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Title: Global Carbon Budget 2015

Abstract

Accurate assessment of anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO 2) emissions and their redistribution among the atmosphere, ocean, and terrestrial biosphere is important to better understand the global carbon cycle, support the development of climate policies, and project future climate change. Here we describe data sets and a methodology to quantify all major components of the global carbon budget, including their uncertainties, based on the combination of a range of data, algorithms, statistics, and model estimates and their interpretation by a broad scientific community. We also discuss changes compared to previous estimates as well as consistency within and among components, alongside methodology and data limitations. CO 2 emissions from fossil fuels and industry ( E FF) are based on energy statistics and cement production data, while emissions from land-use change ( E LUC), mainly deforestation, are based on combined evidence from land-cover-change data, fire activity associated with deforestation, and models. The global atmospheric CO 2 concentration is measured directly and its rate of growth ( G ATM) is computed from the annual changes in concentration. Moreover, the mean ocean CO 2 sink ( S OCEAN) is based on observations from the 1990s, while the annual anomalies and trends are estimated with oceanmore » models. The variability in S OCEAN is evaluated with data products based on surveys of ocean CO 2 measurements. The global residual terrestrial CO 2 sink ( S LAND) is estimated by the difference of the other terms of the global carbon budget and compared to results of independent dynamic global vegetation models forced by observed climate, CO 2, and land-cover change (some including nitrogen–carbon interactions). We compare the mean land and ocean fluxes and their variability to estimates from three atmospheric inverse methods for three broad latitude bands. All uncertainties are reported as ±1σ, reflecting the current capacity to characterise the annual estimates of each component of the global carbon budget. For the last decade available (2005–2014), E FF was 9.0 ± 0.5 GtC yr -1, E LUC was 0.9 ± 0.5 GtC yr -1, G ATM was 4.4 ± 0.1 GtC yr -1, S OCEAN was 2.6 ± 0.5 GtC yr -1, and S LAND was 3.0 ± 0.8 GtC yr -1. For the year 2014 alone, E FF grew to 9.8 ± 0.5 GtC yr -1, 0.6 % above 2013, continuing the growth trend in these emissions, albeit at a slower rate compared to the average growth of 2.2 % yr -1 that took place during 2005–2014. Also, for 2014, E LUC was 1.1 ± 0.5 GtC yr -1, G ATM was 3.9 ± 0.2 GtC yr -1, S OCEAN was 2.9 ± 0.5 GtC yr -1, and S LAND was 4.1 ± 0.9 GtC yr -1. G ATM was lower in 2014 compared to the past decade (2005–2014), reflecting a larger S LAND for that year. The global atmospheric CO 2 concentration reached 397.15 ± 0.10 ppm averaged over 2014. For 2015, preliminary data indicate that the growth in E FF will be near or slightly below zero, with a projection of -0.6 [range of -1.6 to +0.5] %, based on national emissions projections for China and the USA, and projections of gross domestic product corrected for recent changes in the carbon intensity of the global economy for the rest of the world. From this projection of E FF and assumed constant E LUC for 2015, cumulative emissions of CO 2 will reach about 555 ± 55 GtC (2035 ± 205 GtCO 2) for 1870–2015, about 75 % from E FF and 25 % from E LUC. Finally, this living data update documents changes in the methods and data sets used in this new carbon budget compared with previous publications of this data set (Le Quéré et al., 2015, 2014, 2013). All observations presented here can be downloaded from the Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (doi:10.3334/CDIAC/GCP_2015).« less

Authors:
 [1]; ORCiD logo [1]; ORCiD logo [2];  [3];  [4];  [2];  [4];  [2];  [5];  [5];  [6];  [7];  [8];  [9];  [10];  [1];  [11];  [12];  [12];  [12] more »;  [13];  [12];  [14];  [15];  [16];  [1];  [17];  [18];  [19]; ORCiD logo [20];  [21];  [22]; ORCiD logo [23];  [24];  [25];  [26];  [27];  [6];  [26];  [28];  [29];  [30];  [18];  [31];  [31];  [32];  [33];  [34]; ORCiD logo [35];  [33];  [11];  [36];  [37];  [38];  [39];  [4];  [25];  [40];  [41]; ORCiD logo [42]; ORCiD logo [43];  [44];  [45];  [46];  [47];  [48];  [49]; ORCiD logo [12];  [50]; ORCiD logo [38];  [13] « less
  1. Univ. of East Anglia, Norwich (United Kingdom)
  2. CICERO, Oslo (Norway)
  3. CSIRO Oceans and Atmosphere, Canberra (Australia)
  4. Univ. of Exeter (United Kingdom)
  5. Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)
  6. Woods Hole Research Center, Falmouth, MA (United States)
  7. Univ. of Bristol (United Kingdom)
  8. Univ. of California, San Diego, CA (United States)
  9. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Boulder, CO (United States)
  10. Karlsruhe Inst. of Technology (KIT) (Germany)
  11. Univ. of Miami, FL (United States); National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) and Atlantic Oceanographic and Meteorological Lab., Boulder, CO (United States)
  12. CEA-CNRS-UVSQ (France)
  13. Univ. of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States)
  14. Aix-Marseille Univ., and CNRS/IN2P3, Marseille (France)
  15. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) and Pacific Marine Environmental Lab (PMEL), Seattle, WA (United States)
  16. InnovOcean site, Ostend (Belgium)
  17. Alfred Wegener Inst. for Polar and Marine Research, Bremerhave (Germany)
  18. Max Planck Inst. for Meteorology, Hamburg (Germany)
  19. Univ. of Illinois, Urbana, IL (United States)
  20. Inst. of Applied Energy (IAE), Tokyo (Japan)
  21. Plymouth Marine Lab. (United Kingdom)
  22. Hague/ Bilthoven and Utrecht Univ. (Netherlands)
  23. Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)
  24. Univ. of Zurich (Switzerland)
  25. Bjerknes Centre for Climate Research, Bergen (Norway)
  26. Sorbonne Univ., Paris (France)
  27. CSIRO Oceans and Atmosphere, Tasmania (Australia)
  28. Univ. of Miami, FL (United States)
  29. Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States)
  30. Japan Agency for Marine-Eart Science and Technology (JAMSTEC), Yokosuka (Japan)
  31. National Inst. for Environmental Studies (NIES), Ibaraki (Japan)
  32. Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States)
  33. Univ. of Bergen (Norway); Bjerknes Centre for Climate Research, Bergen (Norway)
  34. Fisheries Research Agency, Yokohama (Japan)
  35. Marine Research Inst. (CSIC), Pontevedra (Spain)
  36. Montana State Univ., Bozeman, MT (United States)
  37. Leibniz Inst. for Baltic Sea Research Warnemunde, Rostock (Germany)
  38. Max Planck Society, Jena (Germany). Max Planck Inst. for Biogeochemistry
  39. Japan Meteorological Agency, Tokyo (Japan)
  40. National Centre for Meteorological Research (CNRM)
  41. GEOMAR Helmholtz Center for Ocean Research Kiel (Germany)
  42. Univ. of Bern (Switzerland); Imperial College, Berkshire (United Kingdom)
  43. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) and Pacific Marine Environmental Lab (PMEL), Seattle, WA (United States); Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States)
  44. Columbia Univ., Palisades, NY (United States). Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory
  45. CSIRO Oceans and Atmospher and Antarctic Climate and Ecosystems Co-operative Research Center, Hobart (Australia)
  46. Wageningen Univ. (Netherlands); ICOS-Carbon Portal, Wageningen (Netherlands)
  47. VU Univ. Amsterdam (Netherlands)
  48. Royal Netherlands Inst. for Sea Research, Texel (Netherlands)
  49. Univ. of New Hampshire, Durham, NH (United States)
  50. Met Office Hadley Center, Exeter (United Kingdom)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Science (SC), Biological and Environmental Research (BER) (SC-23)
OSTI Identifier:
1265897
Alternate Identifier(s):
OSTI ID: 1378688
Grant/Contract Number:  
AC05-00OR22725; AC02-05CH11231
Resource Type:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Earth System Science Data (Online)
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Name: Earth System Science Data (Online); Journal Volume: 7; Journal Issue: 2; Journal ID: ISSN 1866-3516
Publisher:
Copernicus
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
54 ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES

Citation Formats

Le Quéré, C., Moriarty, R., Andrew, R. M., Canadell, J. G., Sitch, S., Korsbakken, J. I., Friedlingstein, P., Peters, G. P., Andres, R. J., Boden, T. A., Houghton, R. A., House, J. I., Keeling, R. F., Tans, P., Arneth, A., Bakker, D. C. E., Barbero, L., Bopp, L., Chang, J., Chevallier, F., Chini, L. P., Ciais, P., Fader, M., Feely, R. A., Gkritzalis, T., Harris, I., Hauck, J., Ilyina, T., Jain, A. K., Kato, E., Kitidis, V., Klein Goldewijk, K., Koven, C., Landschützer, P., Lauvset, S. K., Lefèvre, N., Lenton, A., Lima, I. D., Metzl, N., Millero, F., Munro, D. R., Murata, A., Nabel, J. E. M. S., Nakaoka, S., Nojiri, Y., O'Brien, K., Olsen, A., Ono, T., Pérez, F. F., Pfeil, B., Pierrot, D., Poulter, B., Rehder, G., Rödenbeck, C., Saito, S., Schuster, U., Schwinger, J., Séférian, R., Steinhoff, T., Stocker, B. D., Sutton, A. J., Takahashi, T., Tilbrook, B., van der Laan-Luijkx, I. T., van der Werf, G. R., van Heuven, S., Vandemark, D., Viovy, N., Wiltshire, A., Zaehle, S., and Zeng, N. Global Carbon Budget 2015. United States: N. p., 2015. Web. doi:10.5194/essd-7-349-2015.
Le Quéré, C., Moriarty, R., Andrew, R. M., Canadell, J. G., Sitch, S., Korsbakken, J. I., Friedlingstein, P., Peters, G. P., Andres, R. J., Boden, T. A., Houghton, R. A., House, J. I., Keeling, R. F., Tans, P., Arneth, A., Bakker, D. C. E., Barbero, L., Bopp, L., Chang, J., Chevallier, F., Chini, L. P., Ciais, P., Fader, M., Feely, R. A., Gkritzalis, T., Harris, I., Hauck, J., Ilyina, T., Jain, A. K., Kato, E., Kitidis, V., Klein Goldewijk, K., Koven, C., Landschützer, P., Lauvset, S. K., Lefèvre, N., Lenton, A., Lima, I. D., Metzl, N., Millero, F., Munro, D. R., Murata, A., Nabel, J. E. M. S., Nakaoka, S., Nojiri, Y., O'Brien, K., Olsen, A., Ono, T., Pérez, F. F., Pfeil, B., Pierrot, D., Poulter, B., Rehder, G., Rödenbeck, C., Saito, S., Schuster, U., Schwinger, J., Séférian, R., Steinhoff, T., Stocker, B. D., Sutton, A. J., Takahashi, T., Tilbrook, B., van der Laan-Luijkx, I. T., van der Werf, G. R., van Heuven, S., Vandemark, D., Viovy, N., Wiltshire, A., Zaehle, S., & Zeng, N. Global Carbon Budget 2015. United States. doi:10.5194/essd-7-349-2015.
Le Quéré, C., Moriarty, R., Andrew, R. M., Canadell, J. G., Sitch, S., Korsbakken, J. I., Friedlingstein, P., Peters, G. P., Andres, R. J., Boden, T. A., Houghton, R. A., House, J. I., Keeling, R. F., Tans, P., Arneth, A., Bakker, D. C. E., Barbero, L., Bopp, L., Chang, J., Chevallier, F., Chini, L. P., Ciais, P., Fader, M., Feely, R. A., Gkritzalis, T., Harris, I., Hauck, J., Ilyina, T., Jain, A. K., Kato, E., Kitidis, V., Klein Goldewijk, K., Koven, C., Landschützer, P., Lauvset, S. K., Lefèvre, N., Lenton, A., Lima, I. D., Metzl, N., Millero, F., Munro, D. R., Murata, A., Nabel, J. E. M. S., Nakaoka, S., Nojiri, Y., O'Brien, K., Olsen, A., Ono, T., Pérez, F. F., Pfeil, B., Pierrot, D., Poulter, B., Rehder, G., Rödenbeck, C., Saito, S., Schuster, U., Schwinger, J., Séférian, R., Steinhoff, T., Stocker, B. D., Sutton, A. J., Takahashi, T., Tilbrook, B., van der Laan-Luijkx, I. T., van der Werf, G. R., van Heuven, S., Vandemark, D., Viovy, N., Wiltshire, A., Zaehle, S., and Zeng, N. Mon . "Global Carbon Budget 2015". United States. doi:10.5194/essd-7-349-2015. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1265897.
@article{osti_1265897,
title = {Global Carbon Budget 2015},
author = {Le Quéré, C. and Moriarty, R. and Andrew, R. M. and Canadell, J. G. and Sitch, S. and Korsbakken, J. I. and Friedlingstein, P. and Peters, G. P. and Andres, R. J. and Boden, T. A. and Houghton, R. A. and House, J. I. and Keeling, R. F. and Tans, P. and Arneth, A. and Bakker, D. C. E. and Barbero, L. and Bopp, L. and Chang, J. and Chevallier, F. and Chini, L. P. and Ciais, P. and Fader, M. and Feely, R. A. and Gkritzalis, T. and Harris, I. and Hauck, J. and Ilyina, T. and Jain, A. K. and Kato, E. and Kitidis, V. and Klein Goldewijk, K. and Koven, C. and Landschützer, P. and Lauvset, S. K. and Lefèvre, N. and Lenton, A. and Lima, I. D. and Metzl, N. and Millero, F. and Munro, D. R. and Murata, A. and Nabel, J. E. M. S. and Nakaoka, S. and Nojiri, Y. and O'Brien, K. and Olsen, A. and Ono, T. and Pérez, F. F. and Pfeil, B. and Pierrot, D. and Poulter, B. and Rehder, G. and Rödenbeck, C. and Saito, S. and Schuster, U. and Schwinger, J. and Séférian, R. and Steinhoff, T. and Stocker, B. D. and Sutton, A. J. and Takahashi, T. and Tilbrook, B. and van der Laan-Luijkx, I. T. and van der Werf, G. R. and van Heuven, S. and Vandemark, D. and Viovy, N. and Wiltshire, A. and Zaehle, S. and Zeng, N.},
abstractNote = {Accurate assessment of anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions and their redistribution among the atmosphere, ocean, and terrestrial biosphere is important to better understand the global carbon cycle, support the development of climate policies, and project future climate change. Here we describe data sets and a methodology to quantify all major components of the global carbon budget, including their uncertainties, based on the combination of a range of data, algorithms, statistics, and model estimates and their interpretation by a broad scientific community. We also discuss changes compared to previous estimates as well as consistency within and among components, alongside methodology and data limitations. CO2 emissions from fossil fuels and industry (EFF) are based on energy statistics and cement production data, while emissions from land-use change (ELUC), mainly deforestation, are based on combined evidence from land-cover-change data, fire activity associated with deforestation, and models. The global atmospheric CO2 concentration is measured directly and its rate of growth (GATM) is computed from the annual changes in concentration. Moreover, the mean ocean CO2 sink (SOCEAN) is based on observations from the 1990s, while the annual anomalies and trends are estimated with ocean models. The variability in SOCEAN is evaluated with data products based on surveys of ocean CO2 measurements. The global residual terrestrial CO2 sink (SLAND) is estimated by the difference of the other terms of the global carbon budget and compared to results of independent dynamic global vegetation models forced by observed climate, CO2, and land-cover change (some including nitrogen–carbon interactions). We compare the mean land and ocean fluxes and their variability to estimates from three atmospheric inverse methods for three broad latitude bands. All uncertainties are reported as ±1σ, reflecting the current capacity to characterise the annual estimates of each component of the global carbon budget. For the last decade available (2005–2014), EFF was 9.0 ± 0.5 GtC yr-1, ELUC was 0.9 ± 0.5 GtC yr-1, GATM was 4.4 ± 0.1 GtC yr-1, SOCEAN was 2.6 ± 0.5 GtC yr-1, and SLAND was 3.0 ± 0.8 GtC yr-1. For the year 2014 alone, EFF grew to 9.8 ± 0.5 GtC yr-1, 0.6 % above 2013, continuing the growth trend in these emissions, albeit at a slower rate compared to the average growth of 2.2 % yr-1 that took place during 2005–2014. Also, for 2014, ELUC was 1.1 ± 0.5 GtC yr-1, GATM was 3.9 ± 0.2 GtC yr-1, SOCEAN was 2.9 ± 0.5 GtC yr-1, and SLAND was 4.1 ± 0.9 GtC yr-1. GATM was lower in 2014 compared to the past decade (2005–2014), reflecting a larger SLAND for that year. The global atmospheric CO2 concentration reached 397.15 ± 0.10 ppm averaged over 2014. For 2015, preliminary data indicate that the growth in EFF will be near or slightly below zero, with a projection of -0.6 [range of -1.6 to +0.5] %, based on national emissions projections for China and the USA, and projections of gross domestic product corrected for recent changes in the carbon intensity of the global economy for the rest of the world. From this projection of EFF and assumed constant ELUC for 2015, cumulative emissions of CO2 will reach about 555 ± 55 GtC (2035 ± 205 GtCO2) for 1870–2015, about 75 % from EFF and 25 % from ELUC. Finally, this living data update documents changes in the methods and data sets used in this new carbon budget compared with previous publications of this data set (Le Quéré et al., 2015, 2014, 2013). All observations presented here can be downloaded from the Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (doi:10.3334/CDIAC/GCP_2015).},
doi = {10.5194/essd-7-349-2015},
journal = {Earth System Science Data (Online)},
number = 2,
volume = 7,
place = {United States},
year = {2015},
month = {12}
}

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    Questioning emissions-based approaches for the definition of REDD+ deforestation baselines in high forest cover/low deforestation countries
    journal, October 2018

    • Dezécache, Camille; Salles, Jean-Michel; Hérault, Bruno
    • Carbon Balance and Management, Vol. 13, Issue 1
    • DOI: 10.1186/s13021-018-0109-1

    Aboveground carbon loss in natural and managed tropical forests from 2000 to 2012
    journal, July 2015


    Global fire emissions and the contribution of deforestation, savanna, forest, agricultural, and peat fires (1997–2009)
    journal, January 2010

    • van der Werf, G. R.; Randerson, J. T.; Giglio, L.
    • Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, Vol. 10, Issue 23
    • DOI: 10.5194/acp-10-11707-2010

    The PRIMAP-hist national historical emissions time series
    journal, January 2016

    • Gütschow, Johannes; Jeffery, M. Louise; Gieseke, Robert
    • Earth System Science Data, Vol. 8, Issue 2
    • DOI: 10.5194/essd-8-571-2016

    Data-based estimates of the ocean carbon sink variability – first results of the Surface Ocean p CO 2 Mapping intercomparison (SOCOM)
    journal, January 2015


    LPJmL4 – a dynamic global vegetation model with managed land – Part 2: Model evaluation
    journal, January 2018

    • Schaphoff, Sibyll; Forkel, Matthias; Müller, Christoph
    • Geoscientific Model Development, Vol. 11, Issue 4
    • DOI: 10.5194/gmd-11-1377-2018

    Terminology as a key uncertainty in net land use and land cover change carbon flux estimates
    journal, January 2014

    • Pongratz, J.; Reick, C. H.; Houghton, R. A.
    • Earth System Dynamics, Vol. 5, Issue 1
    • DOI: 10.5194/esd-5-177-2014

    A uniform, quality controlled Surface Ocean CO 2 Atlas (SOCAT)
    journal, January 2013


    Contrasting effects of acidification and warming on dimethylsulfide concentrations during a temperate estuarine fall bloom mesocosm experiment
    journal, January 2019

    • Bénard, Robin; Levasseur, Maurice; Scarratt, Michael
    • Biogeosciences, Vol. 16, Issue 6
    • DOI: 10.5194/bg-16-1167-2019

    Implications of incorporating N cycling and N limitations on primary production in an individual-based dynamic vegetation model
    journal, January 2014


    LPJmL4 – a dynamic global vegetation model with managed land – Part 1: Model description
    journal, January 2018

    • Schaphoff, Sibyll; von Bloh, Werner; Rammig, Anja
    • Geoscientific Model Development, Vol. 11, Issue 4
    • DOI: 10.5194/gmd-11-1343-2018

    Contribution of permafrost soils to the global carbon budget
    journal, February 2013


    Evaluation of the carbon cycle components in the Norwegian Earth System Model (NorESM)
    journal, January 2013

    • Tjiputra, J. F.; Roelandt, C.; Bentsen, M.
    • Geoscientific Model Development, Vol. 6, Issue 2
    • DOI: 10.5194/gmd-6-301-2013

    Uncertainty in temperature response of current consumption-based emissions estimates
    journal, January 2015

    • Karstensen, J.; Peters, G. P.; Andrew, R. M.
    • Earth System Dynamics, Vol. 6, Issue 1
    • DOI: 10.5194/esd-6-287-2015

    A synthesis of carbon dioxide emissions from fossil-fuel combustion
    journal, January 2012


    An isopycnic ocean carbon cycle model
    journal, January 2010

    • Assmann, K. M.; Bentsen, M.; Segschneider, J.
    • Geoscientific Model Development, Vol. 3, Issue 1
    • DOI: 10.5194/gmd-3-143-2010

    Simulating estimation of California fossil fuel and biosphere carbon dioxide exchanges combining in situ tower and satellite column observations
    journal, March 2017

    • Fischer, Marc L.; Parazoo, Nicholas; Brophy, Kieran
    • Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, Vol. 122, Issue 6, p. 3653-3671
    • DOI: 10.1002/2016jd025617

    The Asymmetrical Effects of Economic Development on Consumption-based and Production-based Carbon Dioxide Emissions, 1990 to 2014
    journal, January 2018

    • Huang, Xiaorui; Jorgenson, Andrew K.
    • Socius: Sociological Research for a Dynamic World, Vol. 4
    • DOI: 10.1177/2378023118773626

    Global carbon budget 2013
    journal, January 2014

    • Le Quéré, C.; Peters, G. P.; Andres, R. J.
    • Earth System Science Data, Vol. 6, Issue 1
    • DOI: 10.5194/essd-6-235-2014

    Global carbon budget 2014
    journal, January 2015

    • Le Quéré, C.; Moriarty, R.; Andrew, R. M.
    • Earth System Science Data, Vol. 7, Issue 1
    • DOI: 10.5194/essd-7-47-2015

    Development of a high-resolution spatial inventory of greenhouse gas emissions for Poland from stationary and mobile sources
    journal, February 2018

    • Bun, Rostyslav; Nahorski, Zbigniew; Horabik-Pyzel, Joanna
    • Mitigation and Adaptation Strategies for Global Change, Vol. 24, Issue 6
    • DOI: 10.1007/s11027-018-9791-2

    Interannual sea–air CO 2 flux variability from an observation-driven ocean mixed-layer scheme
    journal, January 2014


    Reaching peak emissions
    journal, December 2015

    • Jackson, Robert B.; Canadell, Josep G.; Le Quéré, Corinne
    • Nature Climate Change, Vol. 6, Issue 1
    • DOI: 10.1038/nclimate2892

    A comparison of posterior atmospheric CO 2 adjustments obtained from in situ and GOSAT constrained flux inversions
    journal, January 2018

    • Polavarapu, Saroja M.; Deng, Feng; Byrne, Brendan
    • Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, Vol. 18, Issue 16
    • DOI: 10.5194/acp-18-12011-2018

    A global synthesis inversion analysis of recent variability in CO 2 fluxes using GOSAT and in situ observations
    journal, January 2018

    • Wang, James S.; Kawa, S. Randolph; Collatz, G. James
    • Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, Vol. 18, Issue 15
    • DOI: 10.5194/acp-18-11097-2018

    Estimates of Water-Column Nutrient Concentrations and Carbonate System Parameters in the Global Ocean: A Novel Approach Based on Neural Networks
    journal, May 2017

    • Sauzède, Raphaëlle; Bittig, Henry C.; Claustre, Hervé
    • Frontiers in Marine Science, Vol. 4
    • DOI: 10.3389/fmars.2017.00128