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Title: Deposition of tungsten metal by an immersion process

A new multi-step, solution-phase method for the spontaneous deposition of tungsten from a room temperature ethereal solution is reported. This immersion process relies on the deposition of a sacrificial zinc coating which is galvanically displaced by the ether-mediated reduction of oxophilic WCl 6. Subsequent thermal treatment renders a crystalline, metallic tungsten film. The chemical evolution of the surface and formation of a complex intermediate tungsten species is characterized by X-ray diffraction, infrared spectroscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Efficient metallic tungsten deposition is first characterized on a graphite substrate and then demonstrated on a functional carbon foam electrode. The resulting electrochemical performance of the modified electrode is interrogated with the canonical aqueous ferricyanide system. A tungsten-coated carbon foam electrode showed that both electrode resistance and overall electrochemical cell resistance were reduced by 50%, resulting in a concomitant decrease in redox peak separation from 1.902 V to 0.783 V. Furthermore, this process promises voltage efficiency gains in electrodes for energy storage technologies and demonstrates the viability of a new route to tungsten coating for technologies and industries where high conductivity and chemical stability are paramount.
Authors:
 [1] ;  [1] ;  [1] ;  [1]
  1. Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)
Publication Date:
Report Number(s):
SAND-2017-2433J
Journal ID: ISSN 0013-4651; 651492
Grant/Contract Number:
AC04-94AL85000
Type:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Journal of the Electrochemical Society
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 164; Journal Issue: 6; Journal ID: ISSN 0013-4651
Publisher:
The Electrochemical Society
Research Org:
Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)
Sponsoring Org:
USDOE Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability (OE)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
36 MATERIALS SCIENCE; coating; electrodeposition; electroless deposition; immersion; tungsten
OSTI Identifier:
1369449

Small, Leo J., Brumbach, Michael T., Clem, Paul G., and Spoerke, Erik David. Deposition of tungsten metal by an immersion process. United States: N. p., Web. doi:10.1149/2.0131706jes.
Small, Leo J., Brumbach, Michael T., Clem, Paul G., & Spoerke, Erik David. Deposition of tungsten metal by an immersion process. United States. doi:10.1149/2.0131706jes.
Small, Leo J., Brumbach, Michael T., Clem, Paul G., and Spoerke, Erik David. 2017. "Deposition of tungsten metal by an immersion process". United States. doi:10.1149/2.0131706jes. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1369449.
@article{osti_1369449,
title = {Deposition of tungsten metal by an immersion process},
author = {Small, Leo J. and Brumbach, Michael T. and Clem, Paul G. and Spoerke, Erik David},
abstractNote = {A new multi-step, solution-phase method for the spontaneous deposition of tungsten from a room temperature ethereal solution is reported. This immersion process relies on the deposition of a sacrificial zinc coating which is galvanically displaced by the ether-mediated reduction of oxophilic WCl6. Subsequent thermal treatment renders a crystalline, metallic tungsten film. The chemical evolution of the surface and formation of a complex intermediate tungsten species is characterized by X-ray diffraction, infrared spectroscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Efficient metallic tungsten deposition is first characterized on a graphite substrate and then demonstrated on a functional carbon foam electrode. The resulting electrochemical performance of the modified electrode is interrogated with the canonical aqueous ferricyanide system. A tungsten-coated carbon foam electrode showed that both electrode resistance and overall electrochemical cell resistance were reduced by 50%, resulting in a concomitant decrease in redox peak separation from 1.902 V to 0.783 V. Furthermore, this process promises voltage efficiency gains in electrodes for energy storage technologies and demonstrates the viability of a new route to tungsten coating for technologies and industries where high conductivity and chemical stability are paramount.},
doi = {10.1149/2.0131706jes},
journal = {Journal of the Electrochemical Society},
number = 6,
volume = 164,
place = {United States},
year = {2017},
month = {3}
}