skip to main content
DOE PAGES title logo U.S. Department of Energy
Office of Scientific and Technical Information

Title: Van der Waals engineering of ferromagnetic semiconductor heterostructures for spin and valleytronics

Abstract

The integration of magnetic material with semiconductors has been fertile ground for fundamental science as well as of great practical interest toward the seamless integration of information processing and storage. We create van der Waals heterostructures formed by an ultrathin ferromagnetic semiconductor CrI3 and a monolayer of WSe2. We observe unprecedented control of the spin and valley pseudospin in WSe2, where we detect a large magnetic exchange field of nearly 13 T and rapid switching of the WSe2 valley splitting and polarization via flipping of the CrI3 magnetization. The WSe2 photoluminescence intensity strongly depends on the relative alignment between photoexcited spins in WSe2 and the CrI3 magnetization, because of ultrafast spin-dependent charge hopping across the heterostructure interface. The photoluminescence detection of valley pseudospin provides a simple and sensitive method to probe the intriguing domain dynamics in the ultrathin magnet, as well as the rich spin interactions within the heterostructure.

Authors:
 [1];  [1];  [1];  [2];  [2];  [1];  [1];  [3];  [3];  [4];  [5];  [5];  [1];  [1]
  1. Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States)
  2. Carnegie Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA (United States)
  3. National Inst. for Materials Science (NIMS), Tsukuba (Japan)
  4. Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)
  5. Univ. of Hong Kong (China)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Science (SC), Basic Energy Sciences (BES) (SC-22)
OSTI Identifier:
1376521
Grant/Contract Number:  
AC05-00OR22725
Resource Type:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Science Advances
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 3; Journal Issue: 5; Journal ID: ISSN 2375-2548
Publisher:
AAAS
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
71 CLASSICAL AND QUANTUM MECHANICS, GENERAL PHYSICS

Citation Formats

Zhong, Ding, Seyler, Kyle L., Linpeng, Xiayu, Cheng, Ran, Sivadas, Nikhil, Huang, Bevin, Schmidgall, Emma, Taniguchi, Takashi, Wantanabe, Kenji, McGuire, Michael A., Yao, Wang, Xiao, Di, Fu, Kai-Mei C., and Xu, Xiaodong. Van der Waals engineering of ferromagnetic semiconductor heterostructures for spin and valleytronics. United States: N. p., 2017. Web. doi:10.1126/sciadv.1603113.
Zhong, Ding, Seyler, Kyle L., Linpeng, Xiayu, Cheng, Ran, Sivadas, Nikhil, Huang, Bevin, Schmidgall, Emma, Taniguchi, Takashi, Wantanabe, Kenji, McGuire, Michael A., Yao, Wang, Xiao, Di, Fu, Kai-Mei C., & Xu, Xiaodong. Van der Waals engineering of ferromagnetic semiconductor heterostructures for spin and valleytronics. United States. doi:10.1126/sciadv.1603113.
Zhong, Ding, Seyler, Kyle L., Linpeng, Xiayu, Cheng, Ran, Sivadas, Nikhil, Huang, Bevin, Schmidgall, Emma, Taniguchi, Takashi, Wantanabe, Kenji, McGuire, Michael A., Yao, Wang, Xiao, Di, Fu, Kai-Mei C., and Xu, Xiaodong. Wed . "Van der Waals engineering of ferromagnetic semiconductor heterostructures for spin and valleytronics". United States. doi:10.1126/sciadv.1603113. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1376521.
@article{osti_1376521,
title = {Van der Waals engineering of ferromagnetic semiconductor heterostructures for spin and valleytronics},
author = {Zhong, Ding and Seyler, Kyle L. and Linpeng, Xiayu and Cheng, Ran and Sivadas, Nikhil and Huang, Bevin and Schmidgall, Emma and Taniguchi, Takashi and Wantanabe, Kenji and McGuire, Michael A. and Yao, Wang and Xiao, Di and Fu, Kai-Mei C. and Xu, Xiaodong},
abstractNote = {The integration of magnetic material with semiconductors has been fertile ground for fundamental science as well as of great practical interest toward the seamless integration of information processing and storage. We create van der Waals heterostructures formed by an ultrathin ferromagnetic semiconductor CrI3 and a monolayer of WSe2. We observe unprecedented control of the spin and valley pseudospin in WSe2, where we detect a large magnetic exchange field of nearly 13 T and rapid switching of the WSe2 valley splitting and polarization via flipping of the CrI3 magnetization. The WSe2 photoluminescence intensity strongly depends on the relative alignment between photoexcited spins in WSe2 and the CrI3 magnetization, because of ultrafast spin-dependent charge hopping across the heterostructure interface. The photoluminescence detection of valley pseudospin provides a simple and sensitive method to probe the intriguing domain dynamics in the ultrathin magnet, as well as the rich spin interactions within the heterostructure.},
doi = {10.1126/sciadv.1603113},
journal = {Science Advances},
number = 5,
volume = 3,
place = {United States},
year = {2017},
month = {5}
}

Journal Article:
Free Publicly Available Full Text
Publisher's Version of Record

Citation Metrics:
Cited by: 59 works
Citation information provided by
Web of Science

Save / Share:

Works referenced in this record:

Coupled Spin and Valley Physics in Monolayers of MoS 2 and Other Group-VI Dichalcogenides
journal, May 2012


Generalized Gradient Approximation Made Simple
journal, October 1996

  • Perdew, John P.; Burke, Kieron; Ernzerhof, Matthias
  • Physical Review Letters, Vol. 77, Issue 18, p. 3865-3868
  • DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.77.3865

Graphene spintronics
journal, October 2014

  • Han, Wei; Kawakami, Roland K.; Gmitra, Martin
  • Nature Nanotechnology, Vol. 9, Issue 10
  • DOI: 10.1038/nnano.2014.214

Breaking of Valley Degeneracy by Magnetic Field in Monolayer MoSe 2
journal, January 2015


A new phase diagram for layered antiferromagnetic films
journal, January 2003

  • Hellwig, Olav; Kirk, Taryl L.; Kortright, Jeffrey B.
  • Nature Materials, Vol. 2, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1038/nmat806

Giant and tunable valley degeneracy splitting in MoTe 2
journal, September 2015


Robust quantum anomalous Hall effect in graphene-based van der Waals heterostructures
journal, October 2015


Large Spin-Valley Polarization in Monolayer MoTe 2 on Top of EuO(111)
journal, December 2015

  • Zhang, Qingyun; Yang, Shengyuan A.; Mi, Wenbo
  • Advanced Materials, Vol. 28, Issue 5
  • DOI: 10.1002/adma.201502585

Spin and pseudospins in layered transition metal dichalcogenides
journal, April 2014

  • Xu, Xiaodong; Yao, Wang; Xiao, Di
  • Nature Physics, Vol. 10, Issue 5
  • DOI: 10.1038/nphys2942

QUANTUM ESPRESSO: a modular and open-source software project for quantum simulations of materials
journal, September 2009

  • Giannozzi, Paolo; Baroni, Stefano; Bonini, Nicola
  • Journal of Physics: Condensed Matter, Vol. 21, Issue 39, Article No. 395502
  • DOI: 10.1088/0953-8984/21/39/395502

Exchange anisotropy — a review
journal, October 1999


Magnetic tunnel junctions
journal, November 2006


Coupling of Crystal Structure and Magnetism in the Layered, Ferromagnetic Insulator CrI 3
journal, January 2015

  • McGuire, Michael A.; Dixit, Hemant; Cooper, Valentino R.
  • Chemistry of Materials, Vol. 27, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1021/cm504242t

Giant Magnetoresistance of (001)Fe/(001)Cr Magnetic Superlattices
journal, November 1988


2D materials and van der Waals heterostructures
journal, July 2016


Proximity effects in superconductor-ferromagnet heterostructures
journal, September 2005


Spin transport in proximity-induced ferromagnetic graphene
journal, March 2008


Quantum Anomalous Hall Effect in Graphene Proximity Coupled to an Antiferromagnetic Insulator
journal, March 2014


Interlayer exchange coupling
journal, October 1999


Strong interfacial exchange field in the graphene/EuS heterostructure
journal, March 2016

  • Wei, Peng; Lee, Sunwoo; Lemaitre, Florian
  • Nature Materials, Vol. 15, Issue 7
  • DOI: 10.1038/nmat4603

Anomalous Magneto-optical Hysteresis Loops of Sputtered Gd-Co Films
journal, January 1976


Generalized Gradient Approximation Made Simple [Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 3865 (1996)]
journal, February 1997


Quantum anomalous Hall effect in graphene from Rashba and exchange effects
journal, October 2010


Optical generation of excitonic valley coherence in monolayer WSe2
journal, August 2013

  • Jones, Aaron M.; Yu, Hongyi; Ghimire, Nirmal J.
  • Nature Nanotechnology, Vol. 8, Issue 9
  • DOI: 10.1038/nnano.2013.151

Dynamic spin polarization by orientation-dependent separation in a ferromagnet–semiconductor hybrid
journal, January 2012

  • Korenev, V. L.; Akimov, I. A.; Zaitsev, S. V.
  • Nature Communications, Vol. 3, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1038/ncomms1957

Role and effective treatment of dispersive forces in materials: Polyethylene and graphite crystals as test cases
journal, April 2009

  • Barone, Vincenzo; Casarin, Maurizio; Forrer, Daniel
  • Journal of Computational Chemistry, Vol. 30, Issue 6
  • DOI: 10.1002/jcc.21112

Van der Waals heterostructures
journal, July 2013

  • Geim, A. K.; Grigorieva, I. V.
  • Nature, Vol. 499, Issue 7459, p. 419-425
  • DOI: 10.1038/nature12385

Enhanced magnetoresistance in layered magnetic structures with antiferromagnetic interlayer exchange
journal, March 1989


Direct measurement of proximity-induced magnetism at the interface between a topological insulator and a ferromagnet
journal, June 2016

  • Lee, Changmin; Katmis, Ferhat; Jarillo-Herrero, Pablo
  • Nature Communications, Vol. 7, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1038/ncomms12014

Electrical generation and control of the valley carriers in a monolayer transition metal dichalcogenide
journal, April 2016


Long-range p–d exchange interaction in a ferromagnet–semiconductor hybrid structure
journal, October 2015

  • Korenev, V. L.; Salewski, M.; Akimov, I. A.
  • Nature Physics, Vol. 12, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1038/nphys3497

Optical Investigation of Monolayer and Bulk Tungsten Diselenide (WSe 2 ) in High Magnetic Fields
journal, June 2015


Proximity-Induced Ferromagnetism in Graphene Revealed by the Anomalous Hall Effect
journal, January 2015


Fast pick up technique for high quality heterostructures of bilayer graphene and hexagonal boron nitride
journal, July 2014

  • Zomer, P. J.; Guimarães, M. H. D.; Brant, J. C.
  • Applied Physics Letters, Vol. 105, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.4886096

Hybrid Ferromagnetic-Semiconductor Structure
journal, November 1990


Valley Splitting and Polarization by the Zeeman Effect in Monolayer MoSe 2
journal, December 2014


Ferromagnetic semiconductors: moving beyond (Ga,Mn)As
journal, March 2005

  • MacDonald, A. H.; Schiffer, P.; Samarth, N.
  • Nature Materials, Vol. 4, Issue 3
  • DOI: 10.1038/nmat1325

Semiempirical GGA-type density functional constructed with a long-range dispersion correction
journal, January 2006

  • Grimme, Stefan
  • Journal of Computational Chemistry, Vol. 27, Issue 15, p. 1787-1799
  • DOI: 10.1002/jcc.20495

Negative differential magnetization in ultrathin Fe on vicinal W(100)
journal, May 2003


Magneto-optics in transition metal diselenide monolayers
journal, June 2015


Valley Polarization by Spin Injection in a Light-Emitting van der Waals Heterojunction
journal, August 2016


A high-temperature ferromagnetic topological insulating phase by proximity coupling
journal, May 2016

  • Katmis, Ferhat; Lauter, Valeria; Nogueira, Flavio S.
  • Nature, Vol. 533, Issue 7604
  • DOI: 10.1038/nature17635

Tunable spin polarization in III-V quantum wells with a ferromagnetic barrier
journal, April 2004


Domain Walls in Antiferromagnetically Coupled Multilayer Films
journal, November 2003


Valley Zeeman effect in elementary optical excitations of monolayer WSe2
journal, January 2015

  • Srivastava, Ajit; Sidler, Meinrad; Allain, Adrien V.
  • Nature Physics, Vol. 11, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1038/nphys3203

Semiconductor spintronics
journal, August 2007

  • Fabian, Jaroslav; Matos-Abiague, Alex; Ertler, Christian
  • Acta Physica Slovaca. Reviews and Tutorials, Vol. 57, Issue 4-5
  • DOI: 10.2478/v10155-010-0086-8

Magnetic control of valley pseudospin in monolayer WSe2
journal, January 2015

  • Aivazian, G.; Gong, Zhirui; Jones, Aaron M.
  • Nature Physics, Vol. 11, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1038/nphys3201

Magneto-optical properties of ferromagnetic chromium trihalides
journal, September 1966

  • Dillon, J. F.; Kamimura, H.; Remeika, J. P.
  • Journal of Physics and Chemistry of Solids, Vol. 27, Issue 9
  • DOI: 10.1016/0022-3697(66)90148-X

    Works referencing / citing this record:

    Magnetization without polarization
    journal, September 2017

    • Yu, Hongyi; Yao, Wang
    • Nature Materials, Vol. 16, Issue 9
    • DOI: 10.1038/nmat4979

    Valley-Mediated and Electrically Switched Bipolar-Unipolar Transition of the Spin-Diode Effect in Heavy Group-IV Monolayers
    journal, June 2019


    Probing magnetism in 2D van der Waals crystalline insulators via electron tunneling
    journal, May 2018


    Interface Characterization and Control of 2D Materials and Heterostructures
    journal, July 2018


    High-throughput computational discovery of In2Mn2O7 as a high Curie temperature ferromagnetic semiconductor for spintronics
    journal, July 2019


    Biaxial strain effect on the electronic structure and valleytronic properties of a MoS 2 /CoO(111) heterostructure
    journal, January 2019

    • Yang, Guang; Li, Jia; Liu, Ze
    • Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics, Vol. 21, Issue 27
    • DOI: 10.1039/c9cp02404b

    High throughput computational screening for 2D ferromagnetic materials: the critical role of anisotropy and local correlations
    journal, July 2019


    Interface Characterization and Control of 2D Materials and Heterostructures
    journal, July 2018


    Magnetization without polarization
    journal, September 2017

    • Yu, Hongyi; Yao, Wang
    • Nature Materials, Vol. 16, Issue 9
    • DOI: 10.1038/nmat4979

    High-throughput computational discovery of In2Mn2O7 as a high Curie temperature ferromagnetic semiconductor for spintronics
    journal, July 2019


    Biaxial strain effect on the electronic structure and valleytronic properties of a MoS 2 /CoO(111) heterostructure
    journal, January 2019

    • Yang, Guang; Li, Jia; Liu, Ze
    • Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics, Vol. 21, Issue 27
    • DOI: 10.1039/c9cp02404b

    High throughput computational screening for 2D ferromagnetic materials: the critical role of anisotropy and local correlations
    journal, July 2019


    Valley-Mediated and Electrically Switched Bipolar-Unipolar Transition of the Spin-Diode Effect in Heavy Group-IV Monolayers
    journal, June 2019


    Manipulation of valley pseudospin in WSe 2 / CrI 3 heterostructures by the magnetic proximity effect
    journal, March 2020


    Probing magnetism in 2D van der Waals crystalline insulators via electron tunneling
    journal, May 2018