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Title: Electron-beam-induced-current and active secondary-electron voltage-contrast with aberration-corrected electron probes

The ability to map out electrostatic potentials in materials is critical for the development and the design of nanoscale electronic and spintronic devices in modern industry. Electron holography has been an important tool for revealing electric and magnetic field distributions in microelectronics and magnetic-based memory devices, however, its utility is hindered by several practical constraints, such as charging artifacts and limitations in sensitivity and in field of view. In this article, we report electron-beam-induced-current (EBIC) and secondary-electron voltage-contrast (SE-VC) with an aberration-corrected electron probe in a transmission electron microscope (TEM), as complementary techniques to electron holography, to measure electric fields and surface potentials, respectively. These two techniques were applied to ferroelectric thin films, multiferroic nanowires, and single crystals. Electrostatic potential maps obtained by off-axis electron holography were compared with EBIC and SE-VC to show that these techniques can be used as a complementary approach to validate quantitative results obtained from electron holography analysis.
Authors:
 [1] ;  [2] ;  [3] ;  [3] ;  [2] ;  [4] ;  [5] ;  [5] ;  [1]
  1. Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)
  2. Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Stony Brook Univ., NY (United States)
  3. Stony Brook Univ., NY (United States)
  4. Rutgers Univ., Piscataway, NJ (United States)
  5. Yale Univ., New Haven, CT (United States)
Publication Date:
Report Number(s):
BNL-114213-2017-JA
Journal ID: ISSN 0304-3991; R&D Project: MA015MACA; KC0201010
Grant/Contract Number:
SC0012704; DESC0012704
Type:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Ultramicroscopy
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 176; Journal Issue: C; Journal ID: ISSN 0304-3991
Publisher:
Elsevier
Research Org:
Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)
Sponsoring Org:
USDOE Office of Science (SC), Basic Energy Sciences (BES) (SC-22)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
75 CONDENSED MATTER PHYSICS, SUPERCONDUCTIVITY AND SUPERFLUIDITY
OSTI Identifier:
1389237
Alternate Identifier(s):
OSTI ID: 1416657