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Title: Spectroscopic characterization of HD 95086 b with the Gemini Planet Imager

Abstract

Here, we present new H (1.5–1.8 μm) photometric and K 1 (1.9–2.2 μm) spectroscopic observations of the young exoplanet HD 95086 b obtained with the Gemini Planet Imager. The H-band magnitude has been significantly improved relative to previous measurements, whereas the low-resolution K 1 ($$\lambda /\delta \lambda \approx 66$$) spectrum is featureless within the measurement uncertainties and presents a monotonically increasing pseudo-continuum consistent with a cloudy atmosphere. By combining these new measurements with literature $$L^{\prime} $$ photometry, we compare the spectral energy distribution (SED) of the planet to other young planetary-mass companions, field brown dwarfs, and to the predictions of grids of model atmospheres. HD 95086 b is over a magnitude redder in $${K}_{1}-L^{\prime} $$ color than 2MASS J12073346–3932539 b and HR 8799 c and d, despite having a similar $$L^{\prime} $$ magnitude. Considering only the near-infrared measurements, HD 95086 b is most analogous to the brown dwarfs 2MASS J2244316+204343 and 2MASS J21481633+4003594, both of which are thought to have dusty atmospheres. Morphologically, the SED of HD 95086 b is best fit by low temperature ($${T}_{{\rm{eff}}}$$ = 800–1300 K), low surface gravity spectra from models which simulate high photospheric dust content. This range of effective temperatures is consistent with field L/T transition objects, but the spectral type of HD 95086 b is poorly constrained between early L and late T due to its unusual position the color–magnitude diagram, demonstrating the difficulty in spectral typing young, low surface gravity substellar objects. As one of the reddest such objects, HD 95086 b represents an important empirical benchmark against which our current understanding of the atmospheric properties of young extrasolar planets can be tested.

Authors:
ORCiD logo [1];  [2];  [3];  [1];  [2]; ORCiD logo [2]; ORCiD logo [4];  [5];  [3]; ORCiD logo [1];  [3];  [6];  [7];  [8]; ORCiD logo [9];  [10];  [11];  [7];  [12]; ORCiD logo [13] more »; ORCiD logo [14];  [12];  [15];  [16];  [13];  [17]; ORCiD logo [18]; ORCiD logo [19]; ORCiD logo [20]; ORCiD logo [21]; ORCiD logo [11]; ORCiD logo [22]; ORCiD logo [5]; ORCiD logo [12]; ORCiD logo [23];  [13] « less
  1. Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)
  2. Univ. de Montreal, Montreal, QC (Canada)
  3. Arizona State Univ., Tempe, AZ (United States)
  4. Stanford Univ., Stanford, CA (United States)
  5. Space Telescope Science Institute, Baltimore, MD (United States)
  6. Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States)
  7. Univ. of Toronto, Toronto, ON (Canada)
  8. Stanford Univ., Stanford, CA (United States); SETI Institute, Mountain View, CA (United States)
  9. Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)
  10. Subaru Telescope, Hilo, HI (United States)
  11. Univ. of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States)
  12. Gemini Observatory, La Serena (Chile)
  13. Univ. of Victoria, Victoria, BC (Canada)
  14. Durham Univ., Durham (United Kingdom); Gemini Observatory, Hilo, HI (United States)
  15. European Southern Observatory, Santiago (Chile)
  16. Large Synoptic Survey Telescope, Tucson, AZ (United States)
  17. Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); SETI Institute, Mountain View, CA (United States)
  18. Univ. of California San Diego, La Jolla, CA (United States)
  19. SETI Institute, Mountain View, CA (United States)
  20. Univ. of Victoria, Victoria, BC (Canada); National Research Council of Canada Herzberg, Victoria, BC (Canada)
  21. The Univ. of Western Ontario, London, ON (Canada); Stony Brook Univ., Stony Brook, NY (United States)
  22. American Museum of Natural History, New York, NY (United States)
  23. Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY (United States)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE
OSTI Identifier:
1352121
Report Number(s):
LLNL-JRNL-717745
Journal ID: ISSN 1538-4357
Grant/Contract Number:  
AC52-07NA27344; NNX15AD95G/NEXSS; NNX15AC89G; NNX14AJ80G
Resource Type:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
The Astrophysical Journal (Online)
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Name: The Astrophysical Journal (Online); Journal Volume: 824; Journal Issue: 2; Journal ID: ISSN 1538-4357
Publisher:
Institute of Physics (IOP)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
79 ASTRONOMY AND ASTROPHYSICS; infrared: planetary systems; instrumentation: adaptive optics; planets and satellites: atmospheres; stars: individual (HD 95086)

Citation Formats

De Rosa, Robert J., Rameau, Julien, Patience, Jenny, Graham, James R., Doyon, René, Lafrenière, David, Macintosh, Bruce, Pueyo, Laurent, Rajan, Abhijith, Wang, Jason J., Ward-Duong, Kimberly, Hung, Li -Wei, Maire, Jérôme, Nielsen, Eric L., Ammons, S. Mark, Bulger, Joanna, Cardwell, Andrew, Chilcote, Jeffrey K., Galvez, Ramon L., Gerard, Benjamin L., Goodsell, Stephen, Hartung, Markus, Hibon, Pascale, Ingraham, Patrick, Johnson-Groh, Mara, Kalas, Paul, Konopacky, Quinn M., Marchis, Franck, Marois, Christian, Metchev, Stanimir, Morzinski, Katie M., Oppenheimer, Rebecca, Perrin, Marshall D., Rantakyrö, Fredrik T., Savransky, Dmitry, and Thomas, Sandrine. Spectroscopic characterization of HD 95086 b with the Gemini Planet Imager. United States: N. p., 2016. Web. https://doi.org/10.3847/0004-637X/824/2/121.
De Rosa, Robert J., Rameau, Julien, Patience, Jenny, Graham, James R., Doyon, René, Lafrenière, David, Macintosh, Bruce, Pueyo, Laurent, Rajan, Abhijith, Wang, Jason J., Ward-Duong, Kimberly, Hung, Li -Wei, Maire, Jérôme, Nielsen, Eric L., Ammons, S. Mark, Bulger, Joanna, Cardwell, Andrew, Chilcote, Jeffrey K., Galvez, Ramon L., Gerard, Benjamin L., Goodsell, Stephen, Hartung, Markus, Hibon, Pascale, Ingraham, Patrick, Johnson-Groh, Mara, Kalas, Paul, Konopacky, Quinn M., Marchis, Franck, Marois, Christian, Metchev, Stanimir, Morzinski, Katie M., Oppenheimer, Rebecca, Perrin, Marshall D., Rantakyrö, Fredrik T., Savransky, Dmitry, & Thomas, Sandrine. Spectroscopic characterization of HD 95086 b with the Gemini Planet Imager. United States. https://doi.org/10.3847/0004-637X/824/2/121
De Rosa, Robert J., Rameau, Julien, Patience, Jenny, Graham, James R., Doyon, René, Lafrenière, David, Macintosh, Bruce, Pueyo, Laurent, Rajan, Abhijith, Wang, Jason J., Ward-Duong, Kimberly, Hung, Li -Wei, Maire, Jérôme, Nielsen, Eric L., Ammons, S. Mark, Bulger, Joanna, Cardwell, Andrew, Chilcote, Jeffrey K., Galvez, Ramon L., Gerard, Benjamin L., Goodsell, Stephen, Hartung, Markus, Hibon, Pascale, Ingraham, Patrick, Johnson-Groh, Mara, Kalas, Paul, Konopacky, Quinn M., Marchis, Franck, Marois, Christian, Metchev, Stanimir, Morzinski, Katie M., Oppenheimer, Rebecca, Perrin, Marshall D., Rantakyrö, Fredrik T., Savransky, Dmitry, and Thomas, Sandrine. Tue . "Spectroscopic characterization of HD 95086 b with the Gemini Planet Imager". United States. https://doi.org/10.3847/0004-637X/824/2/121. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1352121.
@article{osti_1352121,
title = {Spectroscopic characterization of HD 95086 b with the Gemini Planet Imager},
author = {De Rosa, Robert J. and Rameau, Julien and Patience, Jenny and Graham, James R. and Doyon, René and Lafrenière, David and Macintosh, Bruce and Pueyo, Laurent and Rajan, Abhijith and Wang, Jason J. and Ward-Duong, Kimberly and Hung, Li -Wei and Maire, Jérôme and Nielsen, Eric L. and Ammons, S. Mark and Bulger, Joanna and Cardwell, Andrew and Chilcote, Jeffrey K. and Galvez, Ramon L. and Gerard, Benjamin L. and Goodsell, Stephen and Hartung, Markus and Hibon, Pascale and Ingraham, Patrick and Johnson-Groh, Mara and Kalas, Paul and Konopacky, Quinn M. and Marchis, Franck and Marois, Christian and Metchev, Stanimir and Morzinski, Katie M. and Oppenheimer, Rebecca and Perrin, Marshall D. and Rantakyrö, Fredrik T. and Savransky, Dmitry and Thomas, Sandrine},
abstractNote = {Here, we present new H (1.5–1.8 μm) photometric and K 1 (1.9–2.2 μm) spectroscopic observations of the young exoplanet HD 95086 b obtained with the Gemini Planet Imager. The H-band magnitude has been significantly improved relative to previous measurements, whereas the low-resolution K 1 ($\lambda /\delta \lambda \approx 66$) spectrum is featureless within the measurement uncertainties and presents a monotonically increasing pseudo-continuum consistent with a cloudy atmosphere. By combining these new measurements with literature $L^{\prime} $ photometry, we compare the spectral energy distribution (SED) of the planet to other young planetary-mass companions, field brown dwarfs, and to the predictions of grids of model atmospheres. HD 95086 b is over a magnitude redder in ${K}_{1}-L^{\prime} $ color than 2MASS J12073346–3932539 b and HR 8799 c and d, despite having a similar $L^{\prime} $ magnitude. Considering only the near-infrared measurements, HD 95086 b is most analogous to the brown dwarfs 2MASS J2244316+204343 and 2MASS J21481633+4003594, both of which are thought to have dusty atmospheres. Morphologically, the SED of HD 95086 b is best fit by low temperature (${T}_{{\rm{eff}}}$ = 800–1300 K), low surface gravity spectra from models which simulate high photospheric dust content. This range of effective temperatures is consistent with field L/T transition objects, but the spectral type of HD 95086 b is poorly constrained between early L and late T due to its unusual position the color–magnitude diagram, demonstrating the difficulty in spectral typing young, low surface gravity substellar objects. As one of the reddest such objects, HD 95086 b represents an important empirical benchmark against which our current understanding of the atmospheric properties of young extrasolar planets can be tested.},
doi = {10.3847/0004-637X/824/2/121},
journal = {The Astrophysical Journal (Online)},
number = 2,
volume = 824,
place = {United States},
year = {2016},
month = {6}
}

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