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Title: The on-orbit calibration of the Fermi Large Area Telescope

Abstract

The Large Area Telescope (LAT) on-board the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope began its on-orbit operations on June 23, 2008. Calibrations, defined in a generic sense, correspond to synchronization of trigger signals, optimization of delays for latching data, determination of detector thresholds, gains and responses, evaluation of the perimeter of the South Atlantic Anomaly (SAA), measurements of live time, of absolute time, and internal and spacecraft boresight alignments. Here in this work, we describe on-orbit calibration results obtained using known astrophysical sources, galactic cosmic rays, and charge injection into the front-end electronics of each detector. Instrument response functions will be described in a separate publication. This paper demonstrates the stability of calibrations and describes minor changes observed since launch. Lastly, these results have been used to calibrate the LAT datasets to be publicly released in August 2009.

Authors:
; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; more »; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; « less
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE
Contributing Org.:
Fermi LAT Collaboration
OSTI Identifier:
1357429
Grant/Contract Number:  
AC02-76SF00515
Resource Type:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Astroparticle Physics
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 32; Journal Issue: 3-4; Journal ID: ISSN 0927-6505
Publisher:
Elsevier
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
79 ASTRONOMY AND ASTROPHYSICS; GLAST; Fermi; FGST; LAT; Telescope; Gamma-ray; Calibrations

Citation Formats

Abdo, A. A., Ackermann, M., Ajello, M., Ampe, J., Anderson, B., Atwood, W. B., Axelsson, M., Bagagli, R., Baldini, L., Ballet, J., Barbiellini, G., Bartelt, J., Bastieri, D., Baughman, B. M., Bechtol, K., Bédérède, D., Bellardi, F., Bellazzini, R., Belli, F., Berenji, B., Bisello, D., Bissaldi, E., Bloom, E. D., Bogaert, G., Bogart, J. R., Bonamente, E., Borgland, A. W., Bourgeois, P., Bouvier, A., Bregeon, J., Brez, A., Brigida, M., Bruel, P., Burnett, T. H., Busetto, G., Caliandro, G. A., Cameron, R. A., Campell, M., Caraveo, P. A., Carius, S., Carlson, P., Casandjian, J. M., Cavazzuti, E., Ceccanti, M., Cecchi, C., Charles, E., Chekhtman, A., Cheung, C. C., Chiang, J., Chipaux, R., Cillis, A. N., Ciprini, S., Claus, R., Cohen-Tanugi, J., Condamoor, S., Conrad, J., Corbet, R., Cutini, S., Davis, D. S., DeKlotz, M., Dermer, C. D., de Angelis, A., de Palma, F., Digel, S. W., Dizon, P., Dormody, M., do Couto e Silva, E., Drell, P. S., Dubois, R., Dumora, D., Edmonds, Y., Fabiani, D., Farnier, C., Favuzzi, C., Ferrara, E. C., Ferreira, O., Fewtrell, Z., Flath, D. L., Fleury, P., Focke, W. B., Fouts, K., Frailis, M., Freytag, D., Fukazawa, Y., Funk, S., Fusco, P., Gargano, F., Gasparrini, D., Gehrels, N., Germani, S., Giebels, B., Giglietto, N., Giordano, F., Glanzman, T., Godfrey, G., Goodman, J., Grenier, I. A., Grondin, M. -H., Grove, J. E., Guillemot, L., Guiriec, S., Hakimi, M., Haller, G., Hanabata, Y., Hart, P. A., Hascall, P., Hays, E., Huffer, M., Hughes, R. E., Jóhannesson, G., Johnson, A. S., Johnson, R. P., Johnson, T. J., Johnson, W. N., Kamae, T., Katagiri, H., Kataoka, J., Kavelaars, A., Kelly, H., Kerr, M., Klamra, W., Knödlseder, J., Kocian, M. L., Kuehn, F., Kuss, M., Latronico, L., Lavalley, C., Leas, B., Lee, B., Lee, S. -H., Lemoine-Goumard, M., Longo, F., Loparco, F., Lott, B., Lovellette, M. N., Lubrano, P., Lung, D. K., Madejski, G. M., Makeev, A., Marangelli, B., Marchetti, M., Massai, M. M., May, D., Mazzenga, G., Mazziotta, M. N., McEnery, J. E., McGlynn, S., Meurer, C., Michelson, P. F., Minuti, M., Mirizzi, N., Mitra, P., Mitthumsiri, W., Mizuno, T., Moiseev, A. A., Mongelli, M., Monte, C., Monzani, M. E., Moretti, E., Morselli, A., Moskalenko, I. V., Murgia, S., Nelson, D., Nilsson, L., Nishino, S., Nolan, P. L., Nuss, E., Ohno, M., Ohsugi, T., Omodei, N., Orlando, E., Ormes, J. F., Ozaki, M., Paccagnella, A., Paneque, D., Panetta, J. H., Parent, D., Pelassa, V., Pepe, M., Pesce-Rollins, M., Picozza, P., Pinchera, M., Piron, F., Porter, T. A., Rainò, S., Rando, R., Rapposelli, E., Raynor, W., Razzano, M., Reimer, A., Reimer, O., Reposeur, T., Reyes, L. C., Ritz, S., Robinson, S., Rochester, L. S., Rodriguez, A. Y., Romani, R. W., Roth, M., Ryde, F., Sacchetti, A., Sadrozinski, H. F. -W., Saggini, N., Sanchez, D., Sander, A., Sapozhnikov, L., Saxton, O. H., Saz Parkinson, P. M., Sellerholm, A., Sgrò, C., Siskind, E. J., Smith, D. A., Smith, P. D., Spandre, G., Spinelli, P., Starck, J. -L., Stephens, T. E., Strickman, M. S., Strong, A. W., Sugizaki, M., Suson, D. J., Tajima, H., Takahashi, H., Takahashi, T., Tanaka, T., Tenze, A., Thayer, J. B., Thayer, J. G., Thompson, D. J., Tibaldo, L., Tibolla, O., Torres, D. F., Tosti, G., Tramacere, A., Turri, M., Usher, T. L., Vilchez, N., Virmani, N., Vitale, V., Wai, L. L., Waite, A. P., Wang, P., Winer, B. L., Wood, D. L., Wood, K. S., Yasuda, H., Ylinen, T., and Ziegler, M. The on-orbit calibration of the Fermi Large Area Telescope. United States: N. p., 2009. Web. doi:10.1016/j.astropartphys.2009.08.002.
Abdo, A. A., Ackermann, M., Ajello, M., Ampe, J., Anderson, B., Atwood, W. B., Axelsson, M., Bagagli, R., Baldini, L., Ballet, J., Barbiellini, G., Bartelt, J., Bastieri, D., Baughman, B. M., Bechtol, K., Bédérède, D., Bellardi, F., Bellazzini, R., Belli, F., Berenji, B., Bisello, D., Bissaldi, E., Bloom, E. D., Bogaert, G., Bogart, J. R., Bonamente, E., Borgland, A. W., Bourgeois, P., Bouvier, A., Bregeon, J., Brez, A., Brigida, M., Bruel, P., Burnett, T. H., Busetto, G., Caliandro, G. A., Cameron, R. A., Campell, M., Caraveo, P. A., Carius, S., Carlson, P., Casandjian, J. M., Cavazzuti, E., Ceccanti, M., Cecchi, C., Charles, E., Chekhtman, A., Cheung, C. C., Chiang, J., Chipaux, R., Cillis, A. N., Ciprini, S., Claus, R., Cohen-Tanugi, J., Condamoor, S., Conrad, J., Corbet, R., Cutini, S., Davis, D. S., DeKlotz, M., Dermer, C. D., de Angelis, A., de Palma, F., Digel, S. W., Dizon, P., Dormody, M., do Couto e Silva, E., Drell, P. S., Dubois, R., Dumora, D., Edmonds, Y., Fabiani, D., Farnier, C., Favuzzi, C., Ferrara, E. C., Ferreira, O., Fewtrell, Z., Flath, D. L., Fleury, P., Focke, W. B., Fouts, K., Frailis, M., Freytag, D., Fukazawa, Y., Funk, S., Fusco, P., Gargano, F., Gasparrini, D., Gehrels, N., Germani, S., Giebels, B., Giglietto, N., Giordano, F., Glanzman, T., Godfrey, G., Goodman, J., Grenier, I. A., Grondin, M. -H., Grove, J. E., Guillemot, L., Guiriec, S., Hakimi, M., Haller, G., Hanabata, Y., Hart, P. A., Hascall, P., Hays, E., Huffer, M., Hughes, R. E., Jóhannesson, G., Johnson, A. S., Johnson, R. P., Johnson, T. J., Johnson, W. N., Kamae, T., Katagiri, H., Kataoka, J., Kavelaars, A., Kelly, H., Kerr, M., Klamra, W., Knödlseder, J., Kocian, M. L., Kuehn, F., Kuss, M., Latronico, L., Lavalley, C., Leas, B., Lee, B., Lee, S. -H., Lemoine-Goumard, M., Longo, F., Loparco, F., Lott, B., Lovellette, M. N., Lubrano, P., Lung, D. K., Madejski, G. M., Makeev, A., Marangelli, B., Marchetti, M., Massai, M. M., May, D., Mazzenga, G., Mazziotta, M. N., McEnery, J. E., McGlynn, S., Meurer, C., Michelson, P. F., Minuti, M., Mirizzi, N., Mitra, P., Mitthumsiri, W., Mizuno, T., Moiseev, A. A., Mongelli, M., Monte, C., Monzani, M. E., Moretti, E., Morselli, A., Moskalenko, I. V., Murgia, S., Nelson, D., Nilsson, L., Nishino, S., Nolan, P. L., Nuss, E., Ohno, M., Ohsugi, T., Omodei, N., Orlando, E., Ormes, J. F., Ozaki, M., Paccagnella, A., Paneque, D., Panetta, J. H., Parent, D., Pelassa, V., Pepe, M., Pesce-Rollins, M., Picozza, P., Pinchera, M., Piron, F., Porter, T. A., Rainò, S., Rando, R., Rapposelli, E., Raynor, W., Razzano, M., Reimer, A., Reimer, O., Reposeur, T., Reyes, L. C., Ritz, S., Robinson, S., Rochester, L. S., Rodriguez, A. Y., Romani, R. W., Roth, M., Ryde, F., Sacchetti, A., Sadrozinski, H. F. -W., Saggini, N., Sanchez, D., Sander, A., Sapozhnikov, L., Saxton, O. H., Saz Parkinson, P. M., Sellerholm, A., Sgrò, C., Siskind, E. J., Smith, D. A., Smith, P. D., Spandre, G., Spinelli, P., Starck, J. -L., Stephens, T. E., Strickman, M. S., Strong, A. W., Sugizaki, M., Suson, D. J., Tajima, H., Takahashi, H., Takahashi, T., Tanaka, T., Tenze, A., Thayer, J. B., Thayer, J. G., Thompson, D. J., Tibaldo, L., Tibolla, O., Torres, D. F., Tosti, G., Tramacere, A., Turri, M., Usher, T. L., Vilchez, N., Virmani, N., Vitale, V., Wai, L. L., Waite, A. P., Wang, P., Winer, B. L., Wood, D. L., Wood, K. S., Yasuda, H., Ylinen, T., & Ziegler, M. The on-orbit calibration of the Fermi Large Area Telescope. United States. doi:10.1016/j.astropartphys.2009.08.002.
Abdo, A. A., Ackermann, M., Ajello, M., Ampe, J., Anderson, B., Atwood, W. B., Axelsson, M., Bagagli, R., Baldini, L., Ballet, J., Barbiellini, G., Bartelt, J., Bastieri, D., Baughman, B. M., Bechtol, K., Bédérède, D., Bellardi, F., Bellazzini, R., Belli, F., Berenji, B., Bisello, D., Bissaldi, E., Bloom, E. D., Bogaert, G., Bogart, J. R., Bonamente, E., Borgland, A. W., Bourgeois, P., Bouvier, A., Bregeon, J., Brez, A., Brigida, M., Bruel, P., Burnett, T. H., Busetto, G., Caliandro, G. A., Cameron, R. A., Campell, M., Caraveo, P. A., Carius, S., Carlson, P., Casandjian, J. M., Cavazzuti, E., Ceccanti, M., Cecchi, C., Charles, E., Chekhtman, A., Cheung, C. C., Chiang, J., Chipaux, R., Cillis, A. N., Ciprini, S., Claus, R., Cohen-Tanugi, J., Condamoor, S., Conrad, J., Corbet, R., Cutini, S., Davis, D. S., DeKlotz, M., Dermer, C. D., de Angelis, A., de Palma, F., Digel, S. W., Dizon, P., Dormody, M., do Couto e Silva, E., Drell, P. S., Dubois, R., Dumora, D., Edmonds, Y., Fabiani, D., Farnier, C., Favuzzi, C., Ferrara, E. C., Ferreira, O., Fewtrell, Z., Flath, D. L., Fleury, P., Focke, W. B., Fouts, K., Frailis, M., Freytag, D., Fukazawa, Y., Funk, S., Fusco, P., Gargano, F., Gasparrini, D., Gehrels, N., Germani, S., Giebels, B., Giglietto, N., Giordano, F., Glanzman, T., Godfrey, G., Goodman, J., Grenier, I. A., Grondin, M. -H., Grove, J. E., Guillemot, L., Guiriec, S., Hakimi, M., Haller, G., Hanabata, Y., Hart, P. A., Hascall, P., Hays, E., Huffer, M., Hughes, R. E., Jóhannesson, G., Johnson, A. S., Johnson, R. P., Johnson, T. J., Johnson, W. N., Kamae, T., Katagiri, H., Kataoka, J., Kavelaars, A., Kelly, H., Kerr, M., Klamra, W., Knödlseder, J., Kocian, M. L., Kuehn, F., Kuss, M., Latronico, L., Lavalley, C., Leas, B., Lee, B., Lee, S. -H., Lemoine-Goumard, M., Longo, F., Loparco, F., Lott, B., Lovellette, M. N., Lubrano, P., Lung, D. K., Madejski, G. M., Makeev, A., Marangelli, B., Marchetti, M., Massai, M. M., May, D., Mazzenga, G., Mazziotta, M. N., McEnery, J. E., McGlynn, S., Meurer, C., Michelson, P. F., Minuti, M., Mirizzi, N., Mitra, P., Mitthumsiri, W., Mizuno, T., Moiseev, A. A., Mongelli, M., Monte, C., Monzani, M. E., Moretti, E., Morselli, A., Moskalenko, I. V., Murgia, S., Nelson, D., Nilsson, L., Nishino, S., Nolan, P. L., Nuss, E., Ohno, M., Ohsugi, T., Omodei, N., Orlando, E., Ormes, J. F., Ozaki, M., Paccagnella, A., Paneque, D., Panetta, J. H., Parent, D., Pelassa, V., Pepe, M., Pesce-Rollins, M., Picozza, P., Pinchera, M., Piron, F., Porter, T. A., Rainò, S., Rando, R., Rapposelli, E., Raynor, W., Razzano, M., Reimer, A., Reimer, O., Reposeur, T., Reyes, L. C., Ritz, S., Robinson, S., Rochester, L. S., Rodriguez, A. Y., Romani, R. W., Roth, M., Ryde, F., Sacchetti, A., Sadrozinski, H. F. -W., Saggini, N., Sanchez, D., Sander, A., Sapozhnikov, L., Saxton, O. H., Saz Parkinson, P. M., Sellerholm, A., Sgrò, C., Siskind, E. J., Smith, D. A., Smith, P. D., Spandre, G., Spinelli, P., Starck, J. -L., Stephens, T. E., Strickman, M. S., Strong, A. W., Sugizaki, M., Suson, D. J., Tajima, H., Takahashi, H., Takahashi, T., Tanaka, T., Tenze, A., Thayer, J. B., Thayer, J. G., Thompson, D. J., Tibaldo, L., Tibolla, O., Torres, D. F., Tosti, G., Tramacere, A., Turri, M., Usher, T. L., Vilchez, N., Virmani, N., Vitale, V., Wai, L. L., Waite, A. P., Wang, P., Winer, B. L., Wood, D. L., Wood, K. S., Yasuda, H., Ylinen, T., and Ziegler, M. Sun . "The on-orbit calibration of the Fermi Large Area Telescope". United States. doi:10.1016/j.astropartphys.2009.08.002. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1357429.
@article{osti_1357429,
title = {The on-orbit calibration of the Fermi Large Area Telescope},
author = {Abdo, A. A. and Ackermann, M. and Ajello, M. and Ampe, J. and Anderson, B. and Atwood, W. B. and Axelsson, M. and Bagagli, R. and Baldini, L. and Ballet, J. and Barbiellini, G. and Bartelt, J. and Bastieri, D. and Baughman, B. M. and Bechtol, K. and Bédérède, D. and Bellardi, F. and Bellazzini, R. and Belli, F. and Berenji, B. and Bisello, D. and Bissaldi, E. and Bloom, E. D. and Bogaert, G. and Bogart, J. R. and Bonamente, E. and Borgland, A. W. and Bourgeois, P. and Bouvier, A. and Bregeon, J. and Brez, A. and Brigida, M. and Bruel, P. and Burnett, T. H. and Busetto, G. and Caliandro, G. A. and Cameron, R. A. and Campell, M. and Caraveo, P. A. and Carius, S. and Carlson, P. and Casandjian, J. M. and Cavazzuti, E. and Ceccanti, M. and Cecchi, C. and Charles, E. and Chekhtman, A. and Cheung, C. C. and Chiang, J. and Chipaux, R. and Cillis, A. N. and Ciprini, S. and Claus, R. and Cohen-Tanugi, J. and Condamoor, S. and Conrad, J. and Corbet, R. and Cutini, S. and Davis, D. S. and DeKlotz, M. and Dermer, C. D. and de Angelis, A. and de Palma, F. and Digel, S. W. and Dizon, P. and Dormody, M. and do Couto e Silva, E. and Drell, P. S. and Dubois, R. and Dumora, D. and Edmonds, Y. and Fabiani, D. and Farnier, C. and Favuzzi, C. and Ferrara, E. C. and Ferreira, O. and Fewtrell, Z. and Flath, D. L. and Fleury, P. and Focke, W. B. and Fouts, K. and Frailis, M. and Freytag, D. and Fukazawa, Y. and Funk, S. and Fusco, P. and Gargano, F. and Gasparrini, D. and Gehrels, N. and Germani, S. and Giebels, B. and Giglietto, N. and Giordano, F. and Glanzman, T. and Godfrey, G. and Goodman, J. and Grenier, I. A. and Grondin, M. -H. and Grove, J. E. and Guillemot, L. and Guiriec, S. and Hakimi, M. and Haller, G. and Hanabata, Y. and Hart, P. A. and Hascall, P. and Hays, E. and Huffer, M. and Hughes, R. E. and Jóhannesson, G. and Johnson, A. S. and Johnson, R. P. and Johnson, T. J. and Johnson, W. N. and Kamae, T. and Katagiri, H. and Kataoka, J. and Kavelaars, A. and Kelly, H. and Kerr, M. and Klamra, W. and Knödlseder, J. and Kocian, M. L. and Kuehn, F. and Kuss, M. and Latronico, L. and Lavalley, C. and Leas, B. and Lee, B. and Lee, S. -H. and Lemoine-Goumard, M. and Longo, F. and Loparco, F. and Lott, B. and Lovellette, M. N. and Lubrano, P. and Lung, D. K. and Madejski, G. M. and Makeev, A. and Marangelli, B. and Marchetti, M. and Massai, M. M. and May, D. and Mazzenga, G. and Mazziotta, M. N. and McEnery, J. E. and McGlynn, S. and Meurer, C. and Michelson, P. F. and Minuti, M. and Mirizzi, N. and Mitra, P. and Mitthumsiri, W. and Mizuno, T. and Moiseev, A. A. and Mongelli, M. and Monte, C. and Monzani, M. E. and Moretti, E. and Morselli, A. and Moskalenko, I. V. and Murgia, S. and Nelson, D. and Nilsson, L. and Nishino, S. and Nolan, P. L. and Nuss, E. and Ohno, M. and Ohsugi, T. and Omodei, N. and Orlando, E. and Ormes, J. F. and Ozaki, M. and Paccagnella, A. and Paneque, D. and Panetta, J. H. and Parent, D. and Pelassa, V. and Pepe, M. and Pesce-Rollins, M. and Picozza, P. and Pinchera, M. and Piron, F. and Porter, T. A. and Rainò, S. and Rando, R. and Rapposelli, E. and Raynor, W. and Razzano, M. and Reimer, A. and Reimer, O. and Reposeur, T. and Reyes, L. C. and Ritz, S. and Robinson, S. and Rochester, L. S. and Rodriguez, A. Y. and Romani, R. W. and Roth, M. and Ryde, F. and Sacchetti, A. and Sadrozinski, H. F. -W. and Saggini, N. and Sanchez, D. and Sander, A. and Sapozhnikov, L. and Saxton, O. H. and Saz Parkinson, P. M. and Sellerholm, A. and Sgrò, C. and Siskind, E. J. and Smith, D. A. and Smith, P. D. and Spandre, G. and Spinelli, P. and Starck, J. -L. and Stephens, T. E. and Strickman, M. S. and Strong, A. W. and Sugizaki, M. and Suson, D. J. and Tajima, H. and Takahashi, H. and Takahashi, T. and Tanaka, T. and Tenze, A. and Thayer, J. B. and Thayer, J. G. and Thompson, D. J. and Tibaldo, L. and Tibolla, O. and Torres, D. F. and Tosti, G. and Tramacere, A. and Turri, M. and Usher, T. L. and Vilchez, N. and Virmani, N. and Vitale, V. and Wai, L. L. and Waite, A. P. and Wang, P. and Winer, B. L. and Wood, D. L. and Wood, K. S. and Yasuda, H. and Ylinen, T. and Ziegler, M.},
abstractNote = {The Large Area Telescope (LAT) on-board the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope began its on-orbit operations on June 23, 2008. Calibrations, defined in a generic sense, correspond to synchronization of trigger signals, optimization of delays for latching data, determination of detector thresholds, gains and responses, evaluation of the perimeter of the South Atlantic Anomaly (SAA), measurements of live time, of absolute time, and internal and spacecraft boresight alignments. Here in this work, we describe on-orbit calibration results obtained using known astrophysical sources, galactic cosmic rays, and charge injection into the front-end electronics of each detector. Instrument response functions will be described in a separate publication. This paper demonstrates the stability of calibrations and describes minor changes observed since launch. Lastly, these results have been used to calibrate the LAT datasets to be publicly released in August 2009.},
doi = {10.1016/j.astropartphys.2009.08.002},
journal = {Astroparticle Physics},
number = 3-4,
volume = 32,
place = {United States},
year = {2009},
month = {9}
}

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