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Title: Insights Into the High-energy γ-ray Emission of Markarian 501 from Extensive Multifrequency Observations in the Fermi Era

Abstract

Here, we report on the γ-ray activity of the blazar Mrk 501 during the first 480 days of Fermi operation. We find that the average Large Area Telescope (LAT) γ-ray spectrum of Mrk 501 can be well described by a single power-law function with a photon index of 1.78 ± 0.03. While we observe relatively mild flux variations with the Fermi-LAT (within less than a factor of two), we detect remarkable spectral variability where the hardest observed spectral index within the LAT energy range is 1.52 ± 0.14, and the softest one is 2.51 ± 0.20. These unexpected spectral changes do not correlate with the measured flux variations above 0.3 GeV. In this paper, we also present the first results from the 4.5 month long multifrequency campaign (2009 March 15—August 1) on Mrk 501, which included the Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA), Swift, RXTE, MAGIC, and VERITAS, the F-GAMMA, GASP-WEBT, and other collaborations and instruments which provided excellent temporal and energy coverage of the source throughout the entire campaign. The extensive radio to TeV data set from this campaign provides us with the most detailed spectral energy distribution yet collected for this source during its relatively low activity. The average spectral energy distribution of Mrk 501 is well described by the standard one-zone synchrotron self-Compton (SSC) model. In the framework of this model, we find that the dominant emission region is characterized by a size $$\lesssim$$0.1 pc (comparable within a factor of few to the size of the partially resolved VLBA core at 15-43 GHz), and that the total jet power (~1044 erg s–1) constitutes only a small fraction (~10–3) of the Eddington luminosity. The energy distribution of the freshly accelerated radiating electrons required to fit the time-averaged data has a broken power-law form in the energy range 0.3 GeV-10 TeV, with spectral indices 2.2 and 2.7 below and above the break energy of 20 GeV. We argue that such a form is consistent with a scenario in which the bulk of the energy dissipation within the dominant emission zone of Mrk 501 is due to relativistic, proton-mediated shocks. We find that the ultrarelativistic electrons and mildly relativistic protons within the blazar zone, if comparable in number, are in approximate energy equipartition, with their energy dominating the jet magnetic field energy by about two orders of magnitude.

Authors:
; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; more »; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; « less
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE; National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA)
Contributing Org.:
The Fermi-LAT collaboration; The MAGIC collaboration; The VERITAS collaboration
OSTI Identifier:
1357266
Grant/Contract Number:  
AC02-76SF00515
Resource Type:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Astrophysical Journal
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 727; Journal Issue: 2; Journal ID: ISSN 0004-637X
Publisher:
Institute of Physics (IOP)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
79 ASTRONOMY AND ASTROPHYSICS; acceleration of particles; BL Lacertae objects; BL Lacertae objects: individual (Mrk 501); galaxies: active; gamma rays: general; radiation mechanisms: non-thermal

Citation Formats

Abdo, A. A., Ackermann, M., Ajello, M., Allafort, A., Baldini, L., Ballet, J., Barbiellini, G., Baring, M. G., Bastieri, D., Bechtol, K., Bellazzini, R., Berenji, B., Blandford, R. D., Bloom, E. D., Bonamente, E., Borgland, A. W., Bouvier, A., Brandt, T. J., Bregeon, J., Brez, A., Brigida, M., Bruel, P., Buehler, R., Buson, S., Caliandro, G. A., Cameron, R. A., Cannon, A., Caraveo, P. A., Carrigan, S., Casandjian, J. M., Cavazzuti, E., Cecchi, C., Çelik, Ö., Charles, E., Chekhtman, A., Cheung, C. C., Chiang, J., Ciprini, S., Claus, R., Cohen-Tanugi, J., Conrad, J., Cutini, S., Dermer, C. D., de Palma, F., Silva, E. do Couto e., Drell, P. S., Dubois, R., Dumora, D., Favuzzi, C., Fegan, S. J., Ferrara, E. C., Focke, W. B., Fortin, P., Frailis, M., Fuhrmann, L., Fukazawa, Y., Funk, S., Fusco, P., Gargano, F., Gasparrini, D., Gehrels, N., Germani, S., Giglietto, N., Giordano, F., Giroletti, M., Glanzman, T., Godfrey, G., Grenier, I. A., Guillemot, L., Guiriec, S., Hayashida, M., Hays, E., Horan, D., Hughes, R. E., Jóhannesson, G., Johnson, A. S., Johnson, W. N., Kadler, M., Kamae, T., Katagiri, H., Kataoka, J., Knödlseder, J., Kuss, M., Lande, J., Latronico, L., Lee, S. -H., Lemoine-Goumard, M., Longo, F., Loparco, F., Lott, B., Lovellette, M. N., Lubrano, P., Madejski, G. M., Makeev, A., Max-Moerbeck, W., Mazziotta, M. N., McEnery, J. E., Mehault, J., Michelson, P. F., Mitthumsiri, W., Mizuno, T., Moiseev, A. A., Monte, C., Monzani, M. E., Morselli, A., Moskalenko, I. V., Murgia, S., Naumann-Godo, M., Nishino, S., Nolan, P. L., Norris, J. P., Nuss, E., Ohsugi, T., Okumura, A., Omodei, N., Orlando, E., Ormes, J. F., Paneque, D., Panetta, J. H., Parent, D., Pavlidou, V., Pearson, T. J., Pelassa, V., Pepe, M., Pesce-Rollins, M., Piron, F., Porter, T. A., Rainò, S., Rando, R., Razzano, M., Readhead, A., Reimer, A., Reimer, O., Richards, J. L., Ripken, J., Ritz, S., Roth, M., Sadrozinski, H. F. -W., Sanchez, D., Sander, A., Scargle, J. D., Sgrò, C., Siskind, E. J., Smith, P. D., Spandre, G., Spinelli, P., Stawarz, Ł., Stevenson, M., Strickman, M. S., Sokolovsky, K. V., Suson, D. J., Takahashi, H., Takahashi, T., Tanaka, T., Thayer, J. B., Thayer, J. G., Thompson, D. J., Tibaldo, L., Torres, D. F., Tosti, G., Tramacere, A., Uchiyama, Y., Usher, T. L., Vandenbroucke, J., Vasileiou, V., Vilchez, N., Vitale, V., Waite, A. P., Wang, P., Wehrle, A. E., Winer, B. L., Wood, K. S., Yang, Z., Ylinen, T., Zensus, J. A., Ziegler, M., Aleksić, J., Antonelli, L. A., Antoranz, P., Backes, M., Barrio, J. A., González, J. Becerra, Bednarek, W., Berdyugin, A., Berger, K., Bernardini, E., Biland, A., Blanch, O., Bock, R. K., Boller, A., Bonnoli, G., Bordas, P., Tridon, D. Borla, Bosch-Ramon, V., Bose, D., Braun, I., Bretz, T., Camara, M., Carmona, E., Carosi, A., Colin, P., Colombo, E., Contreras, J. L., Cortina, J., Covino, S., Dazzi, F., de Angelis, A., Pozo, E. De Cea del, De Lotto, B., De Maria, M., De Sabata, F., Mendez, C. Delgado, Ortega, A. Diago, Doert, M., Domínguez, A., Prester, D. Dominis, Dorner, D., Doro, M., Elsaesser, D., Ferenc, D., Fonseca, M. V., Font, L., López, R. J. García, Garczarczyk, M., Gaug, M., Giavitto, G., Godinovi, N., Hadasch, D., Herrero, A., Hildebrand, D., Höhne-Mönch, D., Hose, J., Hrupec, D., Jogler, T., Klepser, S., Krähenbühl, T., Kranich, D., Krause, J., Barbera, A. La, Leonardo, E., Lindfors, E., Lombardi, S., López, M., Lorenz, E., Majumdar, P., Makariev, E., Maneva, G., Mankuzhiyil, N., Mannheim, K., Maraschi, L., Mariotti, M., Martínez, M., Mazin, D., Meucci, M., Miranda, J. M., Mirzoyan, R., Miyamoto, H., Moldón, J., Moralejo, A., Nieto, D., Nilsson, K., Orito, R., Oya, I., Paoletti, R., Paredes, J. M., Partini, S., Pasanen, M., Pauss, F., Pegna, R. G., Perez-Torres, M. A., Persic, M., Peruzzo, J., Pochon, J., Moroni, P. G. Prada, Prada, F., Prandini, E., Puchades, N., Puljak, I., Reichardt, T., Reinthal, R., Rhode, W., Ribó, M., Rico, J., Rissi, M., Rügamer, S., Saggion, A., Saito, K., Saito, T. Y., Salvati, M., Sánchez-Conde, M., Satalecka, K., Scalzotto, V., Scapin, V., Schultz, C., Schweizer, T., Shayduk, M., Shore, S. N., Sierpowska-Bartosik, A., Sillanpää, A., Sitarek, J., Sobczynska, D., Spanier, F., Spiro, S., Stamerra, A., Steinke, B., Storz, J., Strah, N., Struebig, J. C., Suric, T., Takalo, L. O., Tavecchio, F., Temnikov, P., Terzić, T., Tescaro, D., Teshima, M., Vankov, H., Wagner, R. M., Weitzel, Q., Zabalza, V., Zandanel, F., Zanin, R., Acciari, V. A., Arlen, T., Aune, T., Benbow, W., Boltuch, D., Bradbury, S. M., Buckley, J. H., Bugaev, V., Cannon, A., Cesarini, A., Ciupik, L., Cui, W., Dickherber, R., Errando, M., Falcone, A., Finley, J. P., Finnegan, G., Fortson, L., Furniss, A., Galante, N., Gall, D., Gillanders, G. H., Godambe, S., Grube, J., Guenette, R., Gyuk, G., Hanna, D., Holder, J., Huang, D., Hui, C. M., Humensky, T. B., Kaaret, P., Karlsson, N., Kertzman, M., Kieda, D., Konopelko, A., Krawczynski, H., Krennrich, F., Lang, M. J., Maier, G., McArthur, S., McCann, A., McCutcheon, M., Moriarty, P., Mukherjee, R., Ong, R., Otte, A. N., Pandel, D., Perkins, J. S., Pichel, A., Pohl, M., Quinn, J., Ragan, K., Reyes, L. C., Reynolds, P. T., Roache, E., Rose, H. J., Rovero, A. C., Schroedter, M., Sembroski, G. H., Senturk, G. D., Steele, D., Swordy, S. P., Tešić, G., Theiling, M., Thibadeau, S., Varlotta, A., Vincent, S., Wakely, S. P., Ward, J. E., Weekes, T. C., Weinstein, A., Weisgarber, T., Williams, D. A., Wood, M., Zitzer, B., Villata, M., Raiteri, C. M., Aller, H. D., Aller, M. F., Arkharov, A. A., Blinov, D. A., Calcidese, P., Chen, W. P., Efimova, N. V., Kimeridze, G., Konstantinova, T. S., Kopatskaya, E. N., Koptelova, E., Kurtanidze, O. M., Kurtanidze, S. O., Lähteenmäki, A., Larionov, V. M., Larionova, E. G., Larionova, L. V., Ligustri, R., Morozova, D. A., Nikolashvili, M. G., Sigua, L. A., Troitsky, I. S., Angelakis, E., Capalbi, M., Carramiñana, A., Carrasco, L., Cassaro, P., de la Fuente, E., Gurwell, M. A., Kovalev, Y. Y., Kovalev, Yu. A., Krichbaum, T. P., Krimm, H. A., Leto, P., Lister, M. L., Maccaferri, G., Moody, J. W., Mori, Y., Nestoras, I., Orlati, A., Pagani, C., Pace, C., Pearson, R., Perri, M., Piner, B. G., Pushkarev, A. B., Ros, E., Sadun, A. C., Sakamoto, T., Tornikoski, M., Yatsu, Y., and Zook, A. Insights Into the High-energy γ-ray Emission of Markarian 501 from Extensive Multifrequency Observations in the Fermi Era. United States: N. p., 2011. Web. doi:10.1088/0004-637X/727/2/129.
Abdo, A. A., Ackermann, M., Ajello, M., Allafort, A., Baldini, L., Ballet, J., Barbiellini, G., Baring, M. G., Bastieri, D., Bechtol, K., Bellazzini, R., Berenji, B., Blandford, R. D., Bloom, E. D., Bonamente, E., Borgland, A. W., Bouvier, A., Brandt, T. J., Bregeon, J., Brez, A., Brigida, M., Bruel, P., Buehler, R., Buson, S., Caliandro, G. A., Cameron, R. A., Cannon, A., Caraveo, P. A., Carrigan, S., Casandjian, J. M., Cavazzuti, E., Cecchi, C., Çelik, Ö., Charles, E., Chekhtman, A., Cheung, C. C., Chiang, J., Ciprini, S., Claus, R., Cohen-Tanugi, J., Conrad, J., Cutini, S., Dermer, C. D., de Palma, F., Silva, E. do Couto e., Drell, P. S., Dubois, R., Dumora, D., Favuzzi, C., Fegan, S. J., Ferrara, E. C., Focke, W. B., Fortin, P., Frailis, M., Fuhrmann, L., Fukazawa, Y., Funk, S., Fusco, P., Gargano, F., Gasparrini, D., Gehrels, N., Germani, S., Giglietto, N., Giordano, F., Giroletti, M., Glanzman, T., Godfrey, G., Grenier, I. A., Guillemot, L., Guiriec, S., Hayashida, M., Hays, E., Horan, D., Hughes, R. E., Jóhannesson, G., Johnson, A. S., Johnson, W. N., Kadler, M., Kamae, T., Katagiri, H., Kataoka, J., Knödlseder, J., Kuss, M., Lande, J., Latronico, L., Lee, S. -H., Lemoine-Goumard, M., Longo, F., Loparco, F., Lott, B., Lovellette, M. N., Lubrano, P., Madejski, G. M., Makeev, A., Max-Moerbeck, W., Mazziotta, M. N., McEnery, J. E., Mehault, J., Michelson, P. F., Mitthumsiri, W., Mizuno, T., Moiseev, A. A., Monte, C., Monzani, M. E., Morselli, A., Moskalenko, I. V., Murgia, S., Naumann-Godo, M., Nishino, S., Nolan, P. L., Norris, J. P., Nuss, E., Ohsugi, T., Okumura, A., Omodei, N., Orlando, E., Ormes, J. F., Paneque, D., Panetta, J. H., Parent, D., Pavlidou, V., Pearson, T. J., Pelassa, V., Pepe, M., Pesce-Rollins, M., Piron, F., Porter, T. A., Rainò, S., Rando, R., Razzano, M., Readhead, A., Reimer, A., Reimer, O., Richards, J. L., Ripken, J., Ritz, S., Roth, M., Sadrozinski, H. F. -W., Sanchez, D., Sander, A., Scargle, J. D., Sgrò, C., Siskind, E. J., Smith, P. D., Spandre, G., Spinelli, P., Stawarz, Ł., Stevenson, M., Strickman, M. S., Sokolovsky, K. V., Suson, D. J., Takahashi, H., Takahashi, T., Tanaka, T., Thayer, J. B., Thayer, J. G., Thompson, D. J., Tibaldo, L., Torres, D. F., Tosti, G., Tramacere, A., Uchiyama, Y., Usher, T. L., Vandenbroucke, J., Vasileiou, V., Vilchez, N., Vitale, V., Waite, A. P., Wang, P., Wehrle, A. E., Winer, B. L., Wood, K. S., Yang, Z., Ylinen, T., Zensus, J. A., Ziegler, M., Aleksić, J., Antonelli, L. A., Antoranz, P., Backes, M., Barrio, J. A., González, J. Becerra, Bednarek, W., Berdyugin, A., Berger, K., Bernardini, E., Biland, A., Blanch, O., Bock, R. K., Boller, A., Bonnoli, G., Bordas, P., Tridon, D. Borla, Bosch-Ramon, V., Bose, D., Braun, I., Bretz, T., Camara, M., Carmona, E., Carosi, A., Colin, P., Colombo, E., Contreras, J. L., Cortina, J., Covino, S., Dazzi, F., de Angelis, A., Pozo, E. De Cea del, De Lotto, B., De Maria, M., De Sabata, F., Mendez, C. Delgado, Ortega, A. Diago, Doert, M., Domínguez, A., Prester, D. Dominis, Dorner, D., Doro, M., Elsaesser, D., Ferenc, D., Fonseca, M. V., Font, L., López, R. J. García, Garczarczyk, M., Gaug, M., Giavitto, G., Godinovi, N., Hadasch, D., Herrero, A., Hildebrand, D., Höhne-Mönch, D., Hose, J., Hrupec, D., Jogler, T., Klepser, S., Krähenbühl, T., Kranich, D., Krause, J., Barbera, A. La, Leonardo, E., Lindfors, E., Lombardi, S., López, M., Lorenz, E., Majumdar, P., Makariev, E., Maneva, G., Mankuzhiyil, N., Mannheim, K., Maraschi, L., Mariotti, M., Martínez, M., Mazin, D., Meucci, M., Miranda, J. M., Mirzoyan, R., Miyamoto, H., Moldón, J., Moralejo, A., Nieto, D., Nilsson, K., Orito, R., Oya, I., Paoletti, R., Paredes, J. M., Partini, S., Pasanen, M., Pauss, F., Pegna, R. G., Perez-Torres, M. A., Persic, M., Peruzzo, J., Pochon, J., Moroni, P. G. Prada, Prada, F., Prandini, E., Puchades, N., Puljak, I., Reichardt, T., Reinthal, R., Rhode, W., Ribó, M., Rico, J., Rissi, M., Rügamer, S., Saggion, A., Saito, K., Saito, T. Y., Salvati, M., Sánchez-Conde, M., Satalecka, K., Scalzotto, V., Scapin, V., Schultz, C., Schweizer, T., Shayduk, M., Shore, S. N., Sierpowska-Bartosik, A., Sillanpää, A., Sitarek, J., Sobczynska, D., Spanier, F., Spiro, S., Stamerra, A., Steinke, B., Storz, J., Strah, N., Struebig, J. C., Suric, T., Takalo, L. O., Tavecchio, F., Temnikov, P., Terzić, T., Tescaro, D., Teshima, M., Vankov, H., Wagner, R. M., Weitzel, Q., Zabalza, V., Zandanel, F., Zanin, R., Acciari, V. A., Arlen, T., Aune, T., Benbow, W., Boltuch, D., Bradbury, S. M., Buckley, J. H., Bugaev, V., Cannon, A., Cesarini, A., Ciupik, L., Cui, W., Dickherber, R., Errando, M., Falcone, A., Finley, J. P., Finnegan, G., Fortson, L., Furniss, A., Galante, N., Gall, D., Gillanders, G. H., Godambe, S., Grube, J., Guenette, R., Gyuk, G., Hanna, D., Holder, J., Huang, D., Hui, C. M., Humensky, T. B., Kaaret, P., Karlsson, N., Kertzman, M., Kieda, D., Konopelko, A., Krawczynski, H., Krennrich, F., Lang, M. J., Maier, G., McArthur, S., McCann, A., McCutcheon, M., Moriarty, P., Mukherjee, R., Ong, R., Otte, A. N., Pandel, D., Perkins, J. S., Pichel, A., Pohl, M., Quinn, J., Ragan, K., Reyes, L. C., Reynolds, P. T., Roache, E., Rose, H. J., Rovero, A. C., Schroedter, M., Sembroski, G. H., Senturk, G. D., Steele, D., Swordy, S. P., Tešić, G., Theiling, M., Thibadeau, S., Varlotta, A., Vincent, S., Wakely, S. P., Ward, J. E., Weekes, T. C., Weinstein, A., Weisgarber, T., Williams, D. A., Wood, M., Zitzer, B., Villata, M., Raiteri, C. M., Aller, H. D., Aller, M. F., Arkharov, A. A., Blinov, D. A., Calcidese, P., Chen, W. P., Efimova, N. V., Kimeridze, G., Konstantinova, T. S., Kopatskaya, E. N., Koptelova, E., Kurtanidze, O. M., Kurtanidze, S. O., Lähteenmäki, A., Larionov, V. M., Larionova, E. G., Larionova, L. V., Ligustri, R., Morozova, D. A., Nikolashvili, M. G., Sigua, L. A., Troitsky, I. S., Angelakis, E., Capalbi, M., Carramiñana, A., Carrasco, L., Cassaro, P., de la Fuente, E., Gurwell, M. A., Kovalev, Y. Y., Kovalev, Yu. A., Krichbaum, T. P., Krimm, H. A., Leto, P., Lister, M. L., Maccaferri, G., Moody, J. W., Mori, Y., Nestoras, I., Orlati, A., Pagani, C., Pace, C., Pearson, R., Perri, M., Piner, B. G., Pushkarev, A. B., Ros, E., Sadun, A. C., Sakamoto, T., Tornikoski, M., Yatsu, Y., & Zook, A. Insights Into the High-energy γ-ray Emission of Markarian 501 from Extensive Multifrequency Observations in the Fermi Era. United States. doi:10.1088/0004-637X/727/2/129.
Abdo, A. A., Ackermann, M., Ajello, M., Allafort, A., Baldini, L., Ballet, J., Barbiellini, G., Baring, M. G., Bastieri, D., Bechtol, K., Bellazzini, R., Berenji, B., Blandford, R. D., Bloom, E. D., Bonamente, E., Borgland, A. W., Bouvier, A., Brandt, T. J., Bregeon, J., Brez, A., Brigida, M., Bruel, P., Buehler, R., Buson, S., Caliandro, G. A., Cameron, R. A., Cannon, A., Caraveo, P. A., Carrigan, S., Casandjian, J. M., Cavazzuti, E., Cecchi, C., Çelik, Ö., Charles, E., Chekhtman, A., Cheung, C. C., Chiang, J., Ciprini, S., Claus, R., Cohen-Tanugi, J., Conrad, J., Cutini, S., Dermer, C. D., de Palma, F., Silva, E. do Couto e., Drell, P. S., Dubois, R., Dumora, D., Favuzzi, C., Fegan, S. J., Ferrara, E. C., Focke, W. B., Fortin, P., Frailis, M., Fuhrmann, L., Fukazawa, Y., Funk, S., Fusco, P., Gargano, F., Gasparrini, D., Gehrels, N., Germani, S., Giglietto, N., Giordano, F., Giroletti, M., Glanzman, T., Godfrey, G., Grenier, I. A., Guillemot, L., Guiriec, S., Hayashida, M., Hays, E., Horan, D., Hughes, R. E., Jóhannesson, G., Johnson, A. S., Johnson, W. N., Kadler, M., Kamae, T., Katagiri, H., Kataoka, J., Knödlseder, J., Kuss, M., Lande, J., Latronico, L., Lee, S. -H., Lemoine-Goumard, M., Longo, F., Loparco, F., Lott, B., Lovellette, M. N., Lubrano, P., Madejski, G. M., Makeev, A., Max-Moerbeck, W., Mazziotta, M. N., McEnery, J. E., Mehault, J., Michelson, P. F., Mitthumsiri, W., Mizuno, T., Moiseev, A. A., Monte, C., Monzani, M. E., Morselli, A., Moskalenko, I. V., Murgia, S., Naumann-Godo, M., Nishino, S., Nolan, P. L., Norris, J. P., Nuss, E., Ohsugi, T., Okumura, A., Omodei, N., Orlando, E., Ormes, J. F., Paneque, D., Panetta, J. H., Parent, D., Pavlidou, V., Pearson, T. J., Pelassa, V., Pepe, M., Pesce-Rollins, M., Piron, F., Porter, T. A., Rainò, S., Rando, R., Razzano, M., Readhead, A., Reimer, A., Reimer, O., Richards, J. L., Ripken, J., Ritz, S., Roth, M., Sadrozinski, H. 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H., Godambe, S., Grube, J., Guenette, R., Gyuk, G., Hanna, D., Holder, J., Huang, D., Hui, C. M., Humensky, T. B., Kaaret, P., Karlsson, N., Kertzman, M., Kieda, D., Konopelko, A., Krawczynski, H., Krennrich, F., Lang, M. J., Maier, G., McArthur, S., McCann, A., McCutcheon, M., Moriarty, P., Mukherjee, R., Ong, R., Otte, A. N., Pandel, D., Perkins, J. S., Pichel, A., Pohl, M., Quinn, J., Ragan, K., Reyes, L. C., Reynolds, P. T., Roache, E., Rose, H. J., Rovero, A. C., Schroedter, M., Sembroski, G. H., Senturk, G. D., Steele, D., Swordy, S. P., Tešić, G., Theiling, M., Thibadeau, S., Varlotta, A., Vincent, S., Wakely, S. P., Ward, J. E., Weekes, T. C., Weinstein, A., Weisgarber, T., Williams, D. A., Wood, M., Zitzer, B., Villata, M., Raiteri, C. M., Aller, H. D., Aller, M. F., Arkharov, A. A., Blinov, D. A., Calcidese, P., Chen, W. P., Efimova, N. V., Kimeridze, G., Konstantinova, T. S., Kopatskaya, E. N., Koptelova, E., Kurtanidze, O. M., Kurtanidze, S. O., Lähteenmäki, A., Larionov, V. M., Larionova, E. G., Larionova, L. V., Ligustri, R., Morozova, D. A., Nikolashvili, M. G., Sigua, L. A., Troitsky, I. S., Angelakis, E., Capalbi, M., Carramiñana, A., Carrasco, L., Cassaro, P., de la Fuente, E., Gurwell, M. A., Kovalev, Y. Y., Kovalev, Yu. A., Krichbaum, T. P., Krimm, H. A., Leto, P., Lister, M. L., Maccaferri, G., Moody, J. W., Mori, Y., Nestoras, I., Orlati, A., Pagani, C., Pace, C., Pearson, R., Perri, M., Piner, B. G., Pushkarev, A. B., Ros, E., Sadun, A. C., Sakamoto, T., Tornikoski, M., Yatsu, Y., and Zook, A. Wed . "Insights Into the High-energy γ-ray Emission of Markarian 501 from Extensive Multifrequency Observations in the Fermi Era". United States. doi:10.1088/0004-637X/727/2/129. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1357266.
@article{osti_1357266,
title = {Insights Into the High-energy γ-ray Emission of Markarian 501 from Extensive Multifrequency Observations in the Fermi Era},
author = {Abdo, A. A. and Ackermann, M. and Ajello, M. and Allafort, A. and Baldini, L. and Ballet, J. and Barbiellini, G. and Baring, M. G. and Bastieri, D. and Bechtol, K. and Bellazzini, R. and Berenji, B. and Blandford, R. D. and Bloom, E. D. and Bonamente, E. and Borgland, A. W. and Bouvier, A. and Brandt, T. J. and Bregeon, J. and Brez, A. and Brigida, M. and Bruel, P. and Buehler, R. and Buson, S. and Caliandro, G. A. and Cameron, R. A. and Cannon, A. and Caraveo, P. A. and Carrigan, S. and Casandjian, J. M. and Cavazzuti, E. and Cecchi, C. and Çelik, Ö. and Charles, E. and Chekhtman, A. and Cheung, C. C. and Chiang, J. and Ciprini, S. and Claus, R. and Cohen-Tanugi, J. and Conrad, J. and Cutini, S. and Dermer, C. D. and de Palma, F. and Silva, E. do Couto e. and Drell, P. S. and Dubois, R. and Dumora, D. and Favuzzi, C. and Fegan, S. J. and Ferrara, E. C. and Focke, W. B. and Fortin, P. and Frailis, M. and Fuhrmann, L. and Fukazawa, Y. and Funk, S. and Fusco, P. and Gargano, F. and Gasparrini, D. and Gehrels, N. and Germani, S. and Giglietto, N. and Giordano, F. and Giroletti, M. and Glanzman, T. and Godfrey, G. and Grenier, I. A. and Guillemot, L. and Guiriec, S. and Hayashida, M. and Hays, E. and Horan, D. and Hughes, R. E. and Jóhannesson, G. and Johnson, A. S. and Johnson, W. N. and Kadler, M. and Kamae, T. and Katagiri, H. and Kataoka, J. and Knödlseder, J. and Kuss, M. and Lande, J. and Latronico, L. and Lee, S. -H. and Lemoine-Goumard, M. and Longo, F. and Loparco, F. and Lott, B. and Lovellette, M. N. and Lubrano, P. and Madejski, G. M. and Makeev, A. and Max-Moerbeck, W. and Mazziotta, M. N. and McEnery, J. E. and Mehault, J. and Michelson, P. F. and Mitthumsiri, W. and Mizuno, T. and Moiseev, A. A. and Monte, C. and Monzani, M. E. and Morselli, A. and Moskalenko, I. V. and Murgia, S. and Naumann-Godo, M. and Nishino, S. and Nolan, P. L. and Norris, J. P. and Nuss, E. and Ohsugi, T. and Okumura, A. and Omodei, N. and Orlando, E. and Ormes, J. F. and Paneque, D. and Panetta, J. H. and Parent, D. and Pavlidou, V. and Pearson, T. J. and Pelassa, V. and Pepe, M. and Pesce-Rollins, M. and Piron, F. and Porter, T. A. and Rainò, S. and Rando, R. and Razzano, M. and Readhead, A. and Reimer, A. and Reimer, O. and Richards, J. L. and Ripken, J. and Ritz, S. and Roth, M. and Sadrozinski, H. F. -W. and Sanchez, D. and Sander, A. and Scargle, J. D. and Sgrò, C. and Siskind, E. J. and Smith, P. D. and Spandre, G. and Spinelli, P. and Stawarz, Ł. and Stevenson, M. and Strickman, M. S. and Sokolovsky, K. V. and Suson, D. J. and Takahashi, H. and Takahashi, T. and Tanaka, T. and Thayer, J. B. and Thayer, J. G. and Thompson, D. J. and Tibaldo, L. and Torres, D. F. and Tosti, G. and Tramacere, A. and Uchiyama, Y. and Usher, T. L. and Vandenbroucke, J. and Vasileiou, V. and Vilchez, N. and Vitale, V. and Waite, A. P. and Wang, P. and Wehrle, A. E. and Winer, B. L. and Wood, K. S. and Yang, Z. and Ylinen, T. and Zensus, J. A. and Ziegler, M. and Aleksić, J. and Antonelli, L. A. and Antoranz, P. and Backes, M. and Barrio, J. A. and González, J. Becerra and Bednarek, W. and Berdyugin, A. and Berger, K. and Bernardini, E. and Biland, A. and Blanch, O. and Bock, R. K. and Boller, A. and Bonnoli, G. and Bordas, P. and Tridon, D. Borla and Bosch-Ramon, V. and Bose, D. and Braun, I. and Bretz, T. and Camara, M. and Carmona, E. and Carosi, A. and Colin, P. and Colombo, E. and Contreras, J. L. and Cortina, J. and Covino, S. and Dazzi, F. and de Angelis, A. and Pozo, E. De Cea del and De Lotto, B. and De Maria, M. and De Sabata, F. and Mendez, C. Delgado and Ortega, A. Diago and Doert, M. and Domínguez, A. and Prester, D. Dominis and Dorner, D. and Doro, M. and Elsaesser, D. and Ferenc, D. and Fonseca, M. V. and Font, L. and López, R. J. García and Garczarczyk, M. and Gaug, M. and Giavitto, G. and Godinovi, N. and Hadasch, D. and Herrero, A. and Hildebrand, D. and Höhne-Mönch, D. and Hose, J. and Hrupec, D. and Jogler, T. and Klepser, S. and Krähenbühl, T. and Kranich, D. and Krause, J. and Barbera, A. La and Leonardo, E. and Lindfors, E. and Lombardi, S. and López, M. and Lorenz, E. and Majumdar, P. and Makariev, E. and Maneva, G. and Mankuzhiyil, N. and Mannheim, K. and Maraschi, L. and Mariotti, M. and Martínez, M. and Mazin, D. and Meucci, M. and Miranda, J. M. and Mirzoyan, R. and Miyamoto, H. and Moldón, J. and Moralejo, A. and Nieto, D. and Nilsson, K. and Orito, R. and Oya, I. and Paoletti, R. and Paredes, J. M. and Partini, S. and Pasanen, M. and Pauss, F. and Pegna, R. G. and Perez-Torres, M. A. and Persic, M. and Peruzzo, J. and Pochon, J. and Moroni, P. G. Prada and Prada, F. and Prandini, E. and Puchades, N. and Puljak, I. and Reichardt, T. and Reinthal, R. and Rhode, W. and Ribó, M. and Rico, J. and Rissi, M. and Rügamer, S. and Saggion, A. and Saito, K. and Saito, T. Y. and Salvati, M. and Sánchez-Conde, M. and Satalecka, K. and Scalzotto, V. and Scapin, V. and Schultz, C. and Schweizer, T. and Shayduk, M. and Shore, S. N. and Sierpowska-Bartosik, A. and Sillanpää, A. and Sitarek, J. and Sobczynska, D. and Spanier, F. and Spiro, S. and Stamerra, A. and Steinke, B. and Storz, J. and Strah, N. and Struebig, J. C. and Suric, T. and Takalo, L. O. and Tavecchio, F. and Temnikov, P. and Terzić, T. and Tescaro, D. and Teshima, M. and Vankov, H. and Wagner, R. M. and Weitzel, Q. and Zabalza, V. and Zandanel, F. and Zanin, R. and Acciari, V. A. and Arlen, T. and Aune, T. and Benbow, W. and Boltuch, D. and Bradbury, S. M. and Buckley, J. H. and Bugaev, V. and Cannon, A. and Cesarini, A. and Ciupik, L. and Cui, W. and Dickherber, R. and Errando, M. and Falcone, A. and Finley, J. P. and Finnegan, G. and Fortson, L. and Furniss, A. and Galante, N. and Gall, D. and Gillanders, G. H. and Godambe, S. and Grube, J. and Guenette, R. and Gyuk, G. and Hanna, D. and Holder, J. and Huang, D. and Hui, C. M. and Humensky, T. B. and Kaaret, P. and Karlsson, N. and Kertzman, M. and Kieda, D. and Konopelko, A. and Krawczynski, H. and Krennrich, F. and Lang, M. J. and Maier, G. and McArthur, S. and McCann, A. and McCutcheon, M. and Moriarty, P. and Mukherjee, R. and Ong, R. and Otte, A. N. and Pandel, D. and Perkins, J. S. and Pichel, A. and Pohl, M. and Quinn, J. and Ragan, K. and Reyes, L. C. and Reynolds, P. T. and Roache, E. and Rose, H. J. and Rovero, A. C. and Schroedter, M. and Sembroski, G. H. and Senturk, G. D. and Steele, D. and Swordy, S. P. and Tešić, G. and Theiling, M. and Thibadeau, S. and Varlotta, A. and Vincent, S. and Wakely, S. P. and Ward, J. E. and Weekes, T. C. and Weinstein, A. and Weisgarber, T. and Williams, D. A. and Wood, M. and Zitzer, B. and Villata, M. and Raiteri, C. M. and Aller, H. D. and Aller, M. F. and Arkharov, A. A. and Blinov, D. A. and Calcidese, P. and Chen, W. P. and Efimova, N. V. and Kimeridze, G. and Konstantinova, T. S. and Kopatskaya, E. N. and Koptelova, E. and Kurtanidze, O. M. and Kurtanidze, S. O. and Lähteenmäki, A. and Larionov, V. M. and Larionova, E. G. and Larionova, L. V. and Ligustri, R. and Morozova, D. A. and Nikolashvili, M. G. and Sigua, L. A. and Troitsky, I. S. and Angelakis, E. and Capalbi, M. and Carramiñana, A. and Carrasco, L. and Cassaro, P. and de la Fuente, E. and Gurwell, M. A. and Kovalev, Y. Y. and Kovalev, Yu. A. and Krichbaum, T. P. and Krimm, H. A. and Leto, P. and Lister, M. L. and Maccaferri, G. and Moody, J. W. and Mori, Y. and Nestoras, I. and Orlati, A. and Pagani, C. and Pace, C. and Pearson, R. and Perri, M. and Piner, B. G. and Pushkarev, A. B. and Ros, E. and Sadun, A. C. and Sakamoto, T. and Tornikoski, M. and Yatsu, Y. and Zook, A.},
abstractNote = {Here, we report on the γ-ray activity of the blazar Mrk 501 during the first 480 days of Fermi operation. We find that the average Large Area Telescope (LAT) γ-ray spectrum of Mrk 501 can be well described by a single power-law function with a photon index of 1.78 ± 0.03. While we observe relatively mild flux variations with the Fermi-LAT (within less than a factor of two), we detect remarkable spectral variability where the hardest observed spectral index within the LAT energy range is 1.52 ± 0.14, and the softest one is 2.51 ± 0.20. These unexpected spectral changes do not correlate with the measured flux variations above 0.3 GeV. In this paper, we also present the first results from the 4.5 month long multifrequency campaign (2009 March 15—August 1) on Mrk 501, which included the Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA), Swift, RXTE, MAGIC, and VERITAS, the F-GAMMA, GASP-WEBT, and other collaborations and instruments which provided excellent temporal and energy coverage of the source throughout the entire campaign. The extensive radio to TeV data set from this campaign provides us with the most detailed spectral energy distribution yet collected for this source during its relatively low activity. The average spectral energy distribution of Mrk 501 is well described by the standard one-zone synchrotron self-Compton (SSC) model. In the framework of this model, we find that the dominant emission region is characterized by a size $\lesssim$0.1 pc (comparable within a factor of few to the size of the partially resolved VLBA core at 15-43 GHz), and that the total jet power (~1044 erg s–1) constitutes only a small fraction (~10–3) of the Eddington luminosity. The energy distribution of the freshly accelerated radiating electrons required to fit the time-averaged data has a broken power-law form in the energy range 0.3 GeV-10 TeV, with spectral indices 2.2 and 2.7 below and above the break energy of 20 GeV. We argue that such a form is consistent with a scenario in which the bulk of the energy dissipation within the dominant emission zone of Mrk 501 is due to relativistic, proton-mediated shocks. We find that the ultrarelativistic electrons and mildly relativistic protons within the blazar zone, if comparable in number, are in approximate energy equipartition, with their energy dominating the jet magnetic field energy by about two orders of magnitude.},
doi = {10.1088/0004-637X/727/2/129},
journal = {Astrophysical Journal},
number = 2,
volume = 727,
place = {United States},
year = {2011},
month = {1}
}

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