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Title: Bond Durability of Carbon-Microfiber-Reinforced Alkali-Activated High-Temperature Cement Adhering to Carbon Steel

The study aims at evaluating the bond durability of a carbon microfiber (CMF)-reinforced alkali-activating calcium aluminate cement (CAC)/fly ash F (FAF) blend cementitious material adhering to carbon steel (CS) under stresses induced by a 350°C heat-25°Cwater cooling cycle. This cementitious material/CS joint sample was originally prepared in an autoclave at 300°C under a pressure of 8.3 MPa. For comparison, two reference geothermal well cements, Class G modified with silica (G) and calciumaluminum phosphate (CaP), were employed as well reinforced with CMF. In the CAC/FAF blending cement systems, the CAC-derived cementitious reaction products preferentially adhered to CS surfaces, rather than that of FAF-related reaction products. CMF played a pivotal role in creating tough interfacial bond structure of cement layer adhering to CS. The bond toughness also was supported by the crystalline cementitious reaction products including sodalite, brownmillerite, and hedenbergite as major phases, and aragonite, boehmite, and garronite as minor ones. The brownmillerite as an interfacial reaction product between cement and CS promoted the chemical bonding of the cement to CS, while the other phases served in providing the attractive bonding of the cement to CS. The post-stress-test joint samples revealed the formation of additional brown-millerite, aragonite, and garronite, in particular brownmilleritemore » as the major one. The combination of chemical bonding and self-advancing adherence behavior of the cement was essential for creating a better interfacial bond structure. A similar interfacial bond structure was observed with CaP. The crystalline phase composition of the autoclaved cement revealed apatite, zeolite, and ferrowyllieite as major reaction products, and aragonite and al-katoite as the minor ones. Ferrowyllieite was identified as cement/CS interfacial reaction product contributing to the chemical bond of cement, while the other phases aided in providing the attractive bond of cement. After a stress test, two phases, ferrowyllieite and aragonite, promoted the self-advancing adherence of cement to CS. However, the effectiveness of these phases in improving adherence performance of cement was less than that of CAC/FAF blend cement, reflecting the fact that the bond durability of CAC/FAF blend cement was far better than that of the CaP. In contrast, the autoclaved silica-modified G cement consisting of xonotlite, and 0.9 nm-to-bermorite and riversideite, with calcite as the crystalline reaction products, had no significant effect on improving the shear bond strength and the bond’s toughness. No interaction product with CS was found in the cement adhering to CS. After a stress test, the calcite phase acted only to promote the self-advancing adherence of cement, but its extent was minimal compared with that of the other cements, thereby resulting in poor bond durability.« less
 [1] ;  [1]
  1. Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)
Publication Date:
Report Number(s):
Journal ID: ISSN 1947-3931; R&D Project: 22444
Grant/Contract Number:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 09; Journal Issue: 02; Journal ID: ISSN 1947-3931
Research Org:
Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)
Sponsoring Org:
USDOE Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), Geothermal Technologies Office (EE-4G)
Country of Publication:
United States
15 GEOTHERMAL ENERGY; Carbon Microfibers; Calcium Aluminate Cement; Fly Ash; Thermal Shock
OSTI Identifier: