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Title: Low-Cost High-Energy Potassium Cathode

Abstract

Potassium has as rich an abundance as sodium in the earth, but the development of a K-ion battery is lagging behind because of the higher mass and larger ionic size of K+ than that of Li+ and Na+, which makes it difficult to identify a high-voltage and high-capacity intercalation cathode host. Here we propose a cyanoperovskite KxMnFe(CN)6 (0 ≤ x ≤ 2) as a potassium cathode: high-spin MnIII/MnII and low-spin FeIII/FeII couples have similar energies and exhibit two close plateaus centered at 3.6 V; two active K+ per formula unit enable a theoretical specific capacity of 156 mAh g-1; Mn and Fe are the two most-desired transition metals for electrodes because they are cheap and environmental friendly. As a powder prepared by an inexpensive precipitation method, the cathode delivers a specific capacity of 142 mAh g-1. Lastly, the observed voltage, capacity, and its low cost make it competitive in large-scale electricity storage applications.

Authors:
ORCiD logo [1];  [1]; ORCiD logo [1];  [1]; ORCiD logo [2];  [1];  [1]; ORCiD logo [1]
  1. Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States). Texas Materials Inst.
  2. Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Science (SC), Basic Energy Sciences (BES); National Science Foundation (NSF)
OSTI Identifier:
1352429
Report Number(s):
LA-UR-17-20899
Journal ID: ISSN 0002-7863
Grant/Contract Number:  
AC52-06NA25396l; SC0005397; CBET-1438007; 7223523
Resource Type:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Journal of the American Chemical Society
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 139; Journal Issue: 6; Journal ID: ISSN 0002-7863
Publisher:
American Chemical Society (ACS)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
36 MATERIALS SCIENCE; 25 ENERGY STORAGE; Material Science

Citation Formats

Xue, Leigang, Li, Yutao, Gao, Hongcai, Zhou, Weidong, Lü, Xujie, Kaveevivitchai, Watchareeya, Manthiram, Arumugam, and Goodenough, John B. Low-Cost High-Energy Potassium Cathode. United States: N. p., 2017. Web. https://doi.org/10.1021/jacs.6b12598.
Xue, Leigang, Li, Yutao, Gao, Hongcai, Zhou, Weidong, Lü, Xujie, Kaveevivitchai, Watchareeya, Manthiram, Arumugam, & Goodenough, John B. Low-Cost High-Energy Potassium Cathode. United States. https://doi.org/10.1021/jacs.6b12598
Xue, Leigang, Li, Yutao, Gao, Hongcai, Zhou, Weidong, Lü, Xujie, Kaveevivitchai, Watchareeya, Manthiram, Arumugam, and Goodenough, John B. Thu . "Low-Cost High-Energy Potassium Cathode". United States. https://doi.org/10.1021/jacs.6b12598. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1352429.
@article{osti_1352429,
title = {Low-Cost High-Energy Potassium Cathode},
author = {Xue, Leigang and Li, Yutao and Gao, Hongcai and Zhou, Weidong and Lü, Xujie and Kaveevivitchai, Watchareeya and Manthiram, Arumugam and Goodenough, John B.},
abstractNote = {Potassium has as rich an abundance as sodium in the earth, but the development of a K-ion battery is lagging behind because of the higher mass and larger ionic size of K+ than that of Li+ and Na+, which makes it difficult to identify a high-voltage and high-capacity intercalation cathode host. Here we propose a cyanoperovskite KxMnFe(CN)6 (0 ≤ x ≤ 2) as a potassium cathode: high-spin MnIII/MnII and low-spin FeIII/FeII couples have similar energies and exhibit two close plateaus centered at 3.6 V; two active K+ per formula unit enable a theoretical specific capacity of 156 mAh g-1; Mn and Fe are the two most-desired transition metals for electrodes because they are cheap and environmental friendly. As a powder prepared by an inexpensive precipitation method, the cathode delivers a specific capacity of 142 mAh g-1. Lastly, the observed voltage, capacity, and its low cost make it competitive in large-scale electricity storage applications.},
doi = {10.1021/jacs.6b12598},
journal = {Journal of the American Chemical Society},
number = 6,
volume = 139,
place = {United States},
year = {2017},
month = {1}
}

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Figures / Tables:

Figure 1 Figure 1: Figure 1. Preparation illustration, SEM and STEM images of (a1, a2, a3) KxMnFe(CN)6 using K+ precursors; (b1, b2, b3) NayMnFe(CN)6 using Na+ precursors. (c1, c2, c3) When Na+ and K+ co-exist with a molar ratio of 1:1 in the solution, only K+ is precipitated (see EDS, XRD andmore » ICP), but the 40 nm nanoparticles in diameter aggregate to bigger secondary particles (350 nm) due to a Na+-induced crystallization. (x ≈ 2, y ≈ 2)« less

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