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Title: Research Progress towards Understanding the Unique Interfaces between Concentrated Electrolytes and Electrodes for Energy Storage Applications

The electrolyte is an indispensable component in all electrochemical energy storage and conversion devices, for example, batteries. While most research efforts have been pursued on the materials side, the progress for the electrolyte is slow due to the decomposition of salts and solvents at low potentials, not to mention their complicated interactions with the electrode materials. The general properties of bulk electrolytes such as ionic conductivity, viscosity, and stability all affect the cell performance. However, for a specific electrochemical cell in which the cathode, anode and electrolyte are optimized, it is the interface between the solid electrode and the liquid electrolyte, generally referred to as the solid electrolyte interphase (SEI), that dictates the rate of ion flow in the system. The commonly used electrolyte is within the range of 1-1.2 M based on the prior optimization experience, leaving the high concentration region insufficiently recognized. Recently, electrolytes with increased concentration (> 1.0 M) have received additional attention due to quite a few interesting discoveries in cells containing concentrated electrolytes. The formation mechanism and the nature of the SEI layers derived from concentrated electrolytes could be fundamentally different from those of the traditional SEI and thus enable unusual functions that cannot bemore » realized using regular electrolytes. In this article, we provide an overview on the recent progress of high concentration electrolytes in different battery chemistries. The experimentally observed phenomena and their underlying fundamental mechanism are discussed. As a result, new insights and perspectives are proposed to inspire more revolutionary solutions to address the interfacial challenges.« less
Authors:
 [1] ;  [2] ;  [2] ;  [1] ;  [2]
  1. Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)
  2. Univ. of Arkansas, Fayetteville, AR (United States)
Publication Date:
Report Number(s):
PNNL-SA-123526
Journal ID: ISSN 2198-3844; VT1201000; WC0102000
Grant/Contract Number:
AC05-76RL01830; AC02-05CH11231; 18769
Type:
Published Article
Journal Name:
Advanced Science
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 4; Journal Issue: 8; Journal ID: ISSN 2198-3844
Publisher:
Wiley
Research Org:
Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)
Sponsoring Org:
USDOE
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
25 ENERGY STORAGE; batteries; concentrated electrolytes; interfacial stability; solvation structures; solid electrolyte interphase (SEI)
OSTI Identifier:
1349307
Alternate Identifier(s):
OSTI ID: 1349308; OSTI ID: 1378046