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Title: Planck intermediate results: XLV. Radio spectra of northern extragalactic radio sources

Continuum spectra covering centimetre to submillimetre wavelengths are presented in this paper for a northern sample of 104 extragalactic radio sources, mainly active galactic nuclei, based on four-epoch Planck data. The nine Planck frequencies, from 30 to 857 GHz, are complemented by a set of simultaneous ground-based radio observations between 1.1 and 37 GHz. The single-survey Planck data confirm that the flattest high-frequency radio spectral indices are close to zero, indicating that the original accelerated electron energy spectrum is much harder than commonly thought, with power-law index around 1.5 instead of the canonical 2.5. The radio spectra peak at high frequencies and exhibit a variety of shapes. For a small set of low-z sources, we find a spectral upturn at high frequencies, indicating the presence of intrinsic cold dust. Finally, variability can generally be approximated by achromatic variations, while sources with clear signatures of evolving shocks appear to be limited to the strongest outbursts.
Authors:
; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; more »; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; « less
Publication Date:
Grant/Contract Number:
AC02-05CH11231
Type:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Astronomy and Astrophysics
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 596; Journal ID: ISSN 0004-6361
Publisher:
EDP Sciences
Research Org:
Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)
Sponsoring Org:
USDOE Office of Science (SC)
Contributing Orgs:
Planck Collaboration
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
79 ASTRONOMY AND ASTROPHYSICS; active galaxies; radio continuum
OSTI Identifier:
1398447

Ade, P. A. R., Aghanim, N., Aller, H. D., Aller, M. F., Arnaud, M., Aumont, J., Baccigalupi, C., Banday, A. J., Barreiro, R. B., Bartolo, N., Battaner, E., Benabed, K., Benoit-Lévy, A., Bernard, J. -P., Bersanelli, M., Bielewicz, P., Bonaldi, A., Bonavera, L., Bond, J. R., Borrill, J., Bouchet, F. R., Burigana, C., Calabrese, E., Catalano, A., Chiang, H. C., Christensen, P. R., Clements, D. L., Colombo, L. P. L., Couchot, F., Crill, B. P., Curto, A., Cuttaia, F., Danese, L., Davies, R. D., Davis, R. J., de Bernardis, P., de Rosa, A., de Zotti, G., Delabrouille, J., Dickinson, C., Diego, J. M., Dole, H., Donzelli, S., Doré, O., Ducout, A., Dupac, X., Efstathiou, G., Elsner, F., Eriksen, H. K., Finelli, F., Forni, O., Frailis, M., Fraisse, A. A., Franceschi, E., Galeotta, S., Galli, S., Ganga, K., Giard, M., Giraud-Héraud, Y., Gjerløw, E., González-Nuevo, J., Górski, K. M., Gruppuso, A., Gurwell, M. A., Hansen, F. K., Harrison, D. L., Henrot-Versillé, S., Hernández-Monteagudo, C., Hildebrandt, S. R., Hobson, M., Hornstrup, A., Hovatta, T., Hovest, W., Huffenberger, K. M., Hurier, G., Jaffe, A. H., Jaffe, T. R., Järvelä, E., Keihänen, E., Keskitalo, R., Kisner, T. S., Kneissl, R., Knoche, J., Kunz, M., Kurki-Suonio, H., Lähteenmäki, A., Lamarre, J. -M., Lasenby, A., Lattanzi, M., Lawrence, C. R., Leonardi, R., Levrier, F., Liguori, M., Lilje, P. B., Linden-Vørnle, M., López-Caniego, M., Lubin, P. M., Macías-Pérez, J. F., Maffei, B., Maino, D., Mandolesi, N., Maris, M., Martin, P. G., Martínez-González, E., Masi, S., Matarrese, S., Max-Moerbeck, W., Meinhold, P. R., Melchiorri, A., Mennella, A., Migliaccio, M., Mingaliev, M., Miville-Deschênes, M. -A., Moneti, A., Montier, L., Morgante, G., Mortlock, D., Munshi, D., Murphy, J. A., Nati, F., Natoli, P., Nieppola, E., Noviello, F., Novikov, D., Novikov, I., Pagano, L., Pajot, F., Paoletti, D., Partridge, B., Pasian, F., Pearson, T. J., Perdereau, O., Perotto, L., Pettorino, V., Piacentini, F., Piat, M., Pierpaoli, E., Plaszczynski, S., Pointecouteau, E., Polenta, G., Pratt, G. W., Ramakrishnan, V., Rastorgueva-Foi, E. A., S Readhead, A. C., Reinecke, M., Remazeilles, M., Renault, C., Renzi, A., Richards, J. L., Ristorcelli, I., Rocha, G., Rossetti, M., Roudier, G., Rubiño-Martín, J. A., Rusholme, B., Sandri, M., Savelainen, M., Savini, G., Scott, D., Sotnikova, Y., Stolyarov, V., Sunyaev, R., Sutton, D., Suur-Uski, A. -S., Sygnet, J. -F., Tammi, J., Tauber, J. A., Terenzi, L., Toffolatti, L., Tomasi, M., Tornikoski, M., Tristram, M., Tucci, M., Türler, M., Valenziano, L., Valiviita, J., Valtaoja, E., Van Tent, B., Vielva, P., Villa, F., Wade, L. A., Wehrle, A. E., Wehus, I. K., Yvon, D., Zacchei, A., and Zonca, A.. Planck intermediate results: XLV. Radio spectra of northern extragalactic radio sources. United States: N. p., Web. doi:10.1051/0004-6361/201527780.
Ade, P. A. R., Aghanim, N., Aller, H. D., Aller, M. F., Arnaud, M., Aumont, J., Baccigalupi, C., Banday, A. J., Barreiro, R. B., Bartolo, N., Battaner, E., Benabed, K., Benoit-Lévy, A., Bernard, J. -P., Bersanelli, M., Bielewicz, P., Bonaldi, A., Bonavera, L., Bond, J. R., Borrill, J., Bouchet, F. R., Burigana, C., Calabrese, E., Catalano, A., Chiang, H. C., Christensen, P. R., Clements, D. L., Colombo, L. P. L., Couchot, F., Crill, B. P., Curto, A., Cuttaia, F., Danese, L., Davies, R. D., Davis, R. J., de Bernardis, P., de Rosa, A., de Zotti, G., Delabrouille, J., Dickinson, C., Diego, J. M., Dole, H., Donzelli, S., Doré, O., Ducout, A., Dupac, X., Efstathiou, G., Elsner, F., Eriksen, H. K., Finelli, F., Forni, O., Frailis, M., Fraisse, A. A., Franceschi, E., Galeotta, S., Galli, S., Ganga, K., Giard, M., Giraud-Héraud, Y., Gjerløw, E., González-Nuevo, J., Górski, K. M., Gruppuso, A., Gurwell, M. A., Hansen, F. K., Harrison, D. L., Henrot-Versillé, S., Hernández-Monteagudo, C., Hildebrandt, S. R., Hobson, M., Hornstrup, A., Hovatta, T., Hovest, W., Huffenberger, K. M., Hurier, G., Jaffe, A. H., Jaffe, T. R., Järvelä, E., Keihänen, E., Keskitalo, R., Kisner, T. S., Kneissl, R., Knoche, J., Kunz, M., Kurki-Suonio, H., Lähteenmäki, A., Lamarre, J. -M., Lasenby, A., Lattanzi, M., Lawrence, C. R., Leonardi, R., Levrier, F., Liguori, M., Lilje, P. B., Linden-Vørnle, M., López-Caniego, M., Lubin, P. M., Macías-Pérez, J. F., Maffei, B., Maino, D., Mandolesi, N., Maris, M., Martin, P. G., Martínez-González, E., Masi, S., Matarrese, S., Max-Moerbeck, W., Meinhold, P. R., Melchiorri, A., Mennella, A., Migliaccio, M., Mingaliev, M., Miville-Deschênes, M. -A., Moneti, A., Montier, L., Morgante, G., Mortlock, D., Munshi, D., Murphy, J. A., Nati, F., Natoli, P., Nieppola, E., Noviello, F., Novikov, D., Novikov, I., Pagano, L., Pajot, F., Paoletti, D., Partridge, B., Pasian, F., Pearson, T. J., Perdereau, O., Perotto, L., Pettorino, V., Piacentini, F., Piat, M., Pierpaoli, E., Plaszczynski, S., Pointecouteau, E., Polenta, G., Pratt, G. W., Ramakrishnan, V., Rastorgueva-Foi, E. A., S Readhead, A. C., Reinecke, M., Remazeilles, M., Renault, C., Renzi, A., Richards, J. L., Ristorcelli, I., Rocha, G., Rossetti, M., Roudier, G., Rubiño-Martín, J. A., Rusholme, B., Sandri, M., Savelainen, M., Savini, G., Scott, D., Sotnikova, Y., Stolyarov, V., Sunyaev, R., Sutton, D., Suur-Uski, A. -S., Sygnet, J. -F., Tammi, J., Tauber, J. A., Terenzi, L., Toffolatti, L., Tomasi, M., Tornikoski, M., Tristram, M., Tucci, M., Türler, M., Valenziano, L., Valiviita, J., Valtaoja, E., Van Tent, B., Vielva, P., Villa, F., Wade, L. A., Wehrle, A. E., Wehus, I. K., Yvon, D., Zacchei, A., & Zonca, A.. Planck intermediate results: XLV. Radio spectra of northern extragalactic radio sources. United States. doi:10.1051/0004-6361/201527780.
Ade, P. A. R., Aghanim, N., Aller, H. D., Aller, M. F., Arnaud, M., Aumont, J., Baccigalupi, C., Banday, A. J., Barreiro, R. B., Bartolo, N., Battaner, E., Benabed, K., Benoit-Lévy, A., Bernard, J. -P., Bersanelli, M., Bielewicz, P., Bonaldi, A., Bonavera, L., Bond, J. R., Borrill, J., Bouchet, F. R., Burigana, C., Calabrese, E., Catalano, A., Chiang, H. C., Christensen, P. R., Clements, D. L., Colombo, L. P. L., Couchot, F., Crill, B. P., Curto, A., Cuttaia, F., Danese, L., Davies, R. D., Davis, R. J., de Bernardis, P., de Rosa, A., de Zotti, G., Delabrouille, J., Dickinson, C., Diego, J. M., Dole, H., Donzelli, S., Doré, O., Ducout, A., Dupac, X., Efstathiou, G., Elsner, F., Eriksen, H. K., Finelli, F., Forni, O., Frailis, M., Fraisse, A. A., Franceschi, E., Galeotta, S., Galli, S., Ganga, K., Giard, M., Giraud-Héraud, Y., Gjerløw, E., González-Nuevo, J., Górski, K. M., Gruppuso, A., Gurwell, M. A., Hansen, F. K., Harrison, D. L., Henrot-Versillé, S., Hernández-Monteagudo, C., Hildebrandt, S. R., Hobson, M., Hornstrup, A., Hovatta, T., Hovest, W., Huffenberger, K. M., Hurier, G., Jaffe, A. H., Jaffe, T. R., Järvelä, E., Keihänen, E., Keskitalo, R., Kisner, T. S., Kneissl, R., Knoche, J., Kunz, M., Kurki-Suonio, H., Lähteenmäki, A., Lamarre, J. -M., Lasenby, A., Lattanzi, M., Lawrence, C. R., Leonardi, R., Levrier, F., Liguori, M., Lilje, P. B., Linden-Vørnle, M., López-Caniego, M., Lubin, P. M., Macías-Pérez, J. F., Maffei, B., Maino, D., Mandolesi, N., Maris, M., Martin, P. G., Martínez-González, E., Masi, S., Matarrese, S., Max-Moerbeck, W., Meinhold, P. R., Melchiorri, A., Mennella, A., Migliaccio, M., Mingaliev, M., Miville-Deschênes, M. -A., Moneti, A., Montier, L., Morgante, G., Mortlock, D., Munshi, D., Murphy, J. A., Nati, F., Natoli, P., Nieppola, E., Noviello, F., Novikov, D., Novikov, I., Pagano, L., Pajot, F., Paoletti, D., Partridge, B., Pasian, F., Pearson, T. J., Perdereau, O., Perotto, L., Pettorino, V., Piacentini, F., Piat, M., Pierpaoli, E., Plaszczynski, S., Pointecouteau, E., Polenta, G., Pratt, G. W., Ramakrishnan, V., Rastorgueva-Foi, E. A., S Readhead, A. C., Reinecke, M., Remazeilles, M., Renault, C., Renzi, A., Richards, J. L., Ristorcelli, I., Rocha, G., Rossetti, M., Roudier, G., Rubiño-Martín, J. A., Rusholme, B., Sandri, M., Savelainen, M., Savini, G., Scott, D., Sotnikova, Y., Stolyarov, V., Sunyaev, R., Sutton, D., Suur-Uski, A. -S., Sygnet, J. -F., Tammi, J., Tauber, J. A., Terenzi, L., Toffolatti, L., Tomasi, M., Tornikoski, M., Tristram, M., Tucci, M., Türler, M., Valenziano, L., Valiviita, J., Valtaoja, E., Van Tent, B., Vielva, P., Villa, F., Wade, L. A., Wehrle, A. E., Wehus, I. K., Yvon, D., Zacchei, A., and Zonca, A.. 2016. "Planck intermediate results: XLV. Radio spectra of northern extragalactic radio sources". United States. doi:10.1051/0004-6361/201527780. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1398447.
@article{osti_1398447,
title = {Planck intermediate results: XLV. Radio spectra of northern extragalactic radio sources},
author = {Ade, P. A. R. and Aghanim, N. and Aller, H. D. and Aller, M. F. and Arnaud, M. and Aumont, J. and Baccigalupi, C. and Banday, A. J. and Barreiro, R. B. and Bartolo, N. and Battaner, E. and Benabed, K. and Benoit-Lévy, A. and Bernard, J. -P. and Bersanelli, M. and Bielewicz, P. and Bonaldi, A. and Bonavera, L. and Bond, J. R. and Borrill, J. and Bouchet, F. R. and Burigana, C. and Calabrese, E. and Catalano, A. and Chiang, H. C. and Christensen, P. R. and Clements, D. L. and Colombo, L. P. L. and Couchot, F. and Crill, B. P. and Curto, A. and Cuttaia, F. and Danese, L. and Davies, R. D. and Davis, R. J. and de Bernardis, P. and de Rosa, A. and de Zotti, G. and Delabrouille, J. and Dickinson, C. and Diego, J. M. and Dole, H. and Donzelli, S. and Doré, O. and Ducout, A. and Dupac, X. and Efstathiou, G. and Elsner, F. and Eriksen, H. K. and Finelli, F. and Forni, O. and Frailis, M. and Fraisse, A. A. and Franceschi, E. and Galeotta, S. and Galli, S. and Ganga, K. and Giard, M. and Giraud-Héraud, Y. and Gjerløw, E. and González-Nuevo, J. and Górski, K. M. and Gruppuso, A. and Gurwell, M. A. and Hansen, F. K. and Harrison, D. L. and Henrot-Versillé, S. and Hernández-Monteagudo, C. and Hildebrandt, S. R. and Hobson, M. and Hornstrup, A. and Hovatta, T. and Hovest, W. and Huffenberger, K. M. and Hurier, G. and Jaffe, A. H. and Jaffe, T. R. and Järvelä, E. and Keihänen, E. and Keskitalo, R. and Kisner, T. S. and Kneissl, R. and Knoche, J. and Kunz, M. and Kurki-Suonio, H. and Lähteenmäki, A. and Lamarre, J. -M. and Lasenby, A. and Lattanzi, M. and Lawrence, C. R. and Leonardi, R. and Levrier, F. and Liguori, M. and Lilje, P. B. and Linden-Vørnle, M. and López-Caniego, M. and Lubin, P. M. and Macías-Pérez, J. F. and Maffei, B. and Maino, D. and Mandolesi, N. and Maris, M. and Martin, P. G. and Martínez-González, E. and Masi, S. and Matarrese, S. and Max-Moerbeck, W. and Meinhold, P. R. and Melchiorri, A. and Mennella, A. and Migliaccio, M. and Mingaliev, M. and Miville-Deschênes, M. -A. and Moneti, A. and Montier, L. and Morgante, G. and Mortlock, D. and Munshi, D. and Murphy, J. A. and Nati, F. and Natoli, P. and Nieppola, E. and Noviello, F. and Novikov, D. and Novikov, I. and Pagano, L. and Pajot, F. and Paoletti, D. and Partridge, B. and Pasian, F. and Pearson, T. J. and Perdereau, O. and Perotto, L. and Pettorino, V. and Piacentini, F. and Piat, M. and Pierpaoli, E. and Plaszczynski, S. and Pointecouteau, E. and Polenta, G. and Pratt, G. W. and Ramakrishnan, V. and Rastorgueva-Foi, E. A. and S Readhead, A. C. and Reinecke, M. and Remazeilles, M. and Renault, C. and Renzi, A. and Richards, J. L. and Ristorcelli, I. and Rocha, G. and Rossetti, M. and Roudier, G. and Rubiño-Martín, J. A. and Rusholme, B. and Sandri, M. and Savelainen, M. and Savini, G. and Scott, D. and Sotnikova, Y. and Stolyarov, V. and Sunyaev, R. and Sutton, D. and Suur-Uski, A. -S. and Sygnet, J. -F. and Tammi, J. and Tauber, J. A. and Terenzi, L. and Toffolatti, L. and Tomasi, M. and Tornikoski, M. and Tristram, M. and Tucci, M. and Türler, M. and Valenziano, L. and Valiviita, J. and Valtaoja, E. and Van Tent, B. and Vielva, P. and Villa, F. and Wade, L. A. and Wehrle, A. E. and Wehus, I. K. and Yvon, D. and Zacchei, A. and Zonca, A.},
abstractNote = {Continuum spectra covering centimetre to submillimetre wavelengths are presented in this paper for a northern sample of 104 extragalactic radio sources, mainly active galactic nuclei, based on four-epoch Planck data. The nine Planck frequencies, from 30 to 857 GHz, are complemented by a set of simultaneous ground-based radio observations between 1.1 and 37 GHz. The single-survey Planck data confirm that the flattest high-frequency radio spectral indices are close to zero, indicating that the original accelerated electron energy spectrum is much harder than commonly thought, with power-law index around 1.5 instead of the canonical 2.5. The radio spectra peak at high frequencies and exhibit a variety of shapes. For a small set of low-z sources, we find a spectral upturn at high frequencies, indicating the presence of intrinsic cold dust. Finally, variability can generally be approximated by achromatic variations, while sources with clear signatures of evolving shocks appear to be limited to the strongest outbursts.},
doi = {10.1051/0004-6361/201527780},
journal = {Astronomy and Astrophysics},
number = ,
volume = 596,
place = {United States},
year = {2016},
month = {12}
}