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Title: Links between plant and fungal diversity in habitat fragments of coastal shrubland

Abstract

Habitat fragmentation is widespread across ecosystems, detrimentally affecting biodiversity. Although most habitat fragmentation studies have been conducted on macroscopic organisms, microbial communities and fungal processes may also be threatened by fragmentation. This study investigated whether fragmentation, and the effects of fragmentation on plants, altered fungal diversity and function within a fragmented shrubland in southern California. Using fluorimetric techniques, we assayed enzymes from plant litter collected from fragments of varying sizes to investigate enzymatic responses to fragmentation. To isolate the effects of plant richness from those of fragment size on fungi, we deployed litter bags containing different levels of plant litter diversity into the largest fragment and incubated in the field for one year. Following field incubation, we determined litter mass loss and conducted molecular analyses of fungal communities. We found that leaf-litter enzyme activity declined in smaller habitat fragments with less diverse vegetation. Moreover, we detected greater litter mass loss in litter bags containing more diverse plant litter. Additionally, bags with greater plant litter diversity harbored greater numbers of fungal taxa. These findings suggest that both plant litter resources and fungal function may be affected by habitat fragmentation's constraints on plants, possibly because plant species differ chemically, and may thusmore » decompose at different rates. Diverse plant assemblages may produce a greater variety of litter resources and provide more ecological niche space, which may support greater numbers of fungal taxa. Thus, reduced plant diversity may constrain both fungal taxa richness and decomposition in fragmented coastal shrublands. Altogether, our findings provide evidence that even fungi may be affected by human-driven habitat fragmentation via direct effects of fragmentation on plants. Our findings underscore the importance of restoring diverse vegetation communities within larger coastal sage scrub fragments and suggest that this may be an effective way to improve the functional capacity of degraded sites.« less

Authors:
ORCiD logo; ; ;
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Univ. of California, Riverside, CA (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Science (SC), Biological and Environmental Research (BER) (SC-23)
OSTI Identifier:
1392736
Alternate Identifier(s):
OSTI ID: 1429312
Grant/Contract Number:  
SC0016410
Resource Type:
Published Article
Journal Name:
PLoS ONE
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Name: PLoS ONE Journal Volume: 12 Journal Issue: 9; Journal ID: ISSN 1932-6203
Publisher:
Public Library of Science (PLoS)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
59 BASIC BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES; 54 ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES; Biodiversity; Plants; Species diversity; Fungi; Coastal ecosystems; Decomposition; Ecosystem functionality; Habitats

Citation Formats

Maltz, Mia R., Treseder, Kathleen K., McGuire, Krista L., and Zang, ed., RunGuo. Links between plant and fungal diversity in habitat fragments of coastal shrubland. United States: N. p., 2017. Web. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0184991.
Maltz, Mia R., Treseder, Kathleen K., McGuire, Krista L., & Zang, ed., RunGuo. Links between plant and fungal diversity in habitat fragments of coastal shrubland. United States. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0184991.
Maltz, Mia R., Treseder, Kathleen K., McGuire, Krista L., and Zang, ed., RunGuo. Tue . "Links between plant and fungal diversity in habitat fragments of coastal shrubland". United States. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0184991.
@article{osti_1392736,
title = {Links between plant and fungal diversity in habitat fragments of coastal shrubland},
author = {Maltz, Mia R. and Treseder, Kathleen K. and McGuire, Krista L. and Zang, ed., RunGuo},
abstractNote = {Habitat fragmentation is widespread across ecosystems, detrimentally affecting biodiversity. Although most habitat fragmentation studies have been conducted on macroscopic organisms, microbial communities and fungal processes may also be threatened by fragmentation. This study investigated whether fragmentation, and the effects of fragmentation on plants, altered fungal diversity and function within a fragmented shrubland in southern California. Using fluorimetric techniques, we assayed enzymes from plant litter collected from fragments of varying sizes to investigate enzymatic responses to fragmentation. To isolate the effects of plant richness from those of fragment size on fungi, we deployed litter bags containing different levels of plant litter diversity into the largest fragment and incubated in the field for one year. Following field incubation, we determined litter mass loss and conducted molecular analyses of fungal communities. We found that leaf-litter enzyme activity declined in smaller habitat fragments with less diverse vegetation. Moreover, we detected greater litter mass loss in litter bags containing more diverse plant litter. Additionally, bags with greater plant litter diversity harbored greater numbers of fungal taxa. These findings suggest that both plant litter resources and fungal function may be affected by habitat fragmentation's constraints on plants, possibly because plant species differ chemically, and may thus decompose at different rates. Diverse plant assemblages may produce a greater variety of litter resources and provide more ecological niche space, which may support greater numbers of fungal taxa. Thus, reduced plant diversity may constrain both fungal taxa richness and decomposition in fragmented coastal shrublands. Altogether, our findings provide evidence that even fungi may be affected by human-driven habitat fragmentation via direct effects of fragmentation on plants. Our findings underscore the importance of restoring diverse vegetation communities within larger coastal sage scrub fragments and suggest that this may be an effective way to improve the functional capacity of degraded sites.},
doi = {10.1371/journal.pone.0184991},
journal = {PLoS ONE},
number = 9,
volume = 12,
place = {United States},
year = {2017},
month = {9}
}

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DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0184991

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    journal, February 2017

    • Glassman, Sydney I.; Lubetkin, Kaitlin C.; Chung, Judy A.
    • Ecosphere, Vol. 8, Issue 2
    • DOI: 10.1002/ecs2.1677

    Habitat Fragmentation can Modulate Drought Effects on the Plant-soil-microbial System in Mediterranean Holm Oak (Quercus ilex) Forests
    journal, March 2015

    • Flores-Rentería, Dulce; Curiel Yuste, Jorge; Rincón, Ana
    • Microbial Ecology, Vol. 69, Issue 4
    • DOI: 10.1007/s00248-015-0584-9

    Soil aggregate stabilization by a saprophytic lignin-decomposing basidiomycete fungus I. Microbiological aspects
    journal, December 2000

    • Caesar-TonThat, T. -C.; Cochran, V. L.
    • Biology and Fertility of Soils, Vol. 32, Issue 5
    • DOI: 10.1007/s003740000263

    Diversity of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi across a fragmented forest in Panama: insular spore communities differ from mainland communities
    journal, August 2004


    Erratum to: Asynchrony, fragmentation, and scale determine benefits of landscape heterogeneity to mobile herbivores
    journal, July 2010


    Simulating fire frequency and urban growth in southern California coastal shrublands, USA
    journal, August 2006

    • Syphard, Alexandra D.; Clarke, Keith C.; Franklin, Janet
    • Landscape Ecology, Vol. 22, Issue 3
    • DOI: 10.1007/s10980-006-9025-y

    Soil nitrogen and carbon dynamics in a fragmented landscape experiencing forest succession
    journal, March 2008


    Forest fragment size and nutrient availability: complex responses of mycorrhizal fungi in native–exotic hosts
    journal, September 2011


    Changes in N cycling and microbial N with elevated N in exotic annual grasslands of southern California
    journal, May 2007


    Implications of reserve size and forest connectivity for the conservation of wood-inhabiting fungi in Europe
    journal, November 2015


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    journal, May 2005


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    journal, July 2008


    Optimization of hydrolytic and oxidative enzyme methods for ecosystem studies
    journal, July 2011

    • German, Donovan P.; Weintraub, Michael N.; Grandy, A. Stuart
    • Soil Biology and Biochemistry, Vol. 43, Issue 7
    • DOI: 10.1016/j.soilbio.2011.03.017

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    • DOI: 10.1038/35001568

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    • DOI: 10.1038/ismej.2008.58

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    • Nature, Vol. 443, Issue 7114
    • DOI: 10.1038/nature05202

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    • Nature Geoscience, Vol. 2, Issue 1
    • DOI: 10.1038/ngeo391

    The replacement series
    journal, June 2000


    Overyielding among plant functional groups in a long-term experiment: Overyielding among plant functional groups
    journal, December 2003


    The evolution of urban sprawl: Evidence of spatial heterogeneity and increasing land fragmentation
    journal, December 2007

    • Irwin, E. G.; Bockstael, N. E.
    • Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Vol. 104, Issue 52
    • DOI: 10.1073/pnas.0705527105

    Substantial nitrogen acquisition by arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi from organic material has implications for N cycling
    journal, July 2010

    • Hodge, A.; Fitter, A. H.
    • Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Vol. 107, Issue 31
    • DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1005874107

    Measuring Competition in a Spatially Heterogeneous Environment
    journal, December 1995

    • Ives, Anthony R.
    • The American Naturalist, Vol. 146, Issue 6
    • DOI: 10.1086/285831

    Metapopulation Extinction in Fragmented Landscapes: Using Bacteria and Protozoa Communities as Model Ecosystems
    journal, November 1997

    • Burkey, Tormod Vaaland
    • The American Naturalist, Vol. 150, Issue 5
    • DOI: 10.1086/286082

    Gapped BLAST and PSI-BLAST: a new generation of protein database search programs
    journal, September 1997

    • Altschul, Stephen F.; Madden, Thomas L.; Schäffer, Alejandro A.
    • Nucleic Acids Research, Vol. 25, Issue 17, p. 3389-3402
    • DOI: 10.1093/nar/25.17.3389

    Ecosystem development explained by competition within and between material cycles
    journal, January 1998

    • Loreau, Michel
    • Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. Series B: Biological Sciences, Vol. 265, Issue 1390
    • DOI: 10.1098/rspb.1998.0260

    Microbial diversity, producer–decomposer interactions and ecosystem processes: a theoretical model
    journal, February 2001

    • Loreau, Michel
    • Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. Series B: Biological Sciences, Vol. 268, Issue 1464
    • DOI: 10.1098/rspb.2000.1366

    Specialist species of wood‐inhabiting fungi struggle while generalists thrive in fragmented boreal forests
    journal, March 2013

    • Nordén, Jenni; Penttilä, Reijo; Siitonen, Juha
    • Journal of Ecology, Vol. 101, Issue 3
    • DOI: 10.1111/1365-2745.12085

    Assessing the integrated effects of landscape fragmentation on plants and plant communities: the challenge of multiprocess-multiresponse dynamics
    journal, June 2014

    • Ibáñez, Inés; Katz, Daniel S. W.; Peltier, Drew
    • Journal of Ecology, Vol. 102, Issue 4
    • DOI: 10.1111/1365-2745.12223

    Abundance and viability of fungal spores along a forestry gradient - responses to habitat loss and isolation?
    journal, January 2004


    Decomposition dynamics in mixed-species leaf litter
    journal, February 2004


    A strong species?area relationship for eukaryotic soil microbes: island size matters for ectomycorrhizal fungi
    journal, June 2007


    The unseen majority: soil microbes as drivers of plant diversity and productivity in terrestrial ecosystems
    journal, March 2008


    Using Distance from Putative Source Woodlots to Predict Occurrence of Forest Birds in Putative Sinks
    journal, June 2005


    Susceptibility of Common and Rare Plant Species to the Genetic Consequences of Habitat Fragmentation
    journal, June 2007


    Habitat fragmentation and its lasting impact on Earth’s ecosystems
    journal, March 2015

    • Haddad, Nick M.; Brudvig, Lars A.; Clobert, Jean
    • Science Advances, Vol. 1, Issue 2
    • DOI: 10.1126/sciadv.1500052

    Ecological Linkages Between Aboveground and Belowground Biota
    journal, June 2004


    Coarse woody debris in the southeastern Canadian boreal forest: composition and load variations in relation to stand replacement
    journal, May 2000

    • Hély, C.; Bergeron, Y.; Flannigan, M. D.
    • Canadian Journal of Forest Research, Vol. 30, Issue 5
    • DOI: 10.1139/x99-256

    Biodiversity and Litter Decomposition in Terrestrial Ecosystems
    journal, December 2005


    Physiological Responses to Nutrient Limitation
    journal, October 1983


    Quantum Dots Reveal Shifts in Organic Nitrogen Uptake by Fungi Exposed to Long-Term Nitrogen Enrichment
    journal, September 2015


    Effects of Biodiversity on Ecosystem Functioning: a Consensus of Current Knowledge
    journal, February 2005

    • Hooper, D. U.; Chapin, F. S.; Ewel, J. J.
    • Ecological Monographs, Vol. 75, Issue 1
    • DOI: 10.1890/04-0922

    Functional diversity in resource use by fungi
    journal, August 2010

    • McGuire, Krista L.; Bent, Elizabeth; Borneman, James
    • Ecology, Vol. 91, Issue 8
    • DOI: 10.1890/09-0654.1

    Interactions among lignin, cellulose, and nitrogen drive litter chemistry–decay relationships
    journal, February 2012

    • Talbot, Jennifer M.; Treseder, Kathleen K.
    • Ecology, Vol. 93, Issue 2
    • DOI: 10.1890/11-0843.1

    The Effects of Habitat Fragmentation on Chaparral Plants and Vertebrates
    journal, February 1992

    • Soulé, Michael E.; Alberts, Allison C.; Bolger, Douglas T.
    • Oikos, Vol. 63, Issue 1
    • DOI: 10.2307/3545514

    Respiration and Nutrient Release from Tree Leaf Litter Mixtures
    journal, April 1997

    • McTiernan, Kevin B.; Ineson, Philip; Coward, Paul A.
    • Oikos, Vol. 78, Issue 3
    • DOI: 10.2307/3545614

    A View of Fungal Ecology
    journal, January 1989


    Fundamentals of Microbial Community Resistance and Resilience
    journal, January 2012


    Cellulolytic potential under environmental changes in microbial communities from grassland litter
    journal, November 2014


    Nitrogen addition, not initial phylogenetic diversity, increases litter decomposition by fungal communities
    journal, February 2015

    • Amend, Anthony S.; Matulich, Kristin L.; Martiny, Jennifer B. H.
    • Frontiers in Microbiology, Vol. 6
    • DOI: 10.3389/fmicb.2015.00109