skip to main content
DOE PAGES title logo U.S. Department of Energy
Office of Scientific and Technical Information

Title: Surface patterning of nanoparticles with polymer patches

Abstract

Patterning of colloidal particles with chemically or topographically distinct surface domains (patches) has attracted intense research interest. Surface-patterned particles act as colloidal analogues of atoms and molecules serve as model systems in studies of phase transitions in liquid systems, behave as ‘colloidal surfactants’ and function as templates for the synthesis of hybrid particles. The generation of micrometre- and submicrometre-sized patchy colloids is now efficient but surface patterning of inorganic colloidal nanoparticles with dimensions of the order of tens of nanometres is uncommon. Such nanoparticles exhibit size- and shape-dependent optical, electronic and magnetic properties, and their assemblies show new collective properties. At present, nanoparticle patterning is limited to the generation of two-patch nanoparticles and nanoparticles with surface ripples or a ‘raspberry’ surface morphology. We demonstrate nanoparticle surface patterning, which utilizes thermodynamically driven segregation of polymer ligands from a uniform polymer brush into surface-pinned micelles following a change in solvent quality. Patch formation is reversible but can be permanently preserved using a photocrosslinking step. The methodology offers the ability to control the dimensions of patches, their spatial distribution and the number of patches per nanoparticle, in agreement with a theoretical model. The versatility of the strategy is demonstrated by patterning nanoparticles withmore » different dimensions, shapes and compositions, tethered with various types of polymers and subjected to different external stimuli. Furthermore, these patchy nanocolloids have potential applications in fundamental research, the self-assembly of nanomaterials, diagnostics, sensing and colloidal stabilization.« less

Authors:
 [1];  [1];  [1];  [1];  [1];  [1];  [2];  [3];  [3];  [4];  [5];  [6]
  1. Univ. of Toronto, ON (Canada). Dept. of Chemistry
  2. Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Center for Functional Nanomaterials; Tianjin Univ. (China). Inst. for New Energy Materials
  3. Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Center for Functional Nanomaterials
  4. Russian Academy of Sciences, Saint Petersburg (Russia). Int. of Macromolecular Compounds; St. Petersburg National Univ. of Informational Technologies, St. Petersburg (Russia). Mechanics and Optics
  5. Univ. of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC (United States). Dept. of Chemistry
  6. Univ. of Toronto, ON (Canada). Dept. of Chemistry and Inst. of Biomaterials and Biomedical Engineering and Dept. of Chemical Engineering and Applied Chemistry
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Center for Functional Nanomaterials (CFN)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Science (SC), Basic Energy Sciences (BES)
OSTI Identifier:
1336122
Report Number(s):
BNL-112583-2016-JA
Journal ID: ISSN 0028-0836; R&D Project: 16060; 16060; KC0403020
Grant/Contract Number:  
SC00112704
Resource Type:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Nature (London)
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Name: Nature (London); Journal Volume: 538; Journal Issue: 7623; Journal ID: ISSN 0028-0836
Publisher:
Nature Publishing Group
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
36 MATERIALS SCIENCE; Soft/hard interfaces; Center for Functional Nanomaterials

Citation Formats

Choueiri, Rachelle M., Galati, Elizabeth, Thérien-Aubin, Héloïse, Klinkova, Anna, Larin, Egor M., Querejeta-Fernández, Ana, Han, Lili, Xin, Huolin L., Gang, Oleg, Zhulina, Ekaterina B., Rubinstein, Michael, and Kumacheva, Eugenia. Surface patterning of nanoparticles with polymer patches. United States: N. p., 2016. Web. https://doi.org/10.1038/nature19089.
Choueiri, Rachelle M., Galati, Elizabeth, Thérien-Aubin, Héloïse, Klinkova, Anna, Larin, Egor M., Querejeta-Fernández, Ana, Han, Lili, Xin, Huolin L., Gang, Oleg, Zhulina, Ekaterina B., Rubinstein, Michael, & Kumacheva, Eugenia. Surface patterning of nanoparticles with polymer patches. United States. https://doi.org/10.1038/nature19089
Choueiri, Rachelle M., Galati, Elizabeth, Thérien-Aubin, Héloïse, Klinkova, Anna, Larin, Egor M., Querejeta-Fernández, Ana, Han, Lili, Xin, Huolin L., Gang, Oleg, Zhulina, Ekaterina B., Rubinstein, Michael, and Kumacheva, Eugenia. Wed . "Surface patterning of nanoparticles with polymer patches". United States. https://doi.org/10.1038/nature19089. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1336122.
@article{osti_1336122,
title = {Surface patterning of nanoparticles with polymer patches},
author = {Choueiri, Rachelle M. and Galati, Elizabeth and Thérien-Aubin, Héloïse and Klinkova, Anna and Larin, Egor M. and Querejeta-Fernández, Ana and Han, Lili and Xin, Huolin L. and Gang, Oleg and Zhulina, Ekaterina B. and Rubinstein, Michael and Kumacheva, Eugenia},
abstractNote = {Patterning of colloidal particles with chemically or topographically distinct surface domains (patches) has attracted intense research interest. Surface-patterned particles act as colloidal analogues of atoms and molecules serve as model systems in studies of phase transitions in liquid systems, behave as ‘colloidal surfactants’ and function as templates for the synthesis of hybrid particles. The generation of micrometre- and submicrometre-sized patchy colloids is now efficient but surface patterning of inorganic colloidal nanoparticles with dimensions of the order of tens of nanometres is uncommon. Such nanoparticles exhibit size- and shape-dependent optical, electronic and magnetic properties, and their assemblies show new collective properties. At present, nanoparticle patterning is limited to the generation of two-patch nanoparticles and nanoparticles with surface ripples or a ‘raspberry’ surface morphology. We demonstrate nanoparticle surface patterning, which utilizes thermodynamically driven segregation of polymer ligands from a uniform polymer brush into surface-pinned micelles following a change in solvent quality. Patch formation is reversible but can be permanently preserved using a photocrosslinking step. The methodology offers the ability to control the dimensions of patches, their spatial distribution and the number of patches per nanoparticle, in agreement with a theoretical model. The versatility of the strategy is demonstrated by patterning nanoparticles with different dimensions, shapes and compositions, tethered with various types of polymers and subjected to different external stimuli. Furthermore, these patchy nanocolloids have potential applications in fundamental research, the self-assembly of nanomaterials, diagnostics, sensing and colloidal stabilization.},
doi = {10.1038/nature19089},
journal = {Nature (London)},
number = 7623,
volume = 538,
place = {United States},
year = {2016},
month = {8}
}

Journal Article:
Free Publicly Available Full Text
Publisher's Version of Record

Citation Metrics:
Cited by: 28 works
Citation information provided by
Web of Science

Save / Share:

Works referenced in this record:

Patchy colloids: state of the art and perspectives
journal, January 2011

  • Bianchi, Emanuela; Blaak, Ronald; Likos, Christos N.
  • Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics, Vol. 13, Issue 14
  • DOI: 10.1039/c0cp02296a

Inhomogeneous Structure of Collapsed Polymer Brushes Under Deformation
journal, December 1995

  • Zhulina, E. B.; Birshtein, T. M.; Priamitsyn, V. A.
  • Macromolecules, Vol. 28, Issue 25
  • DOI: 10.1021/ma00129a021

Controlling the Degree of Polymerization, Bond Lengths, and Bond Angles of Plasmonic Polymers
journal, November 2012

  • Lukach, Ariella; Liu, Kun; Therien-Aubin, Heloise
  • Journal of the American Chemical Society, Vol. 134, Issue 45
  • DOI: 10.1021/ja309475e

Spontaneous assembly of subnanometre-ordered domains in the ligand shell of monolayer-protected nanoparticles
journal, April 2004

  • Jackson, Alicia M.; Myerson, Jacob W.; Stellacci, Francesco
  • Nature Materials, Vol. 3, Issue 5
  • DOI: 10.1038/nmat1116

Particles as surfactants—similarities and differences
journal, March 2002


Shape-anisotropic colloids: Building blocks for complex assemblies
journal, April 2011


Functionalization of Inorganic Nanoparticles for Bioimaging Applications
journal, October 2011

  • Erathodiyil, Nandanan; Ying, Jackie Y.
  • Accounts of Chemical Research, Vol. 44, Issue 10
  • DOI: 10.1021/ar2000327

Gold Nanoparticles in Chemical and Biological Sensing
journal, February 2012

  • Saha, Krishnendu; Agasti, Sarit S.; Kim, Chaekyu
  • Chemical Reviews, Vol. 112, Issue 5
  • DOI: 10.1021/cr2001178

Fluid–fluid coexistence in colloidal systems with short-ranged strongly directional attraction
journal, June 2003

  • Kern, Norbert; Frenkel, Daan
  • The Journal of Chemical Physics, Vol. 118, Issue 21
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.1569473

Colloids with valence and specific directional bonding
journal, October 2012


Templated Synthesis of Amphiphilic Nanoparticles at the Liquid–Liquid Interface
journal, January 2012

  • Andala, Dickson M.; Shin, Sun Hae Ra; Lee, Hee-Young
  • ACS Nano, Vol. 6, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1021/nn202556b

Effect of Molecular Weight on Lateral Microphase Separation of Mixed Homopolymer Brushes Grafted on Silica Particles
journal, September 2014

  • Bao, Chunhui; Tang, Saide; Wright, Roger A. E.
  • Macromolecules, Vol. 47, Issue 19
  • DOI: 10.1021/ma501474m

Poly( N- isopropyl acrylamide) Brush Topography: Dependence on Grafting Conditions and Temperature
journal, May 2013

  • Choi, B. -C.; Choi, S.; Leckband, D. E.
  • Langmuir, Vol. 29, Issue 19
  • DOI: 10.1021/la400066d

Structural Transitions in Nanoparticle Assemblies Governed by Competing Nanoscale Forces
journal, May 2013

  • Choueiri, Rachelle M.; Klinkova, Anna; Thérien-Aubin, Héloı̈se
  • Journal of the American Chemical Society, Vol. 135, Issue 28
  • DOI: 10.1021/ja404341r

Directed self-assembly of a colloidal kagome lattice
journal, January 2011

  • Chen, Qian; Bae, Sung Chul; Granick, Steve
  • Nature, Vol. 469, Issue 7330
  • DOI: 10.1038/nature09713

Scalable Routes to Janus Au−SiO 2 and Ternary Ag−Au−SiO 2 Nanoparticles
journal, July 2010

  • Chen, Tao; Chen, Gang; Xing, Shuangxi
  • Chemistry of Materials, Vol. 22, Issue 13
  • DOI: 10.1021/cm101155v

Synthesis, properties and applications of Janus nanoparticles
journal, June 2011


Macromol. Rapid Commun. 2/2010
journal, January 2010

  • Pawar, Amar B.; Kretzschmar, Ilona
  • Macromolecular Rapid Communications, Vol. 31, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1002/marc.201090000

Anisotropy of building blocks and their assembly into complex structures
journal, August 2007

  • Glotzer, Sharon C.; Solomon, Michael J.
  • Nature Materials, Vol. 6, Issue 8, p. 557-562
  • DOI: 10.1038/nmat1949

Structural and Optical Properties of Self-Assembled Chains of Plasmonic Nanocubes
journal, October 2014

  • Klinkova, Anna; Thérien-Aubin, Héloïse; Ahmed, Aftab
  • Nano Letters, Vol. 14, Issue 11
  • DOI: 10.1021/nl502746h

Equilibrium phases of one-patch colloids with short-range attractions
journal, January 2014

  • Preisler, Zdeněk; Vissers, Teun; Munaò, Gianmarco
  • Soft Matter, Vol. 10, Issue 28
  • DOI: 10.1039/c4sm00505h

Engineering Nanocomposite Materials for Cancer Therapy
journal, September 2010


The simplest plasmonic molecules: Metal nanoparticle dimers and trimers
journal, December 2014


Structure of Chemically End-Grafted Polymer Chains Studied by Scanning Force Microscopy in Bad-Solvent Conditions
journal, August 1997

  • Koutsos, V.; van der Vegte, E. W.; Pelletier, E.
  • Macromolecules, Vol. 30, Issue 16
  • DOI: 10.1021/ma961625d

Properties and emerging applications of self-assembled structures made from inorganic nanoparticles
journal, December 2009

  • Nie, Zhihong; Petukhova, Alla; Kumacheva, Eugenia
  • Nature Nanotechnology, Vol. 5, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1038/nnano.2009.453

Properties of the gold–sulphur interface: from self-assembled monolayers to clusters
journal, January 2015


Study of metal nanoparticles stabilised by mixed ligand shell: a striking blue shift of the surface-plasmon band evidencing the formation of Janus nanoparticles
journal, January 2007

  • Vilain, Claire; Goettmann, Frédéric; Moores, Audrey
  • Journal of Materials Chemistry, Vol. 17, Issue 33
  • DOI: 10.1039/b706613a

Equilibrium phases of one-patch colloids with short-range attractions
journal, January 2014

  • Preisler, Zdeněk; Vissers, Teun; Munaò, Gianmarco
  • Soft Matter, Vol. 10, Issue 28
  • DOI: 10.1039/C4SM00505H

Guided hierarchical co-assembly of soft patchy nanoparticles
journal, November 2013

  • Gröschel, André H.; Walther, Andreas; Löbling, Tina I.
  • Nature, Vol. 503, Issue 7475
  • DOI: 10.1038/nature12610

Structural Transitions in Nanoparticle Assemblies Governed by Competing Nanoscale Forces
text, January 2013

  • Eugenia, Kumacheva,; Anna, Klinkova,; M., Choueiri, Rachelle
  • The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill University Libraries
  • DOI: 10.17615/r1gh-6765

    Works referencing / citing this record:

    Multiscale Nanoparticle Assembly: From Particulate Precise Manufacturing to Colloidal Processing
    journal, October 2017


    Nanostructured Architectures for Biomolecular Detection inside and outside the Cell
    journal, December 2019

    • Chen, Jenise B.; Yousefi, Hanie; Nemr, Carine R.
    • Advanced Functional Materials, Vol. 30, Issue 37
    • DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201907701

    Artificial Microbial Arenas: Materials for Observing and Manipulating Microbial Consortia
    journal, April 2019

    • Wondraczek, Lothar; Pohnert, Georg; Schacher, Felix H.
    • Advanced Materials, Vol. 31, Issue 24
    • DOI: 10.1002/adma.201900284

    Thin, Porous, and Conductive Networks of Metal Nanoparticles through Electrochemical Welding on a Liquid Metal Template
    journal, May 2018

    • Tang, Jianbo; Zhao, Xi; Li, Jing
    • Advanced Materials Interfaces, Vol. 5, Issue 19
    • DOI: 10.1002/admi.201800406

    Programmable Supra-Assembly of a DNA Surface Adapter for Tunable Chiral Directional Self-Assembly of Gold Nanorods
    journal, October 2017


    Faceted-Charge Patchy LnF 3 Nanocrystals with a Selective Solvent Interaction
    journal, October 2018

    • Martínez-Esaín, Jordi; Puig, Teresa; Obradors, Xavier
    • Angewandte Chemie, Vol. 130, Issue 45
    • DOI: 10.1002/ange.201806273

    Helicoidal Patterning of Nanorods with Polymer Ligands
    journal, January 2019

    • Galati, Elizabeth; Tao, Huachen; Tebbe, Moritz
    • Angewandte Chemie, Vol. 131, Issue 10
    • DOI: 10.1002/ange.201812887

    Staged Surface Patterning and Self‐Assembly of Nanoparticles Functionalized with End‐Grafted Block Copolymer Ligands
    journal, May 2019

    • Rossner, Christian; Zhulina, Ekaterina B.; Kumacheva, Eugenia
    • Angewandte Chemie, Vol. 131, Issue 27
    • DOI: 10.1002/ange.201904430

    Programmable Supra-Assembly of a DNA Surface Adapter for Tunable Chiral Directional Self-Assembly of Gold Nanorods
    journal, October 2017

    • Lan, Xiang; Su, Zhaoming; Zhou, Yadong
    • Angewandte Chemie International Edition, Vol. 56, Issue 46
    • DOI: 10.1002/anie.201709775

    Faceted-Charge Patchy LnF 3 Nanocrystals with a Selective Solvent Interaction
    journal, October 2018

    • Martínez-Esaín, Jordi; Puig, Teresa; Obradors, Xavier
    • Angewandte Chemie International Edition, Vol. 57, Issue 45
    • DOI: 10.1002/anie.201806273

    Staged Surface Patterning and Self‐Assembly of Nanoparticles Functionalized with End‐Grafted Block Copolymer Ligands
    journal, May 2019

    • Rossner, Christian; Zhulina, Ekaterina B.; Kumacheva, Eugenia
    • Angewandte Chemie International Edition, Vol. 58, Issue 27
    • DOI: 10.1002/anie.201904430

    Self-Assembly and Surface Patterning of Polyferrocenylsilane-Functionalized Gold Nanoparticles
    journal, November 2017

    • Choueiri, Rachelle M.; Klinkova, Anna; Pearce, Samuel
    • Macromolecular Rapid Communications, Vol. 39, Issue 3
    • DOI: 10.1002/marc.201700554

    Reconfigurable Polymer Shells on Shape-Anisotropic Gold Nanoparticle Cores
    journal, May 2018

    • Kim, Juyeong; Song, Xiaohui; Kim, Ahyoung
    • Macromolecular Rapid Communications, Vol. 39, Issue 14
    • DOI: 10.1002/marc.201800101

    Directed Self‐Assembly of Patchy Microgels into Anisotropic Nanostructures
    journal, December 2019

    • Xu, Jianchang; Wang, Zhikun; Zhang, Fusheng
    • Macromolecular Rapid Communications, Vol. 41, Issue 2
    • DOI: 10.1002/marc.201900505

    Homopolymer Nanolithography
    journal, July 2017


    Fluorescent Diarylethene Photoswitches-A Universal Tool for Super-Resolution Microscopy in Nanostructured Materials
    journal, January 2018


    Engineering Microstructure with Evaporation-Induced Self-Assembly of Microdroplets
    journal, May 2018


    Surface Patterns of a Tetrahedral Polyelectrolyte Brush Induced by Grafting Density and Charge Fraction
    journal, November 2019


    Transformable masks for colloidal nanosynthesis
    journal, February 2018


    Hierarchical self-assembly of 3D lattices from polydisperse anisometric colloids
    journal, April 2019


    Programming nanoparticle valence bonds with single-stranded DNA encoders
    journal, December 2019


    Surface Interactions between Gold Nanoparticles and Biochar
    journal, July 2017


    Limiting the valence: advancements and new perspectives on patchy colloids, soft functionalized nanoparticles and biomolecules
    journal, January 2017

    • Bianchi, Emanuela; Capone, Barbara; Coluzza, Ivan
    • Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics, Vol. 19, Issue 30
    • DOI: 10.1039/c7cp03149a

    Surface morphologies of spherical polyelectrolyte brushes induced by trivalent salt ions
    journal, January 2018

    • Hao, Qing-Hai; Xia, Gang; Tan, Hong-Ge
    • Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics, Vol. 20, Issue 41
    • DOI: 10.1039/c8cp04235g

    Versatile fabrication of patchy nanoparticles via patterning of grafted diblock copolymers on NP surface
    journal, January 2019

    • Yu, Linxiuzi; Shi, Rui; Qian, Hu-Jun
    • Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics, Vol. 21, Issue 3
    • DOI: 10.1039/c8cp06699j

    Circular assembly of colloidal nanoparticles at the liquid–air interface mediated by block copolymers
    journal, January 2018

    • Wang, Lei; Yang, Yuchi; Shen, Xiudi
    • Nanoscale, Vol. 10, Issue 23
    • DOI: 10.1039/c8nr02519c

    Enabling the synthesis of homogeneous or Janus hairy nanoparticles through surface photoactivation
    journal, January 2018

    • Razza, Nicolò; Rizza, Giancarlo; Coulon, Pierre-Eugène
    • Nanoscale, Vol. 10, Issue 30
    • DOI: 10.1039/c8nr04239j

    Nanoparticle heterogeneity: an emerging structural parameter influencing particle fate in biological media?
    journal, January 2019

    • Rabanel, Jean-Michel; Adibnia, Vahid; Tehrani, Soudeh F.
    • Nanoscale, Vol. 11, Issue 2
    • DOI: 10.1039/c8nr04916e

    Dynamics of amphiphilic block copolymers in an aqueous solution: direct imaging of micelle formation and nanoparticle encapsulation
    journal, January 2019

    • Li, Chang; Tho, Che Chen; Galaktionova, Daria
    • Nanoscale, Vol. 11, Issue 5
    • DOI: 10.1039/c8nr08922a

    Gelation of patchy ligand shell nanoparticles decorated by liquid-crystalline ligands: computer simulation study
    journal, January 2018

    • Ilnytskyi, Jaroslav M.; Slyusarchuk, Arsen; Sokołowski, Stefan
    • Soft Matter, Vol. 14, Issue 19
    • DOI: 10.1039/c8sm00356d

    Nanoparticle self-assembly: from interactions in suspension to polymer nanocomposites
    journal, January 2018

    • Genix, Anne-Caroline; Oberdisse, Julian
    • Soft Matter, Vol. 14, Issue 25
    • DOI: 10.1039/c8sm00430g

    Phase separation in mixed polymer brushes on nanoparticle surfaces enables the generation of anisotropic nanoarchitectures
    journal, January 2018

    • Rossner, Christian; Tang, Qiyun; Müller, Marcus
    • Soft Matter, Vol. 14, Issue 22
    • DOI: 10.1039/c8sm00545a

    Polymers on nanoparticles: structure & dynamics
    journal, January 2019


    Controllable coating and reshaping of gold nanorods with tetracyanoquinodimethane
    journal, January 2019

    • Lee, Jaedeok; Lee, Hyoseong; Kiguye, Collins
    • Chemical Communications, Vol. 55, Issue 78
    • DOI: 10.1039/c9cc05603c

    Patterning of polyoxometalate rings on gold nanorods
    journal, January 2020

    • Yang, Chenggong; Tao, Xingfu; Yang, Yang
    • Chemical Communications, Vol. 56, Issue 11
    • DOI: 10.1039/c9cc06968b

    General criteria for evaluating suitable polymer ligands for the synthesis of aluminum nanocrystals
    journal, January 2020

    • Yu, Hua; Lu, Shaoyong; Gao, Huimin
    • Chemical Communications, Vol. 56, Issue 2
    • DOI: 10.1039/c9cc08476b

    Tailoring the interparticle distance in Langmuir nanoparticle films
    journal, January 2019

    • Benkovičová, Monika; Hološ, Ana; Nádaždy, Peter
    • Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics, Vol. 21, Issue 18
    • DOI: 10.1039/c9cp02064k

    Morphologies of a polyelectrolyte brush grafted onto a cubic colloid in the presence of trivalent ions
    journal, January 2019

    • Tan, Hong-Ge; Xia, Gang; Liu, Li-Xiang
    • Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics, Vol. 21, Issue 36
    • DOI: 10.1039/c9cp03819a

    Polymer-guided assembly of inorganic nanoparticles
    journal, January 2020

    • Yi, Chenglin; Yang, Yiqun; Liu, Ben
    • Chemical Society Reviews, Vol. 49, Issue 2
    • DOI: 10.1039/c9cs00725c

    Self-organization of gel networks formed by block copolymer stars
    journal, January 2019

    • Gârlea, Ioana C.; Jaramillo-Cano, Diego; Likos, Christos N.
    • Soft Matter, Vol. 15, Issue 17
    • DOI: 10.1039/c9sm00111e

    Slowing down supercooled liquids by manipulating their local structure
    journal, January 2019

    • Marín-Aguilar, Susana; Wensink, Henricus H.; Foffi, Giuseppe
    • Soft Matter, Vol. 15, Issue 48
    • DOI: 10.1039/c9sm01746a

    N-Heterocyclic carbene-ended polymers as surface ligands of plasmonic metal nanoparticles
    journal, January 2020

    • Thanneeru, Srinivas; Ayers, Kaitlynn M.; Anuganti, Murali
    • Journal of Materials Chemistry C, Vol. 8, Issue 7
    • DOI: 10.1039/c9tc04776j

    Free energy of metal-organic framework self-assembly
    journal, March 2019

    • Colón, Yamil J.; Guo, Ashley Z.; Antony, Lucas W.
    • The Journal of Chemical Physics, Vol. 150, Issue 10
    • DOI: 10.1063/1.5063588

    Single-component quasicrystalline nanocrystal superlattices through flexible polygon tiling rule
    journal, December 2018