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Title: Reactivation of dead sulfide species in lithium polysulfide flow battery for grid scale energy storage

Lithium polysulfide batteries possess several favorable attributes including low cost and high energy density for grid energy storage. However, the precipitation of insoluble and irreversible sulfide species on the surface of carbon and lithium (called “dead” sulfide species) leads to continuous capacity degradation in high mass loading cells, which represents a great challenge. To address this problem, herein we propose a strategy to reactivate dead sulfide species by reacting them with sulfur powder with stirring and heating (70 °C) to recover the cell capacity, and further demonstrate a flow battery system based on the reactivation approach. As a result, ultrahigh mass loading (0.125 g cm –3, 2g sulfur in a single cell), high volumetric energy density (135 Wh L –1), good cycle life, and high single-cell capacity are achieved. The high volumetric energy density indicates its promising application for future grid energy storage.
Authors:
 [1] ;  [2] ;  [2] ;  [2] ;  [2] ;  [2] ; ORCiD logo [2] ;  [2] ;  [2] ; ORCiD logo [2] ;  [2] ;  [3]
  1. Stanford Univ., CA (United States); Zhengzhou Univ. (China); Xi'an Jiaotong Univ. (China)
  2. Stanford Univ., CA (United States)
  3. SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Stanford Univ., CA (United States)
Publication Date:
Report Number(s):
SLAC-PUB-17011
Journal ID: ISSN 2041-1723; PII: 537
Grant/Contract Number:
AC02-76SF00515
Type:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Nature Communications
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 8; Journal Issue: 1; Journal ID: ISSN 2041-1723
Publisher:
Nature Publishing Group
Research Org:
SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States)
Sponsoring Org:
USDOE
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
25 ENERGY STORAGE; Batteries; Chemical engineering
OSTI Identifier:
1380122