skip to main content
DOE PAGES title logo U.S. Department of Energy
Office of Scientific and Technical Information

Title: An Alternative Frictional Boundary Condition for Computational Fluid Dynamics Simulation of Friction Stir Welding

Abstract

For better application of numerical simulation in optimization and design of friction stir welding (FSW), this paper presents a new frictional boundary condition at the tool/workpiece interface for computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modeling of FSW. The proposed boundary condition is based on an implementation of the Coulomb friction model. Using the new boundary condition, the CFD simulation yields non-uniform distribution of contact state over the tool/workpiece interface, as validated by the experimental weld macrostructure. It is found that interfacial sticking state is present over large area at the tool-workpiece interface, while significant interfacial sliding occurs at the shoulder periphery, the lower part of pin side, and the periphery of pin bottom. Due to the interfacial sticking, a rotating flow zone is found under the shoulder, in which fast circular motion occurs. The diameter of the rotating flow zone is smaller than the shoulder diameter, which is attributed to the presence of the interfacial sliding at the shoulder periphery. For the simulated welding condition, the heat generation due to friction and plastic deformation makes up 54.4 and 45.6% of the total heat generation rate, respectively. In conclusion, the simulated temperature field is validated by the good agreement to the experimental measurements.

Authors:
 [1];  [2];  [3];  [3]
  1. Tsinghua Univ., Haidian (China). State Key Lab. of Tribology; Tsinghua Univ., Haidian (China). Key Lab. for Advanced Materials Processing Technology, Dept. of Mechanical Engineering; Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Materials Science & Technology Division
  2. Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Materials Science & Technology Division
  3. Tsinghua Univ., Haidian (China). State Key Lab. of Tribology; Tsinghua Univ., Haidian (China). Key Lab. for Advanced Materials Processing Technology, Dept. of Mechanical Engineering
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Science (SC)
OSTI Identifier:
1366372
Grant/Contract Number:  
AC05-00OR22725; 51375259
Resource Type:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Journal of Materials Engineering and Performance
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 25; Journal Issue: 9; Journal ID: ISSN 1059-9495
Publisher:
Springer
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
36 MATERIALS SCIENCE; frictional boundary condition; friction stir welding; heat generation; material flow; thermal-mechanical processing condition

Citation Formats

Chen, Gaoqiang, Feng, Zhili, Zhu, Yucan, and Shi, Qingyu. An Alternative Frictional Boundary Condition for Computational Fluid Dynamics Simulation of Friction Stir Welding. United States: N. p., 2016. Web. doi:10.1007/s11665-016-2219-9.
Chen, Gaoqiang, Feng, Zhili, Zhu, Yucan, & Shi, Qingyu. An Alternative Frictional Boundary Condition for Computational Fluid Dynamics Simulation of Friction Stir Welding. United States. doi:10.1007/s11665-016-2219-9.
Chen, Gaoqiang, Feng, Zhili, Zhu, Yucan, and Shi, Qingyu. Mon . "An Alternative Frictional Boundary Condition for Computational Fluid Dynamics Simulation of Friction Stir Welding". United States. doi:10.1007/s11665-016-2219-9. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1366372.
@article{osti_1366372,
title = {An Alternative Frictional Boundary Condition for Computational Fluid Dynamics Simulation of Friction Stir Welding},
author = {Chen, Gaoqiang and Feng, Zhili and Zhu, Yucan and Shi, Qingyu},
abstractNote = {For better application of numerical simulation in optimization and design of friction stir welding (FSW), this paper presents a new frictional boundary condition at the tool/workpiece interface for computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modeling of FSW. The proposed boundary condition is based on an implementation of the Coulomb friction model. Using the new boundary condition, the CFD simulation yields non-uniform distribution of contact state over the tool/workpiece interface, as validated by the experimental weld macrostructure. It is found that interfacial sticking state is present over large area at the tool-workpiece interface, while significant interfacial sliding occurs at the shoulder periphery, the lower part of pin side, and the periphery of pin bottom. Due to the interfacial sticking, a rotating flow zone is found under the shoulder, in which fast circular motion occurs. The diameter of the rotating flow zone is smaller than the shoulder diameter, which is attributed to the presence of the interfacial sliding at the shoulder periphery. For the simulated welding condition, the heat generation due to friction and plastic deformation makes up 54.4 and 45.6% of the total heat generation rate, respectively. In conclusion, the simulated temperature field is validated by the good agreement to the experimental measurements.},
doi = {10.1007/s11665-016-2219-9},
journal = {Journal of Materials Engineering and Performance},
number = 9,
volume = 25,
place = {United States},
year = {2016},
month = {7}
}

Journal Article:
Free Publicly Available Full Text
Publisher's Version of Record

Citation Metrics:
Cited by: 9 works
Citation information provided by
Web of Science

Save / Share:

Works referenced in this record:

An analytical model for the heat generation in friction stir welding
journal, November 2003

  • Schmidt, H.; Hattel, J.; Wert, J.
  • Modelling and Simulation in Materials Science and Engineering, Vol. 12, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1088/0965-0393/12/1/013

Friction stir welding and processing
journal, August 2005


Material flow in butt friction stir welds in AA2024-T3
journal, February 2006


Heat Input and Temperature Distribution in Friction Stir Welding
journal, October 1998

  • Tang, W.; Guo, X.; McCLURE, J. C.
  • Journal of Materials Processing & Manufacturing Science, Vol. 7, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1106/55TF-PF2G-JBH2-1Q2B

Three-dimensional heat and material flow during friction stir welding of mild steel
journal, February 2007