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Title: A low-noise CMOS pixel direct charge sensor, Topmetal-II-

In this paper, we report the design and characterization of a CMOS pixel direct charge sensor, Topmetal-II-, fabricated in a standard 0.35 μm CMOS Integrated Circuit process. The sensor utilizes exposed metal patches on top of each pixel to directly collect charge. Each pixel contains a low-noise charge-sensitive preamplifier to establish the analog signal and a discriminator with tunable threshold to generate hits. The analog signal from each pixel is accessible through time-shared multiplexing over the entire array. Hits are read out digitally through a column-based priority logic structure. Tests show that the sensor achieved a <15e - analog noise and a 200e - minimum threshold for digital readout per pixel. The sensor is capable of detecting both electrons and ions drifting in gas. Lastly, these characteristics enable its use as the charge readout device in future Time Projection Chambers without gaseous gain mechanism, which has unique advantages in low background and low rate-density experiments.
Authors:
 [1] ;  [1] ;  [1] ;  [2] ;  [1] ;  [1] ;  [2] ;  [3] ;  [1] ;  [1] ;  [1] ;  [1] ;  [1]
  1. Central China Normal University, Wuhan (China)
  2. Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Nuclear Science Division
  3. Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing (China). Institute of Acoustics
Publication Date:
Grant/Contract Number:
AC02-05CH11231
Type:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research. Section A, Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated Equipment
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 810; Journal Issue: C; Journal ID: ISSN 0168-9002
Publisher:
Elsevier
Research Org:
Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)
Sponsoring Org:
USDOE Office of Science (SC), Nuclear Physics (NP) (SC-26)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
73 NUCLEAR PHYSICS AND RADIATION PHYSICS; 46 INSTRUMENTATION RELATED TO NUCLEAR SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY; Topmetal; Pixel; Charge sensor; Ion readout
OSTI Identifier:
1379102

An, Mangmang, Chen, Chufeng, Gao, Chaosong, Han, Mikyung, Ji, Rong, Li, Xiaoting, Mei, Yuan, Sun, Quan, Sun, Xiangming, Wang, Kai, Xiao, Le, Yang, Ping, and Zhou, Wei. A low-noise CMOS pixel direct charge sensor, Topmetal-II-. United States: N. p., Web. doi:10.1016/j.nima.2015.11.153.
An, Mangmang, Chen, Chufeng, Gao, Chaosong, Han, Mikyung, Ji, Rong, Li, Xiaoting, Mei, Yuan, Sun, Quan, Sun, Xiangming, Wang, Kai, Xiao, Le, Yang, Ping, & Zhou, Wei. A low-noise CMOS pixel direct charge sensor, Topmetal-II-. United States. doi:10.1016/j.nima.2015.11.153.
An, Mangmang, Chen, Chufeng, Gao, Chaosong, Han, Mikyung, Ji, Rong, Li, Xiaoting, Mei, Yuan, Sun, Quan, Sun, Xiangming, Wang, Kai, Xiao, Le, Yang, Ping, and Zhou, Wei. 2015. "A low-noise CMOS pixel direct charge sensor, Topmetal-II-". United States. doi:10.1016/j.nima.2015.11.153. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1379102.
@article{osti_1379102,
title = {A low-noise CMOS pixel direct charge sensor, Topmetal-II-},
author = {An, Mangmang and Chen, Chufeng and Gao, Chaosong and Han, Mikyung and Ji, Rong and Li, Xiaoting and Mei, Yuan and Sun, Quan and Sun, Xiangming and Wang, Kai and Xiao, Le and Yang, Ping and Zhou, Wei},
abstractNote = {In this paper, we report the design and characterization of a CMOS pixel direct charge sensor, Topmetal-II-, fabricated in a standard 0.35 μm CMOS Integrated Circuit process. The sensor utilizes exposed metal patches on top of each pixel to directly collect charge. Each pixel contains a low-noise charge-sensitive preamplifier to establish the analog signal and a discriminator with tunable threshold to generate hits. The analog signal from each pixel is accessible through time-shared multiplexing over the entire array. Hits are read out digitally through a column-based priority logic structure. Tests show that the sensor achieved a <15e- analog noise and a 200e- minimum threshold for digital readout per pixel. The sensor is capable of detecting both electrons and ions drifting in gas. Lastly, these characteristics enable its use as the charge readout device in future Time Projection Chambers without gaseous gain mechanism, which has unique advantages in low background and low rate-density experiments.},
doi = {10.1016/j.nima.2015.11.153},
journal = {Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research. Section A, Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated Equipment},
number = C,
volume = 810,
place = {United States},
year = {2015},
month = {12}
}