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Title: Strongly Enhanced Photovoltaic Performance and Defect Physics of Air-Stable Bismuth Oxyiodide (BiOI)

Abstract

Bismuth-based compounds have recently gained increasing attention as potentially nontoxic and defect-tolerant solar absorbers. However, many of the new materials recently investigated show limited photovoltaic performance. Herein, one such compound is explored in detail through theory and experiment: bismuth oxyiodide (BiOI). BiOI thin films are grown by chemical vapor transport and found to maintain the same tetragonal phase in ambient air for at least 197 d. The computations suggest BiOI to be tolerant to antisite and vacancy defects. All-inorganic solar cells (ITO|NiOx|BiOI|ZnO|Al) with negligible hysteresis and up to 80% external quantum efficiency under select monochromatic excitation are demonstrated. The short-circuit current densities and power conversion efficiencies under AM 1.5G illumination are nearly double those of previously reported BiOI solar cells, as well as other bismuth halide and chalcohalide photovoltaics recently explored by many groups. Through a detailed loss analysis using optical characterization, photoemission spectroscopy, and device modeling, direction for future improvements in efficiency is provided. In conclusion, this work demonstrates that BiOI, previously considered to be a poor photocatalyst, is promising for photovoltaics.

Authors:
ORCiD logo [1];  [2];  [3];  [2];  [2];  [3];  [3];  [3];  [3];  [3];  [2];  [3];  [3];  [4];  [3];  [2]
  1. Cavendish Laboratory, University of Cambridge, JJ Thomson Ave Cambridge CB3 0HE UK, Department of Materials Science and Metallurgy, University of Cambridge, 27 Charles Babbage Rd Cambridge CB3 0FS UK, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge MA 02139 USA
  2. Department of Materials Science and Metallurgy, University of Cambridge, 27 Charles Babbage Rd Cambridge CB3 0FS UK
  3. Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge MA 02139 USA
  4. Colorado School of Mines, Golden CO 80401 USA, National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden CO 80401 USA
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Energy Frontier Research Centers (EFRC) (United States). Center for Next Generation of Materials by Design: Incorporating Metastability (CNGMD)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Science (SC), Basic Energy Sciences (BES) (SC-22)
OSTI Identifier:
1373141
Alternate Identifier(s):
OSTI ID: 1373142; OSTI ID: 1394737
Report Number(s):
NREL/JA-5K00-68975
Journal ID: ISSN 0935-9648
Grant/Contract Number:  
AC36-08GO28308; SC0001088
Resource Type:
Published Article
Journal Name:
Advanced Materials
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Name: Advanced Materials Journal Volume: 29 Journal Issue: 36; Journal ID: ISSN 0935-9648
Publisher:
Wiley Blackwell (John Wiley & Sons)
Country of Publication:
Germany
Language:
English
Subject:
36 MATERIALS SCIENCE; air-stability; bismuth oxyiodide; defect-tolerance; ns2 compounds; photovoltaics

Citation Formats

Hoye, Robert L. Z., Lee, Lana C., Kurchin, Rachel C., Huq, Tahmida N., Zhang, Kelvin H. L., Sponseller, Melany, Nienhaus, Lea, Brandt, Riley E., Jean, Joel, Polizzotti, James Alexander, Kursumović, Ahmed, Bawendi, Moungi G., Bulović, Vladimir, Stevanović, Vladan, Buonassisi, Tonio, and MacManus-Driscoll, Judith L. Strongly Enhanced Photovoltaic Performance and Defect Physics of Air-Stable Bismuth Oxyiodide (BiOI). Germany: N. p., 2017. Web. doi:10.1002/adma.201702176.
Hoye, Robert L. Z., Lee, Lana C., Kurchin, Rachel C., Huq, Tahmida N., Zhang, Kelvin H. L., Sponseller, Melany, Nienhaus, Lea, Brandt, Riley E., Jean, Joel, Polizzotti, James Alexander, Kursumović, Ahmed, Bawendi, Moungi G., Bulović, Vladimir, Stevanović, Vladan, Buonassisi, Tonio, & MacManus-Driscoll, Judith L. Strongly Enhanced Photovoltaic Performance and Defect Physics of Air-Stable Bismuth Oxyiodide (BiOI). Germany. doi:10.1002/adma.201702176.
Hoye, Robert L. Z., Lee, Lana C., Kurchin, Rachel C., Huq, Tahmida N., Zhang, Kelvin H. L., Sponseller, Melany, Nienhaus, Lea, Brandt, Riley E., Jean, Joel, Polizzotti, James Alexander, Kursumović, Ahmed, Bawendi, Moungi G., Bulović, Vladimir, Stevanović, Vladan, Buonassisi, Tonio, and MacManus-Driscoll, Judith L. Mon . "Strongly Enhanced Photovoltaic Performance and Defect Physics of Air-Stable Bismuth Oxyiodide (BiOI)". Germany. doi:10.1002/adma.201702176.
@article{osti_1373141,
title = {Strongly Enhanced Photovoltaic Performance and Defect Physics of Air-Stable Bismuth Oxyiodide (BiOI)},
author = {Hoye, Robert L. Z. and Lee, Lana C. and Kurchin, Rachel C. and Huq, Tahmida N. and Zhang, Kelvin H. L. and Sponseller, Melany and Nienhaus, Lea and Brandt, Riley E. and Jean, Joel and Polizzotti, James Alexander and Kursumović, Ahmed and Bawendi, Moungi G. and Bulović, Vladimir and Stevanović, Vladan and Buonassisi, Tonio and MacManus-Driscoll, Judith L.},
abstractNote = {Bismuth-based compounds have recently gained increasing attention as potentially nontoxic and defect-tolerant solar absorbers. However, many of the new materials recently investigated show limited photovoltaic performance. Herein, one such compound is explored in detail through theory and experiment: bismuth oxyiodide (BiOI). BiOI thin films are grown by chemical vapor transport and found to maintain the same tetragonal phase in ambient air for at least 197 d. The computations suggest BiOI to be tolerant to antisite and vacancy defects. All-inorganic solar cells (ITO|NiOx|BiOI|ZnO|Al) with negligible hysteresis and up to 80% external quantum efficiency under select monochromatic excitation are demonstrated. The short-circuit current densities and power conversion efficiencies under AM 1.5G illumination are nearly double those of previously reported BiOI solar cells, as well as other bismuth halide and chalcohalide photovoltaics recently explored by many groups. Through a detailed loss analysis using optical characterization, photoemission spectroscopy, and device modeling, direction for future improvements in efficiency is provided. In conclusion, this work demonstrates that BiOI, previously considered to be a poor photocatalyst, is promising for photovoltaics.},
doi = {10.1002/adma.201702176},
journal = {Advanced Materials},
number = 36,
volume = 29,
place = {Germany},
year = {2017},
month = {7}
}

Journal Article:
Free Publicly Available Full Text
Publisher's Version of Record
DOI: 10.1002/adma.201702176

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Cited by: 12 works
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Works referenced in this record:

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Precise Determination of the Valence-Band Edge in X-Ray Photoemission Spectra: Application to Measurement of Semiconductor Interface Potentials
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Electron-Hole Diffusion Lengths Exceeding 1 Micrometer in an Organometal Trihalide Perovskite Absorber
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  • Stranks, S. D.; Eperon, G. E.; Grancini, G.
  • Science, Vol. 342, Issue 6156, p. 341-344
  • DOI: 10.1126/science.1243982

Interplay of Orbital and Relativistic Effects in Bismuth Oxyhalides: BiOF, BiOCl, BiOBr, and BiOI
journal, March 2016


Extended Photo-Conversion Spectrum in Low-Toxic Bismuth Halide Perovskite Solar Cells
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BiSI Micro-Rod Thin Films: Efficient Solar Absorber Electrodes?
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Crystal and Electronic Structures of Complex Bismuth Iodides A 3 Bi 2 I 9 ( A = K, Rb, Cs) Related to Perovskite: Aiding the Rational Design of Photovoltaics
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Synthesis and Modeling of Uniform Complex Metal Oxides by Close-Proximity Atmospheric Pressure Chemical Vapor Deposition
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Conjugated polyelectrolyte hole transport layer for inverted-type perovskite solar cells
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Crossed BiOI flake array solar cells
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Searching for “Defect-Tolerant” Photovoltaic Materials: Combined Theoretical and Experimental Screening
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Revisiting the Valence and Conduction Band Size Dependence of PbS Quantum Dot Thin Films
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p-Type semiconducting nickel oxide as an efficiency-enhancing anode interfacial layer in polymer bulk-heterojunction solar cells
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    Works referencing / citing this record:

    Bismuth Based Hybrid Perovskites A 3 Bi 2 I 9 (A: Methylammonium or Cesium) for Solar Cell Application
    journal, September 2015

    • Park, Byung-Wook; Philippe, Bertrand; Zhang, Xiaoliang
    • Advanced Materials, Vol. 27, Issue 43
    • DOI: 10.1002/adma.201501978

    Improved Open- Circuit Voltage in ZnO-PbSe Quantum Dot Solar Cells by Understanding and Reducing Losses Arising from the ZnO Conduction Band Tail
    journal, February 2014

    • Hoye, Robert L. Z.; Ehrler, Bruno; Böhm, Marcus L.
    • Advanced Energy Materials, Vol. 4, Issue 8
    • DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201301544

    Is the Cu/Zn Disorder the Main Culprit for the Voltage Deficit in Kesterite Solar Cells?
    journal, March 2016

    • Bourdais, Stéphane; Choné, Christophe; Delatouche, Bruno
    • Advanced Energy Materials, Vol. 6, Issue 12
    • DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201502276

    Methylammonium Bismuth Iodide as a Lead-Free, Stable Hybrid Organic-Inorganic Solar Absorber
    journal, January 2016

    • Hoye, Robert L. Z.; Brandt, Riley E.; Osherov, Anna
    • Chemistry - A European Journal, Vol. 22, Issue 8
    • DOI: 10.1002/chem.201505055

    A computational framework for automation of point defect calculations
    journal, April 2017


    The first BiOI-based solar cells
    journal, March 2009


    Crossed BiOI flake array solar cells
    journal, December 2010


    Perspectives on the pathways for cadmium telluride photovoltaic module manufacturers to address expected increases in the price for tellurium
    journal, August 2013


    Rational Strategies for Efficient Perovskite Solar Cells
    journal, February 2016


    Crystal and Electronic Structures of Complex Bismuth Iodides A 3 Bi 2 I 9 ( A = K, Rb, Cs) Related to Perovskite: Aiding the Rational Design of Photovoltaics
    journal, October 2015


    Interplay of Orbital and Relativistic Effects in Bismuth Oxyhalides: BiOF, BiOCl, BiOBr, and BiOI
    journal, March 2016


    Solution-Processed BiI 3 Thin Films for Photovoltaic Applications: Improved Carrier Collection via Solvent Annealing
    journal, September 2016


    Perovskite-Inspired Photovoltaic Materials: Toward Best Practices in Materials Characterization and Calculations
    journal, February 2017


    Searching for “Defect-Tolerant” Photovoltaic Materials: Combined Theoretical and Experimental Screening
    journal, May 2017


    Investigation of Bismuth Triiodide (BiI 3 ) for Photovoltaic Applications
    journal, October 2015

    • Brandt, Riley E.; Kurchin, Rachel C.; Hoye, Robert L. Z.
    • The Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters, Vol. 6, Issue 21
    • DOI: 10.1021/acs.jpclett.5b02022

    Extended Photo-Conversion Spectrum in Low-Toxic Bismuth Halide Perovskite Solar Cells
    journal, August 2016

    • Johansson, Malin B.; Zhu, Huimin; Johansson, Erik M. J.
    • The Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters, Vol. 7, Issue 17
    • DOI: 10.1021/acs.jpclett.6b01452

    Revisiting the Valence and Conduction Band Size Dependence of PbS Quantum Dot Thin Films
    journal, February 2016


    Engineering Schottky Contacts in Open-Air Fabricated Heterojunction Solar Cells to Enable High Performance and Ohmic Charge Transport
    journal, December 2014

    • Hoye, Robert L. Z.; Heffernan, Shane; Ievskaya, Yulia
    • ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces, Vol. 6, Issue 24
    • DOI: 10.1021/am5058663

    Synthesis and Modeling of Uniform Complex Metal Oxides by Close-Proximity Atmospheric Pressure Chemical Vapor Deposition
    journal, May 2015

    • Hoye, Robert L. Z.; Muñoz-Rojas, David; Musselman, Kevin P.
    • ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces, Vol. 7, Issue 20
    • DOI: 10.1021/am5073589

    A Bismuth-Halide Double Perovskite with Long Carrier Recombination Lifetime for Photovoltaic Applications
    journal, February 2016

    • Slavney, Adam H.; Hu, Te; Lindenberg, Aaron M.
    • Journal of the American Chemical Society, Vol. 138, Issue 7
    • DOI: 10.1021/jacs.5b13294

    BiSI Micro-Rod Thin Films: Efficient Solar Absorber Electrodes?
    journal, May 2012

    • Hahn, Nathan T.; Self, Jeffrey L.; Mullins, C. Buddie
    • The Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters, Vol. 3, Issue 11
    • DOI: 10.1021/jz300515p

    Defect Tolerant Semiconductors for Solar Energy Conversion
    journal, March 2014

    • Zakutayev, Andriy; Caskey, Christopher M.; Fioretti, Angela N.
    • The Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters, Vol. 5, Issue 7
    • DOI: 10.1021/jz5001787

    Spray Pyrolysis Deposition and Photoelectrochemical Properties of n-Type BiOI Nanoplatelet Thin Films
    journal, August 2012

    • Hahn, Nathan T.; Hoang, Son; Self, Jeffrey L.
    • ACS Nano, Vol. 6, Issue 9
    • DOI: 10.1021/nn3031063

    Conjugated polyelectrolyte hole transport layer for inverted-type perovskite solar cells
    journal, June 2015

    • Choi, Hyosung; Mai, Cheng-Kang; Kim, Hak-Beom
    • Nature Communications, Vol. 6, Issue 1
    • DOI: 10.1038/ncomms8348

    Fabrication of BiOBrxI1−x photocatalysts with tunable visible light catalytic activity by modulating band structures
    journal, March 2016

    • Zhang, Xing; Wang, Chu-Ya; Wang, Li-Wei
    • Scientific Reports, Vol. 6, Issue 1
    • DOI: 10.1038/srep22800

    Heterostructural design of I-deficient BiOI for photocatalytic decoloration and catalytic CO 2 conversion
    journal, January 2019

    • Hu, Chechia; Huang, Hui-Xin; Lin, Yi-Feng
    • Catalysis Science & Technology, Vol. 9, Issue 14
    • DOI: 10.1039/c9cy00663j

    Unusual defect physics in CH 3 NH 3 PbI 3 perovskite solar cell absorber
    journal, February 2014

    • Yin, Wan-Jian; Shi, Tingting; Yan, Yanfa
    • Applied Physics Letters, Vol. 104, Issue 6
    • DOI: 10.1063/1.4864778

    Electronic structure and photovoltaic application of BiI 3
    journal, September 2015

    • Lehner, Anna J.; Wang, Hengbin; Fabini, Douglas H.
    • Applied Physics Letters, Vol. 107, Issue 13
    • DOI: 10.1063/1.4932129

    Transient terahertz photoconductivity measurements of minority-carrier lifetime in tin sulfide thin films: Advanced metrology for an early stage photovoltaic material
    journal, January 2016

    • Jaramillo, R.; Sher, Meng-Ju; Ofori-Okai, Benjamin K.
    • Journal of Applied Physics, Vol. 119, Issue 3
    • DOI: 10.1063/1.4940157

    Synthesis, crystal structure, and properties of a perovskite-related bismuth phase, (NH 4 ) 3 Bi 2 I 9
    journal, March 2016

    • Sun, Shijing; Tominaka, Satoshi; Lee, Jung-Hoon
    • APL Materials, Vol. 4, Issue 3
    • DOI: 10.1063/1.4943680

    Determining interface properties limiting open-circuit voltage in heterojunction solar cells
    journal, May 2017

    • Brandt, Riley E.; Mangan, Niall M.; Li, Jian V.
    • Journal of Applied Physics, Vol. 121, Issue 18
    • DOI: 10.1063/1.4982752

    p-Type semiconducting nickel oxide as an efficiency-enhancing anode interfacial layer in polymer bulk-heterojunction solar cells
    journal, February 2008

    • Irwin, M. D.; Buchholz, D. B.; Hains, A. W.
    • Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Vol. 105, Issue 8, p. 2783-2787
    • DOI: 10.1073/pnas.0711990105

    Electron-Hole Diffusion Lengths Exceeding 1 Micrometer in an Organometal Trihalide Perovskite Absorber
    journal, October 2013

    • Stranks, S. D.; Eperon, G. E.; Grancini, G.
    • Science, Vol. 342, Issue 6156, p. 341-344
    • DOI: 10.1126/science.1243982

    Photovoltaic materials: Present efficiencies and future challenges
    journal, April 2016


    Identifying defect-tolerant semiconductors with high minority-carrier lifetimes: beyond hybrid lead halide perovskites
    journal, May 2015

    • Brandt, Riley E.; Stevanović, Vladan; Ginley, David S.
    • MRS Communications, Vol. 5, Issue 2
    • DOI: 10.1557/mrc.2015.26

    Bias-free solar syngas production by integrating a molecular cobalt catalyst with perovskite–BiVO4 tandems
    journal, October 2019


    Bias-free solar syngas production by integrating a molecular cobalt catalyst with perovskite–BiVO4 tandems
    journal, October 2019


    Heterostructural design of I-deficient BiOI for photocatalytic decoloration and catalytic CO 2 conversion
    journal, January 2019

    • Hu, Chechia; Huang, Hui-Xin; Lin, Yi-Feng
    • Catalysis Science & Technology, Vol. 9, Issue 14
    • DOI: 10.1039/c9cy00663j