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Title: Synchrotron X-ray Analytical Techniques for Studying Materials Electrochemistry in Rechargeable Batteries

Rechargeable battery technologies have ignited major breakthroughs in contemporary society, including but not limited to revolutions in transportation, electronics, and grid energy storage. The remarkable development of rechargeable batteries is largely attributed to in-depth efforts to improve battery electrode and electrolyte materials. There are, however, still intimidating challenges of lower cost, longer cycle and calendar life, higher energy density, and better safety for large scale energy storage and vehicular applications. Further progress with rechargeable batteries may require new chemistries (lithium ion batteries and beyond) and better understanding of materials electrochemistry in the various battery technologies. In the past decade, advancement of battery materials has been complemented by new analytical techniques that are capable of probing battery chemistries at various length and time scales. Synchrotron X-ray techniques stand out as one of the most effective methods that allows for nearly nondestructive probing of materials characteristics such as electronic and geometric structures with various depth sensitivities through spectroscopy, scattering, and imaging capabilities. This article begins with the discussion of various rechargeable batteries and associated important scientific questions in the field, followed by a review of synchrotron X-ray based analytical tools (scattering, spectroscopy and imaging) and their successful applications (ex situ, in situ,more » and in operando) in gaining fundamental insights into these scientific questions. Furthermore, electron microscopy and spectroscopy complement the detection length scales of synchrotron X-ray tools, and are also discussed towards the end. We highlight the importance of studying battery materials by combining analytical techniques with complementary length sensitivities, such as the combination of X-ray absorption spectroscopy and electron spectroscopy with spatial resolution, because a sole technique may lead to biased and inaccurate conclusions. We then discuss the current progress of experimental design for synchrotron experiments and methods to mitigate beam effects. Finally, a perspective is provided to elaborate how synchrotron techniques can impact the development of next-generation battery chemistries.« less
 [1] ;  [2] ;  [3] ;  [4] ;  [5] ;  [5] ;  [6] ;  [7] ;  [4] ;  [8] ;  [9] ;  [10] ;  [2] ;  [7] ;  [4]
  1. Virginia Polytechnic Inst. and State Univ. (Virginia Tech), Blacksburg, VA (United States). Dept. of Chemistry
  2. SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States). Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Lightsource (SSRL)
  3. Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Dept. of Chemistry; Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), Beijing (China). Inst. of Physics. Beijing National Lab. for Condensed Matter Physics (BNLCP-CAS)
  4. Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Energy Storage and Distributed Resources Division
  5. Univ. of California, San Diego, CA (United States). Dept. of Physics
  6. Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Center for Functional Nanomaterials (CFN)
  7. Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Advanced Light Source (ALS)
  8. Center for High Pressure Science & Technology Advanced Research, Shanghai (China)
  9. Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Dept. of Chemistry
  10. Univ. of California, San Diego, CA (United States). Dept. of NanoEngineering
Publication Date:
Report Number(s):
Journal ID: ISSN 0009-2665; R&D Project: MA453MAEA; VT1201000
Grant/Contract Number:
SC0012704; SC0001805; AC02-76SF00515; 2016YFA0202500
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Chemical Reviews
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Name: Chemical Reviews; Journal ID: ISSN 0009-2665
American Chemical Society
Research Org:
Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). National Synchrotron Light Source II (NSLS-II)
Sponsoring Org:
USDOE Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), Vehicle Technologies Office (EE-3V); USDOE Office of Science (SC), Basic Energy Sciences (BES) (SC-22); Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS)
Country of Publication:
United States
25 ENERGY STORAGE; National Synchrotron Light Source II
OSTI Identifier: