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Title: PSR J2021+4026 in the gamma Cygni region: The first variable γ-ray pulsar seen by the Fermi LAT

Abstract

Here, long-term monitoring of PSR J2021+4026 in the heart of the Cygnus region with the Fermi Large Area Telescope unveiled a sudden decrease in flux above 100 MeV over a timescale shorter than a week. The "jump" was near MJD 55850 (2011 October 16), with the flux decreasing from (8.33 ± 0.08) × 10 –10 erg cm –2 s –1 to (6.86 ± 0.13) × 10 –10 erg cm –2 s –1. Simultaneously, the frequency spindown rate increased from (7.8 ± 0.1) × 10 –13 Hz s –1 to (8.1 ± 0.1) × 10 –13 Hz s –1. Significant (>5σ) changes in the pulse profile and marginal (<3σ) changes in the emission spectrum occurred at the same time. There is also evidence for a small, steady flux increase over the 3 yr preceding MJD 55850. This is the first observation at γ-ray energies of mode changes and intermittent behavior, observed at radio wavelengths for other pulsars. Furthermore, we argue that the change in pulsed γ-ray emission is due to a change in emission beaming and we speculate that it is precipitated by a shift in the magnetic field structure, leading to a change of either effective magnetic inclination or effectivemore » current.« less

Authors:
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Publication Date:
Research Org.:
SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE
OSTI Identifier:
1356554
Grant/Contract Number:  
AC02-76SF00515
Resource Type:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Astrophysical Journal Letters
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 777; Journal Issue: 1; Journal ID: ISSN 2041-8205
Publisher:
Institute of Physics (IOP)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
79 ASTRONOMY AND ASTROPHYSICS; gamma rays: stars; pulsars: individual (PSR J2021+4026); stars: neutron

Citation Formats

Allafort, A., Baldini, L., Ballet, J., Barbiellini, G., Baring, M. G., Bastieri, D., Bellazzini, R., Bonamente, E., Bottacini, E., Brandt, T. J., Bregeon, J., Bruel, P., Buehler, R., Buson, S., Caliandro, G. A., Cameron, R. A., Caraveo, P. A., Cecchi, C., Chaves, R. C. G., Chekhtman, A., Chiang, J., Chiaro, G., Ciprini, S., Claus, R., D'Ammando, F., de Palma, F., Digel, S. W., Di Venere, L., Drell, P. S., Favuzzi, C., Ferrara, E. C., Franckowiak, A., Fusco, P., Gargano, F., Gasparrini, D., Giglietto, N., Giroletti, M., Glanzman, T., Godfrey, G., Grenier, I. A., Guiriec, S., Hadasch, D., Harding, A. K., Hayashida, M., Hayashi, K., Hays, E., Hewitt, J., Hill, A. B., Horan, D., Hou, X., Jogler, T., Johnson, A. S., Johnson, T. J., Kerr, M., Knödlseder, J., Kuss, M., Lande, J., Larsson, S., Latronico, L., Lemoine-Goumard, M., Longo, F., Loparco, F., Lubrano, P., Malyshev, D., Marelli, M., Mayer, M., Mazziotta, M. N., Mehault, J., Mizuno, T., Monzani, M. E., Morselli, A., Murgia, S., Nemmen, R., Nuss, E., Ohsugi, T., Omodei, N., Orienti, M., Orlando, E., Paneque, D., Pesce-Rollins, M., Pierbattista, M., Piron, F., Pivato, G., Porter, T. A., Rainò, S., Rando, R., Ray, P. S., Razzano, M., Reimer, O., Reposeur, T., Romani, R. W., Sartori, A., Saz Parkinson, P. M., Sgrò, C., Siskind, E. J., Smith, D. A., Spinelli, P., Strong, A. W., Takahashi, H., Thayer, J. B., Thompson, D. J., Tibaldo, L., Tinivella, M., Torres, D. F., Tosti, G., Uchiyama, Y., Usher, T. L., Vandenbroucke, J., Vasileiou, V., Venter, C., Vianello, G., Vitale, V., Winer, B. L., and Wood, K. S. PSR J2021+4026 in the gamma Cygni region: The first variable γ-ray pulsar seen by the Fermi LAT. United States: N. p., 2013. Web. doi:10.1088/2041-8205/777/1/L2.
Allafort, A., Baldini, L., Ballet, J., Barbiellini, G., Baring, M. G., Bastieri, D., Bellazzini, R., Bonamente, E., Bottacini, E., Brandt, T. J., Bregeon, J., Bruel, P., Buehler, R., Buson, S., Caliandro, G. A., Cameron, R. A., Caraveo, P. A., Cecchi, C., Chaves, R. C. G., Chekhtman, A., Chiang, J., Chiaro, G., Ciprini, S., Claus, R., D'Ammando, F., de Palma, F., Digel, S. W., Di Venere, L., Drell, P. S., Favuzzi, C., Ferrara, E. C., Franckowiak, A., Fusco, P., Gargano, F., Gasparrini, D., Giglietto, N., Giroletti, M., Glanzman, T., Godfrey, G., Grenier, I. A., Guiriec, S., Hadasch, D., Harding, A. K., Hayashida, M., Hayashi, K., Hays, E., Hewitt, J., Hill, A. B., Horan, D., Hou, X., Jogler, T., Johnson, A. S., Johnson, T. J., Kerr, M., Knödlseder, J., Kuss, M., Lande, J., Larsson, S., Latronico, L., Lemoine-Goumard, M., Longo, F., Loparco, F., Lubrano, P., Malyshev, D., Marelli, M., Mayer, M., Mazziotta, M. N., Mehault, J., Mizuno, T., Monzani, M. E., Morselli, A., Murgia, S., Nemmen, R., Nuss, E., Ohsugi, T., Omodei, N., Orienti, M., Orlando, E., Paneque, D., Pesce-Rollins, M., Pierbattista, M., Piron, F., Pivato, G., Porter, T. A., Rainò, S., Rando, R., Ray, P. S., Razzano, M., Reimer, O., Reposeur, T., Romani, R. W., Sartori, A., Saz Parkinson, P. M., Sgrò, C., Siskind, E. J., Smith, D. A., Spinelli, P., Strong, A. W., Takahashi, H., Thayer, J. B., Thompson, D. J., Tibaldo, L., Tinivella, M., Torres, D. F., Tosti, G., Uchiyama, Y., Usher, T. L., Vandenbroucke, J., Vasileiou, V., Venter, C., Vianello, G., Vitale, V., Winer, B. L., & Wood, K. S. PSR J2021+4026 in the gamma Cygni region: The first variable γ-ray pulsar seen by the Fermi LAT. United States. doi:10.1088/2041-8205/777/1/L2.
Allafort, A., Baldini, L., Ballet, J., Barbiellini, G., Baring, M. G., Bastieri, D., Bellazzini, R., Bonamente, E., Bottacini, E., Brandt, T. J., Bregeon, J., Bruel, P., Buehler, R., Buson, S., Caliandro, G. A., Cameron, R. A., Caraveo, P. A., Cecchi, C., Chaves, R. C. G., Chekhtman, A., Chiang, J., Chiaro, G., Ciprini, S., Claus, R., D'Ammando, F., de Palma, F., Digel, S. W., Di Venere, L., Drell, P. S., Favuzzi, C., Ferrara, E. C., Franckowiak, A., Fusco, P., Gargano, F., Gasparrini, D., Giglietto, N., Giroletti, M., Glanzman, T., Godfrey, G., Grenier, I. A., Guiriec, S., Hadasch, D., Harding, A. K., Hayashida, M., Hayashi, K., Hays, E., Hewitt, J., Hill, A. B., Horan, D., Hou, X., Jogler, T., Johnson, A. S., Johnson, T. J., Kerr, M., Knödlseder, J., Kuss, M., Lande, J., Larsson, S., Latronico, L., Lemoine-Goumard, M., Longo, F., Loparco, F., Lubrano, P., Malyshev, D., Marelli, M., Mayer, M., Mazziotta, M. N., Mehault, J., Mizuno, T., Monzani, M. E., Morselli, A., Murgia, S., Nemmen, R., Nuss, E., Ohsugi, T., Omodei, N., Orienti, M., Orlando, E., Paneque, D., Pesce-Rollins, M., Pierbattista, M., Piron, F., Pivato, G., Porter, T. A., Rainò, S., Rando, R., Ray, P. S., Razzano, M., Reimer, O., Reposeur, T., Romani, R. W., Sartori, A., Saz Parkinson, P. M., Sgrò, C., Siskind, E. J., Smith, D. A., Spinelli, P., Strong, A. W., Takahashi, H., Thayer, J. B., Thompson, D. J., Tibaldo, L., Tinivella, M., Torres, D. F., Tosti, G., Uchiyama, Y., Usher, T. L., Vandenbroucke, J., Vasileiou, V., Venter, C., Vianello, G., Vitale, V., Winer, B. L., and Wood, K. S. Wed . "PSR J2021+4026 in the gamma Cygni region: The first variable γ-ray pulsar seen by the Fermi LAT". United States. doi:10.1088/2041-8205/777/1/L2. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1356554.
@article{osti_1356554,
title = {PSR J2021+4026 in the gamma Cygni region: The first variable γ-ray pulsar seen by the Fermi LAT},
author = {Allafort, A. and Baldini, L. and Ballet, J. and Barbiellini, G. and Baring, M. G. and Bastieri, D. and Bellazzini, R. and Bonamente, E. and Bottacini, E. and Brandt, T. J. and Bregeon, J. and Bruel, P. and Buehler, R. and Buson, S. and Caliandro, G. A. and Cameron, R. A. and Caraveo, P. A. and Cecchi, C. and Chaves, R. C. G. and Chekhtman, A. and Chiang, J. and Chiaro, G. and Ciprini, S. and Claus, R. and D'Ammando, F. and de Palma, F. and Digel, S. W. and Di Venere, L. and Drell, P. S. and Favuzzi, C. and Ferrara, E. C. and Franckowiak, A. and Fusco, P. and Gargano, F. and Gasparrini, D. and Giglietto, N. and Giroletti, M. and Glanzman, T. and Godfrey, G. and Grenier, I. A. and Guiriec, S. and Hadasch, D. and Harding, A. K. and Hayashida, M. and Hayashi, K. and Hays, E. and Hewitt, J. and Hill, A. B. and Horan, D. and Hou, X. and Jogler, T. and Johnson, A. S. and Johnson, T. J. and Kerr, M. and Knödlseder, J. and Kuss, M. and Lande, J. and Larsson, S. and Latronico, L. and Lemoine-Goumard, M. and Longo, F. and Loparco, F. and Lubrano, P. and Malyshev, D. and Marelli, M. and Mayer, M. and Mazziotta, M. N. and Mehault, J. and Mizuno, T. and Monzani, M. E. and Morselli, A. and Murgia, S. and Nemmen, R. and Nuss, E. and Ohsugi, T. and Omodei, N. and Orienti, M. and Orlando, E. and Paneque, D. and Pesce-Rollins, M. and Pierbattista, M. and Piron, F. and Pivato, G. and Porter, T. A. and Rainò, S. and Rando, R. and Ray, P. S. and Razzano, M. and Reimer, O. and Reposeur, T. and Romani, R. W. and Sartori, A. and Saz Parkinson, P. M. and Sgrò, C. and Siskind, E. J. and Smith, D. A. and Spinelli, P. and Strong, A. W. and Takahashi, H. and Thayer, J. B. and Thompson, D. J. and Tibaldo, L. and Tinivella, M. and Torres, D. F. and Tosti, G. and Uchiyama, Y. and Usher, T. L. and Vandenbroucke, J. and Vasileiou, V. and Venter, C. and Vianello, G. and Vitale, V. and Winer, B. L. and Wood, K. S.},
abstractNote = {Here, long-term monitoring of PSR J2021+4026 in the heart of the Cygnus region with the Fermi Large Area Telescope unveiled a sudden decrease in flux above 100 MeV over a timescale shorter than a week. The "jump" was near MJD 55850 (2011 October 16), with the flux decreasing from (8.33 ± 0.08) × 10–10 erg cm–2 s–1 to (6.86 ± 0.13) × 10–10 erg cm–2 s–1. Simultaneously, the frequency spindown rate increased from (7.8 ± 0.1) × 10–13 Hz s–1 to (8.1 ± 0.1) × 10–13 Hz s–1. Significant (>5σ) changes in the pulse profile and marginal (<3σ) changes in the emission spectrum occurred at the same time. There is also evidence for a small, steady flux increase over the 3 yr preceding MJD 55850. This is the first observation at γ-ray energies of mode changes and intermittent behavior, observed at radio wavelengths for other pulsars. Furthermore, we argue that the change in pulsed γ-ray emission is due to a change in emission beaming and we speculate that it is precipitated by a shift in the magnetic field structure, leading to a change of either effective magnetic inclination or effective current.},
doi = {10.1088/2041-8205/777/1/L2},
journal = {Astrophysical Journal Letters},
number = 1,
volume = 777,
place = {United States},
year = {2013},
month = {10}
}

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