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Title: A lithium–oxygen battery based on lithium superoxide

Batteries based on sodium superoxide and on potassium superoxide have recently been reported(1-3). But, there have been no reports of a battery based on lithium superoxide (LiO 2), despite much research(4-8) into the lithium-oxygen (Li-O 2) battery because of its potential high energy density. Several studies(9-16) of Li-O 2 batteries have found evidence of LiO 2 being formed as one component of the discharge product along with lithium peroxide (Li 2O 2). In addition, theoretical calculations have indicated that some forms of LiO 2 may have a long lifetime(17). Our studies also suggest that it might be possible to form LiO 2 alone for use in a battery. However, solid LiO 2 has been difficult to synthesize in pure form(18) because it is thermodynamically unstable with respect to disproportionation, giving Li 2O 2 (refs 19, 20). We show that crystalline LiO 2 can be stabilized in a Li-O 2 battery by using a suitable graphene-based cathode. Various characterization techniques reveal no evidence for the presence of Li 2O 2. A novel templating growth mechanism involving the use of iridium nanoparticles on the cathode surface may be responsible for the growth of crystalline LiO 2. Our results demonstrate that the LiOmore » 2 formed in the Li-O 2 battery is stable enough for the battery to be repeatedly charged and discharged with a very low charge potential (about 3.2 volts). We also anticipate that this discovery will lead to methods of synthesizing and stabilizing LiO 2, which could open the way to high-energy-density batteries based on LiO 2 as well as to other possible uses of this compound, such as oxygen storage.« less
Authors:
 [1] ;  [2] ;  [3] ;  [4] ;  [5] ;  [4] ;  [4] ;  [6] ;  [1] ;  [1] ;  [6] ;  [2] ;  [2] ;  [7] ;  [8] ;  [5] ;  [2] ;  [4] ;  [1]
  1. Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Chemical Sciences and Engineering Division
  2. Hanyang Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of). Dept. of Energy Engineering
  3. Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Materials Science Division; Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States). Dept. of Metallurgical Engineering
  4. Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Materials Science Division
  5. Univ. of Illinois, Chicago, IL (United States). Dept. of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering
  6. Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Center for Nanoscale Materials
  7. Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States). Dept. of Metallurgical Engineering
  8. Univ. of Louisville, KY (United States). Conn Center for Renewable Energy Research
Publication Date:
Grant/Contract Number:
AC02-06CH11357
Type:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Nature (London)
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Name: Nature (London); Journal Volume: 529; Journal Issue: 7586; Journal ID: ISSN 0028-0836
Publisher:
Nature Publishing Group
Research Org:
Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)
Sponsoring Org:
USDOE Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), Vehicle Technologies Office (EE-3V); USDOE Office of Science (SC), Basic Energy Sciences (BES) (SC-22)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
25 ENERGY STORAGE
OSTI Identifier:
1352638