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Title: Interacting supernovae and supernova impostors. LSQ13zm: an outburst heralds the death of a massive star

Abstract

Here we report photometric and spectroscopic observations of the optical transient LSQ13zm. Historical data reveal the presence of an eruptive episode (that we label as ‘2013a’) followed by a much brighter outburst (‘2013b’) three weeks later, that we argue to be the genuine supernova explosion. This sequence of events closely resemble those observed for SN 2010mc and (in 2012) SN 2009ip. Furthermore, the absolute magnitude reached by LSQ13zm during 2013a (MR = -14.87 ± 0.25 mag) is comparable with those of supernova impostors, while that of the 2013b event (MR = -18.46 ± 0.21 mag) is consistent with those of interacting supernovae. Our spectra reveal the presence of a dense and structured circumstellar medium, probably produced through numerous pre-supernova mass-loss events. In addition, we find evidence for high-velocity ejecta, with a fraction of gas expelled at more than 20 000 km s-1. The spectra of LSQ13zm show remarkable similarity with those of well-studied core-collapse supernovae. From the analysis of the available photometric and spectroscopic data, we conclude that we first observed the last event of an eruptive sequence from a massive star, likely a Luminous Blue Variable, which a short time later exploded as a core-collapse supernova. Our detailed analysismore » of archival images suggests that the host galaxy is a star-forming Blue Dwarf Compact Galaxy.« less

Authors:
 [1];  [2];  [3];  [4];  [5];  [6];  [7];  [7];  [8];  [9];  [10];  [11];  [9];  [12];  [13];  [14];  [15];  [16];  [17];  [18] more »;  [18];  [19];  [19];  [19];  [19];  [20];  [19];  [21];  [22];  [23];  [24];  [25];  [26];  [19];  [27];  [28];  [19];  [19];  [29];  [30] « less
  1. INAF Astronomical Observatory of Padova (Italy); Univ. of Padua (Italy). Dept. of Physics and Astronomy
  2. Univ. of Padua (Italy). Dept. of Physics and Astronomy
  3. Univ. of Southampton (United Kingdom). School of Physics and Astronomy
  4. Yale Univ., New Haven, CT (United States). Dept. of Physics
  5. Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Computational Cosmology Center
  6. Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Computational Cosmology Center; Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Astronomy
  7. California Inst. of Technology (CalTech), Pasadena, CA (United States). Astronomy Dept.
  8. Weizmann Inst. of Science, Rehovot (Israel). Benoziyo Center for Astrophysics
  9. Special Astrophysical Observatory, Nizhnij Arkhyz (Russia); Kazan Federal Univ., Kazan (Russia)
  10. Special Astrophysical Observatory, Nizhnij Arkhyz (Russia)
  11. M.V. Lomonosov Moscow State Univ. (Russia)
  12. Special Astrophysical Observatory, Nizhnij Arkhyz (Russia);
  13. Millennium Inst. of Astrophysics, Santiago (Chile); Pontifical Catholic Univ. of Chile, Santiago (Chile). Inst. of Astrophysics
  14. European Southern Observatory, Santiago (Chile)
  15. Pontifical Catholic Univ. of Chile, Santiago (Chile). Inst. of Astrophysics; Millennium Inst. of Astrophysics, Santiago (Chile); Space Science Inst., Boulder, CO (United States)
  16. European Southern Observatories, Garching (Germany); Max Planck Society, Garching (Germany). Max Planck Inst. for Astrophysics
  17. Max Planck Society, Garching (Germany). Max Planck Inst. for Astrophysics
  18. Las Cumbres Observatory Global Telescope Network, Goleta, CA (United States); Univ. of California, Santa Barbara, CA (United States). Dept. of Physics
  19. INAF Astronomical Observatory of Padova (Italy)
  20. Univ. of Atacama, Copiapo (Chile). Dept. of Physics
  21. Italian National Institute of Astrophysics, Tenerife (Spain). Galileo National Telescope
  22. Univ. of Turku, Piikkio (Finland). Tuorla Observatory
  23. Univ. of Belfast (United Kingdom). Astronomy Research Center
  24. Univ. of Illinois, Springfield, IL (United States). Astronomy/ Physics
  25. Univ. of Turku, Piikkio (Finland). Finnish Center for Astronomy with ESO (FINCA) and Tuorla Observatory
  26. Inst. of Sciences of Spain (CSIC-IEEC), Barcelona (Spain)
  27. California Inst. of Technology (CalTech), Pasadena, CA (United States). Jet Propulsion Lab.
  28. INAF Astronomical Observatory of Padova (Italy); Univ. of Belfast (United Kingdom). Astronomy Research Center
  29. Univ. of Padua (Italy). Center of Studies and Activities for Space (CISAS)
  30. Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States). Space and Remote Sensing
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Science (SC)
OSTI Identifier:
1334140
Alternate Identifier(s):
OSTI ID: 1393052
Report Number(s):
LA-UR-15-27629
Journal ID: ISSN 0035-8711
Grant/Contract Number:  
AC52-06NA25396; AC02-05CH11231
Resource Type:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 459; Journal Issue: 1; Journal ID: ISSN 0035-8711
Publisher:
Royal Astronomical Society
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
79 ASTRONOMY AND ASTROPHYSICS; Astronomy and Astrophysics

Citation Formats

Tartaglia, L., Pastorello, A., Sullivan, M., Baltay, C., Rabinowitz, D., Nugent, P., Drake, A. J., Djorgovski, S. G., Gal-Yam, A., Fabrika, S., Barsukova, E. A., Goranskij, V. P., Valeev, A. F., Fatkhullin, T., Schulze, S., Mehner, A., Bauer, F. E., Taubenberger, S., Nordin, J., Valenti, S., Howell, D. A., Benetti, S., Cappellaro, E., Fasano, G., Elias-Rosa, N., Barbieri, M., Bettoni, D., Harutyunyan, A., Kangas, T., Kankare, E., Martin, J. C., Mattila, S., Morales-Garoffolo, A., Ochner, P., Rebbapragada, Umaa D., Terreran, G., Tomasella, L., Turatto, M., Verroi, E., and Woźniak, P. R. Interacting supernovae and supernova impostors. LSQ13zm: an outburst heralds the death of a massive star. United States: N. p., 2016. Web. doi:10.1093/mnras/stw675.
Tartaglia, L., Pastorello, A., Sullivan, M., Baltay, C., Rabinowitz, D., Nugent, P., Drake, A. J., Djorgovski, S. G., Gal-Yam, A., Fabrika, S., Barsukova, E. A., Goranskij, V. P., Valeev, A. F., Fatkhullin, T., Schulze, S., Mehner, A., Bauer, F. E., Taubenberger, S., Nordin, J., Valenti, S., Howell, D. A., Benetti, S., Cappellaro, E., Fasano, G., Elias-Rosa, N., Barbieri, M., Bettoni, D., Harutyunyan, A., Kangas, T., Kankare, E., Martin, J. C., Mattila, S., Morales-Garoffolo, A., Ochner, P., Rebbapragada, Umaa D., Terreran, G., Tomasella, L., Turatto, M., Verroi, E., & Woźniak, P. R. Interacting supernovae and supernova impostors. LSQ13zm: an outburst heralds the death of a massive star. United States. doi:10.1093/mnras/stw675.
Tartaglia, L., Pastorello, A., Sullivan, M., Baltay, C., Rabinowitz, D., Nugent, P., Drake, A. J., Djorgovski, S. G., Gal-Yam, A., Fabrika, S., Barsukova, E. A., Goranskij, V. P., Valeev, A. F., Fatkhullin, T., Schulze, S., Mehner, A., Bauer, F. E., Taubenberger, S., Nordin, J., Valenti, S., Howell, D. A., Benetti, S., Cappellaro, E., Fasano, G., Elias-Rosa, N., Barbieri, M., Bettoni, D., Harutyunyan, A., Kangas, T., Kankare, E., Martin, J. C., Mattila, S., Morales-Garoffolo, A., Ochner, P., Rebbapragada, Umaa D., Terreran, G., Tomasella, L., Turatto, M., Verroi, E., and Woźniak, P. R. Wed . "Interacting supernovae and supernova impostors. LSQ13zm: an outburst heralds the death of a massive star". United States. doi:10.1093/mnras/stw675. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1334140.
@article{osti_1334140,
title = {Interacting supernovae and supernova impostors. LSQ13zm: an outburst heralds the death of a massive star},
author = {Tartaglia, L. and Pastorello, A. and Sullivan, M. and Baltay, C. and Rabinowitz, D. and Nugent, P. and Drake, A. J. and Djorgovski, S. G. and Gal-Yam, A. and Fabrika, S. and Barsukova, E. A. and Goranskij, V. P. and Valeev, A. F. and Fatkhullin, T. and Schulze, S. and Mehner, A. and Bauer, F. E. and Taubenberger, S. and Nordin, J. and Valenti, S. and Howell, D. A. and Benetti, S. and Cappellaro, E. and Fasano, G. and Elias-Rosa, N. and Barbieri, M. and Bettoni, D. and Harutyunyan, A. and Kangas, T. and Kankare, E. and Martin, J. C. and Mattila, S. and Morales-Garoffolo, A. and Ochner, P. and Rebbapragada, Umaa D. and Terreran, G. and Tomasella, L. and Turatto, M. and Verroi, E. and Woźniak, P. R.},
abstractNote = {Here we report photometric and spectroscopic observations of the optical transient LSQ13zm. Historical data reveal the presence of an eruptive episode (that we label as ‘2013a’) followed by a much brighter outburst (‘2013b’) three weeks later, that we argue to be the genuine supernova explosion. This sequence of events closely resemble those observed for SN 2010mc and (in 2012) SN 2009ip. Furthermore, the absolute magnitude reached by LSQ13zm during 2013a (MR = -14.87 ± 0.25 mag) is comparable with those of supernova impostors, while that of the 2013b event (MR = -18.46 ± 0.21 mag) is consistent with those of interacting supernovae. Our spectra reveal the presence of a dense and structured circumstellar medium, probably produced through numerous pre-supernova mass-loss events. In addition, we find evidence for high-velocity ejecta, with a fraction of gas expelled at more than 20 000 km s-1. The spectra of LSQ13zm show remarkable similarity with those of well-studied core-collapse supernovae. From the analysis of the available photometric and spectroscopic data, we conclude that we first observed the last event of an eruptive sequence from a massive star, likely a Luminous Blue Variable, which a short time later exploded as a core-collapse supernova. Our detailed analysis of archival images suggests that the host galaxy is a star-forming Blue Dwarf Compact Galaxy.},
doi = {10.1093/mnras/stw675},
journal = {Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society},
number = 1,
volume = 459,
place = {United States},
year = {2016},
month = {3}
}

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  • Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Vol. 332, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1046/j.1365-8711.2002.05285.x

Measuring Reddening with Sloan Digital sky Survey Stellar Spectra and Recalibrating sfd
journal, August 2011


Preparing for an Explosion: Hydrodynamic Instabilities and Turbulence in Presupernovae
journal, March 2014


A revised historical light curve of Eta Carinae and the timing of close periastron encounters: Light curve of Eta Car
journal, July 2011


On the Role of Continuum-driven Eruptions in the Evolution of Very Massive Stars and Population III Stars
journal, June 2006

  • Smith, Nathan; Owocki, Stanley P.
  • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 645, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1086/506523

The Missing Luminous Blue Variables and the Bistability Jump
journal, November 2004

  • Smith, Nathan; Vink, Jorick S.; de Koter, Alex
  • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 615, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1086/424030

A MASSIVE PROGENITOR OF THE LUMINOUS TYPE IIn SUPERNOVA 2010jl
journal, April 2011


Luminous blue variable eruptions and related transients: diversity of progenitors and outburst properties: LBV diversity
journal, June 2011


Near-infrared spectroscopy of SN 2009ip's 2012 brightening reveals a dusty pre-supernova environment
journal, August 2013

  • Smith, Nathan; Mauerhan, Jon C.; Kasliwal, Mansi M.
  • Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Vol. 434, Issue 4
  • DOI: 10.1093/mnras/stt944

SN 2009ip and SN 2010mc: core-collapse Type IIn supernovae arising from blue supergiants
journal, December 2013

  • Smith, Nathan; Mauerhan, Jon C.; Prieto, Jose L.
  • Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Vol. 438, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1093/mnras/stt2269

EXPLAINING THE SUPERNOVA IMPOSTOR SN 2009ip AS MERGERBURST
journal, January 2013


Main-Sequence Stellar Eruption Model for V838 Monocerotis
journal, January 2003

  • Soker, Noam; Tylenda, Romuald
  • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 582, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1086/367759

Violent stellar merger model for transient events
journal, December 2006


MULTI-WAVELENGTH OBSERVATIONS OF THE ENDURING TYPE IIn SUPERNOVAE 2005ip AND 2006jd
journal, August 2012

  • Stritzinger, Maximilian; Taddia, Francesco; Fransson, Claes
  • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 756, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1088/0004-637X/756/2/173

Metallicity at the explosion sites of interacting transients
journal, August 2015


Interacting supernovae and supernova impostors. SN 2007sv: the major eruption of a massive star in UGC 5979
journal, December 2014

  • Tartaglia, L.; Pastorello, A.; Taubenberger, S.
  • Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Vol. 447, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1093/mnras/stu2384

The Peculiar Type Ib Supernova 2006jc: A WCO Wolf‐Rayet Star Explosion
journal, November 2008

  • Tominaga, N.; Limongi, M.; Suzuki, T.
  • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 687, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1086/591782

SN 2005 gj: evidence for LBV supernovae progenitors?
journal, April 2008


The Type II supernova 1988Z in MCG + 03-28-022: increasing evidence of interaction of supernova ejecta with a circumstellar wind⋆
journal, May 1993

  • Turatto, M.; Cappellaro, E.; Danziger, I. J.
  • Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Vol. 262, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1093/mnras/262.1.128

Observations of type II plateau supernova: SNe 1988A, 1988H and 1989C *
journal, November 1993

  • Turatto, M.; Cappellaro, E.; Benetti, S.
  • Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Vol. 265, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1093/mnras/265.2.471

Evolution of V838 Monocerotis during and after the 2002 eruption
journal, June 2005


A low-energy core-collapse supernova without a hydrogen envelope
journal, June 2009

  • Valenti, S.; Pastorello, A.; Cappellaro, E.
  • Nature, Vol. 459, Issue 7247
  • DOI: 10.1038/nature08023

SN 1997bs in M66: Another Extragalactic η Carinae Analog?1
journal, December 2000

  • Van Dyk, Schuyler D.; Peng, Chien Y.; King, Jennifer Y.
  • Publications of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific, Vol. 112, Issue 778
  • DOI: 10.1086/317727

Discovery and Evolution of an Unusual Luminous Variable Star in NGC 3432 (Supernova 2000ch)
journal, April 2004

  • Wagner, R. M.; Vrba, F. J.; Henden, A. A.
  • Publications of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific, Vol. 116, Issue 818
  • DOI: 10.1086/382997

Bipolar Supernova Explosions
journal, April 2001

  • Wang, Lifan; Howell, D. Andrew; Hoflich, Peter
  • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 550, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1086/319822

Pulsational pair instability as an explanation for the most luminous supernovae
journal, November 2007

  • Woosley, S. E.; Blinnikov, S.; Heger, Alexander
  • Nature, Vol. 450, Issue 7168
  • DOI: 10.1038/nature06333

A Cosmology Calculator for the World Wide Web
journal, December 2006

  • Wright, E. L.
  • Publications of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific, Vol. 118, Issue 850
  • DOI: 10.1086/510102

WISeREP—An Interactive Supernova Data Repository
journal, July 2012

  • Yaron, Ofer; Gal-Yam, Avishay
  • Publications of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific, Vol. 124, Issue 917
  • DOI: 10.1086/666656

    Works referencing / citing this record:

    The bumpy light curve of Type IIn supernova iPTF13z over 3 years
    journal, August 2017


    The bumpy light curve of Type IIn supernova iPTF13z over 3 years
    journal, August 2017