based on Miniaturized Element Frequency Selective Surfaces
journal, March 2013

  • Li, Meng; Al-Joumayly, Mudar A.; Behdad, Nader
  • IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, Vol. 61, Issue 3
  • DOI: 10.1109/TAP.2012.2227444

Free-space microwave focusing by a negative-index gradient lens
journal, February 2006

  • Driscoll, T.; Basov, D. N.; Starr, A. F.
  • Applied Physics Letters, Vol. 88, Issue 8
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.2174088

A Broadband, Background-Free Quarter-Wave Plate Based on Plasmonic Metasurfaces
journal, February 2012

  • Yu, Nanfang; Aieta, Francesco; Genevet, Patrice
  • Nano Letters, Vol. 12, Issue 12
  • DOI: 10.1021/nl303445u

Highly Efficient and Broadband Wide-Angle Holography Using Patch-Dipole Nanoantenna Reflectarrays
journal, April 2014

  • Yifat, Yuval; Eitan, Michal; Iluz, Zeev
  • Nano Letters, Vol. 14, Issue 5
  • DOI: 10.1021/nl5001696

Extreme-angle broadband metamaterial lens
journal, December 2009

  • Kundtz, Nathan; Smith, David R.
  • Nature Materials, Vol. 9, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1038/nmat2610

A Broadband Metasurface-Based Terahertz Flat-Lens Array
journal, February 2015

  • Wang, Qiu; Zhang, Xueqian; Xu, Yuehong
  • Advanced Optical Materials, Vol. 3, Issue 6
  • DOI: 10.1002/adom.201400557

Planar three-dimensional constrained lenses
journal, January 1986


Metasurfaces: From microwaves to visible
journal, May 2016


Millimeter-wave Fresnel-zone plate lens and antenna
journal, January 1995

  • Hristov, H. D.; Herben, M. H. A. J.
  • IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques, Vol. 43, Issue 12
  • DOI: 10.1109/22.475635

Tunable Metasurface and Flat Optical Zoom Lens on a Stretchable Substrate
journal, March 2016


An ultrathin terahertz lens with axial long focal depth based on metasurfaces
journal, January 2013

  • Jiang, Xiao-Yan; Ye, Jia-Sheng; He, Jing-Wen
  • Optics Express, Vol. 21, Issue 24
  • DOI: 10.1364/OE.21.030030

Flat metasurfaces to focus electromagnetic waves in reflection geometry
journal, January 2012


Metasurface holograms reaching 80% efficiency
journal, February 2015

  • Zheng, Guoxing; Mühlenbernd, Holger; Kenney, Mitchell
  • Nature Nanotechnology, Vol. 10, Issue 4, p. 308-312
  • DOI: 10.1038/nnano.2015.2

Ultra-thin, planar, Babinet-inverted plasmonic metalenses
journal, April 2013

  • Ni, Xingjie; Ishii, Satoshi; Kildishev, Alexander V.
  • Light: Science & Applications, Vol. 2, Issue 4
  • DOI: 10.1038/lsa.2013.28

Light Propagation with Phase Discontinuities: Generalized Laws of Reflection and Refraction
journal, September 2011


A metamaterial solid-state terahertz phase modulator
journal, February 2009

  • Chen, Hou-Tong; Padilla, Willie J.; Cich, Michael J.
  • Nature Photonics, Vol. 3, Issue 3, p. 148-151
  • DOI: 10.1038/nphoton.2009.3

Metalenses at visible wavelengths: Diffraction-limited focusing and subwavelength resolution imaging
journal, June 2016

  • Khorasaninejad, Mohammadreza; Chen, Wei Ting; Devlin, Robert C.
  • Science, Vol. 352, Issue 6290
  • DOI: 10.1126/science.aaf6644

Broadband planar Luneburg lens based on complementary metamaterials
journal, November 2009

  • Cheng, Qiang; Ma, Hui Feng; Cui, Tie Jun
  • Applied Physics Letters, Vol. 95, Issue 18
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.3257375

Planar Photonics with Metasurfaces
journal, March 2013

  • Kildishev, A. V.; Boltasseva, A.; Shalaev, V. M.
  • Science, Vol. 339, Issue 6125, p. 1232009-1232009
  • DOI: 10.1126/science.1232009

A review of metasurfaces: physics and applications
journal, June 2016


Microwave focusing and beam collimation using negative index of refraction lenses
journal, January 2007

  • Greegor, R. B.; Parazzoli, C. G.; Nielsen, J. A.
  • IET Microwaves, Antennas & Propagation, Vol. 1, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1049/iet-map:20060071

Gradient-index meta-surfaces as a bridge linking propagating waves and surface waves
journal, April 2012

  • Sun, Shulin; He, Qiong; Xiao, Shiyi
  • Nature Materials, Vol. 11, Issue 5
  • DOI: 10.1038/nmat3292

Interference theory of metamaterial perfect absorbers
journal, January 2012


    Works referencing / citing this record:

    Terahertz Reflectarray with Enhanced Bandwidth
    journal, July 2019

    • You, Xiaolong; Ako, Rajour T.; Lee, Wendy S. L.
    • Advanced Optical Materials, Vol. 7, Issue 20
    • DOI: 10.1002/adom.201900791

    Liquid crystal Pancharatnam-Berry phase lens with spatially separated focuses
    journal, December 2018


    Terahertz Reflectarray with Enhanced Bandwidth
    journal, July 2019

    • You, Xiaolong; Ako, Rajour T.; Lee, Wendy S. L.
    • Advanced Optical Materials, Vol. 7, Issue 20
    • DOI: 10.1002/adom.201900791

    Liquid crystal Pancharatnam-Berry phase lens with spatially separated focuses
    journal, December 2018