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Title: Vehicle's lightweight design vs. electrification from life cycle assessment perspective

Abstract

Lightwiegh materials and vehicles' electrification are among the most viable and economic solutions to improve fuel ecocnmoy of vehicles and reduce environmental impacts in the operational phase of typical vehicle's life cycle span. This study aims to shed more light on the combined effect of lightweighing and electrification by assessing different lightweight designs and electric powetrians from the environmental perspective using a life cycle analysis coupled with an emphasis on energy expenditures and carbon dioxide emissions. This article discusses the life cycle assessment for several advanced powertrains namely; plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEV), battery electric vehicles (BEV) and hybrid electric vehicles (HEV) relative to the conventional gasoline operated internal combustion engine based power train vehicles. The main focus will be on the energy greenhouse gas emissions (GHG) in the material extraction and resources phase, manufacturing phase and use phase (operation and maintenance). While most of the current studies focus on the use phase that does not reflect the correct environmental impacts associated with advanced powertrains, thus the presented text applies a holistic LCA approach that covers pre-manufacturing, manufacturing, operational and end-of-life phases, plus another indirect phase to account for fuel extraction, refining and transportation to the end-users or customers. Basedmore » on the LCA emissions results, one may infer that environmental policies that reduce emissions rates from the electricity sector can mitigate this effect without completely eliminating it. Interestingly, the analysis show that lightweight vehicles with internal combustion engines have less impacts on the environment as a direct result of upstream emissions associated with electricity generation in United States. This scenario can differ in other countries with higher renewable and sustainable energy generated electric powers.« less

Authors:
 [1];  [2];  [3];  [4]
  1. National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States). Strategic Energy Analysis Center
  2. Masdar Inst. of Science & Technology, Masdar City, Abu Dhabi (United Arab Emirates)
  3. Jordan Univ. of Science & Technology, Irbid (Jordan)
  4. Arizona State Univ., Mesa, AZ (United States). Ira Fulton School of Engineering, Dept. of Manufacturing Engineering Technology
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)
OSTI Identifier:
1408998
Report Number(s):
NREL/JA-6A20-67251
Journal ID: ISSN 0959-6526
Grant/Contract Number:  
AC36-08GO28308
Resource Type:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Journal of Cleaner Production
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 167; Journal Issue: C; Journal ID: ISSN 0959-6526
Publisher:
Elsevier
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
33 ADVANCED PROPULSION SYSTEMS; auto-bodies; automotive; electric vehicles; life cycle analysis; lightweight; sustainability

Citation Formats

Mayyas, Ahmad, Omar, Mohammed, Hayajneh, Mohammed, and Mayyas, Abdel Raouf. Vehicle's lightweight design vs. electrification from life cycle assessment perspective. United States: N. p., 2017. Web. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jclepro.2017.08.145.
Mayyas, Ahmad, Omar, Mohammed, Hayajneh, Mohammed, & Mayyas, Abdel Raouf. Vehicle's lightweight design vs. electrification from life cycle assessment perspective. United States. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jclepro.2017.08.145
Mayyas, Ahmad, Omar, Mohammed, Hayajneh, Mohammed, and Mayyas, Abdel Raouf. Thu . "Vehicle's lightweight design vs. electrification from life cycle assessment perspective". United States. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jclepro.2017.08.145. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1408998.
@article{osti_1408998,
title = {Vehicle's lightweight design vs. electrification from life cycle assessment perspective},
author = {Mayyas, Ahmad and Omar, Mohammed and Hayajneh, Mohammed and Mayyas, Abdel Raouf},
abstractNote = {Lightwiegh materials and vehicles' electrification are among the most viable and economic solutions to improve fuel ecocnmoy of vehicles and reduce environmental impacts in the operational phase of typical vehicle's life cycle span. This study aims to shed more light on the combined effect of lightweighing and electrification by assessing different lightweight designs and electric powetrians from the environmental perspective using a life cycle analysis coupled with an emphasis on energy expenditures and carbon dioxide emissions. This article discusses the life cycle assessment for several advanced powertrains namely; plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEV), battery electric vehicles (BEV) and hybrid electric vehicles (HEV) relative to the conventional gasoline operated internal combustion engine based power train vehicles. The main focus will be on the energy greenhouse gas emissions (GHG) in the material extraction and resources phase, manufacturing phase and use phase (operation and maintenance). While most of the current studies focus on the use phase that does not reflect the correct environmental impacts associated with advanced powertrains, thus the presented text applies a holistic LCA approach that covers pre-manufacturing, manufacturing, operational and end-of-life phases, plus another indirect phase to account for fuel extraction, refining and transportation to the end-users or customers. Based on the LCA emissions results, one may infer that environmental policies that reduce emissions rates from the electricity sector can mitigate this effect without completely eliminating it. Interestingly, the analysis show that lightweight vehicles with internal combustion engines have less impacts on the environment as a direct result of upstream emissions associated with electricity generation in United States. This scenario can differ in other countries with higher renewable and sustainable energy generated electric powers.},
doi = {10.1016/j.jclepro.2017.08.145},
journal = {Journal of Cleaner Production},
number = C,
volume = 167,
place = {United States},
year = {2017},
month = {8}
}

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    Energy Efficiency or Conservation for Mitigating Climate Change?
    journal, September 2019


    Comparative Life Cycle Energy and GHG Emission Analysis for BEVs and PhEVs: A Case Study in China
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    A novel method to improve vehicle energy efficiency: Minimization of tire power loss
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