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Title: Validation metrics for turbulent plasma transport

Abstract

Developing accurate models of plasma dynamics is essential for confident predictive modeling of current and future fusion devices. In modern computer science and engineering, formal verification and validation processes are used to assess model accuracy and establish confidence in the predictive capabilities of a given model. This paper provides an overview of the key guiding principles and best practices for the development of validation metrics, illustrated using examples from investigations of turbulent transport in magnetically confined plasmas. Particular emphasis is given to the importance of uncertainty quantification and its inclusion within the metrics, and the need for utilizing synthetic diagnostics to enable quantitatively meaningful comparisons between simulation and experiment. As a starting point, the structure of commonly used global transport model metrics and their limitations is reviewed. An alternate approach is then presented, which focuses upon comparisons of predicted local fluxes, fluctuations, and equilibrium gradients against observation. Furthermore, the utility of metrics based upon these comparisons is demonstrated by applying them to gyrokinetic predictions of turbulent transport in a variety of discharges performed on the DIII-D tokamak, as part of a multi-year transport model validation activity.

Authors:
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Univ. of California, San Diego, CA (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Science (SC), Fusion Energy Sciences (FES)
OSTI Identifier:
1259193
Alternate Identifier(s):
OSTI ID: 1420654; OSTI ID: 1434473
Grant/Contract Number:  
FG02-06ER54871; SC0006957
Resource Type:
Published Article
Journal Name:
Physics of Plasmas
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Name: Physics of Plasmas Journal Volume: 23 Journal Issue: 6; Journal ID: ISSN 1070-664X
Publisher:
American Institute of Physics
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
70 PLASMA PHYSICS AND FUSION TECHNOLOGY; Error Analysis; Plasma Gyrokinetics; Turbulent Transport Process; Plasma Diagnostics; Plasma Fluctuations; Experiment Design; Plasma Turbulence; Turbulence Simulations; Plasma Temperature

Citation Formats

Holland, C. Validation metrics for turbulent plasma transport. United States: N. p., 2016. Web. doi:10.1063/1.4954151.
Holland, C. Validation metrics for turbulent plasma transport. United States. https://doi.org/10.1063/1.4954151
Holland, C. Wed . "Validation metrics for turbulent plasma transport". United States. https://doi.org/10.1063/1.4954151.
@article{osti_1259193,
title = {Validation metrics for turbulent plasma transport},
author = {Holland, C.},
abstractNote = {Developing accurate models of plasma dynamics is essential for confident predictive modeling of current and future fusion devices. In modern computer science and engineering, formal verification and validation processes are used to assess model accuracy and establish confidence in the predictive capabilities of a given model. This paper provides an overview of the key guiding principles and best practices for the development of validation metrics, illustrated using examples from investigations of turbulent transport in magnetically confined plasmas. Particular emphasis is given to the importance of uncertainty quantification and its inclusion within the metrics, and the need for utilizing synthetic diagnostics to enable quantitatively meaningful comparisons between simulation and experiment. As a starting point, the structure of commonly used global transport model metrics and their limitations is reviewed. An alternate approach is then presented, which focuses upon comparisons of predicted local fluxes, fluctuations, and equilibrium gradients against observation. Furthermore, the utility of metrics based upon these comparisons is demonstrated by applying them to gyrokinetic predictions of turbulent transport in a variety of discharges performed on the DIII-D tokamak, as part of a multi-year transport model validation activity.},
doi = {10.1063/1.4954151},
journal = {Physics of Plasmas},
number = 6,
volume = 23,
place = {United States},
year = {2016},
month = {6}
}

Journal Article:
Free Publicly Available Full Text
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https://doi.org/10.1063/1.4954151

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Cited by: 8 works
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  • Review of Scientific Instruments, Vol. 77, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.2151857

Comparison of scrape-off layer turbulence simulations with experiments using a synthetic gas puff imaging diagnostic
journal, February 2011

  • Russell, D. A.; Myra, J. R.; D’Ippolito, D. A.
  • Physics of Plasmas, Vol. 18, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.3553024

High sensitivity beam emission spectroscopy for core plasma turbulence imaging (invited)
journal, October 2006

  • McKee, G. R.; Fonck, R. J.; Gupta, D. K.
  • Review of Scientific Instruments, Vol. 77, Issue 10
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.2219429

Spatial transfer function for the beam emission spectroscopy diagnostic on DIII-D
journal, October 2006

  • Shafer, M. W.; Fonck, R. J.; McKee, G. R.
  • Review of Scientific Instruments, Vol. 77, Issue 10
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.2221908

Zonal flows in plasma—a review
journal, April 2005


Saturation of Gyrokinetic Turbulence through Damped Eigenmodes
journal, March 2011


2D properties of core turbulence on DIII-D and comparison to gyrokinetic simulations
journal, March 2012

  • Shafer, M. W.; Fonck, R. J.; McKee, G. R.
  • Physics of Plasmas, Vol. 19, Issue 3
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.3691965

The Homogeneous Chaos
journal, October 1938

  • Wiener, Norbert
  • American Journal of Mathematics, Vol. 60, Issue 4
  • DOI: 10.2307/2371268

Uncertainty Quantification and Polynomial Chaos Techniques in Computational Fluid Dynamics
journal, January 2009


Chapter 3: MHD stability, operational limits and disruptions
journal, June 2007


Predictive capability of MHD stability limits in high performance DIII-D discharges
journal, July 2002


Theory and Simulation Basis for Magnetohydrodynamic Stability in DIII-D
journal, October 2005

  • Turnbull, A. D.; Brennan, D. P.; Chu, M. S.
  • Fusion Science and Technology, Vol. 48, Issue 2
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Fast imaging of transients and coherent magnetohydrodynamic modes in DIII-D
journal, May 2009

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  • DOI: 10.1063/1.3118626

Radial Structure of Alfvén Eigenmodes in the DIII-D Tokamak through Electron-Cyclotron-Emission Measurements
journal, September 2006


Fast Ion Induced Shearing of 2D Alfvén Eigenmodes Measured by Electron Cyclotron Emission Imaging
journal, February 2011


On the application of electron cyclotron emission imaging to the validation of theoretical models of magnetohydrodynamic activity
journal, May 2011

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  • Physics of Plasmas, Vol. 18, Issue 5
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A design retrospective of the DIII-D tokamak
journal, May 2002


Works referencing / citing this record:

Shaping effects on scrape-off layer plasma turbulence: A rigorous validation of three-dimensional simulations against TCV measurements
journal, January 2020

  • Riva, F.; Tsui, C. K.; Boedo, J. A.
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Tractable flux-driven temperature, density, and rotation profile evolution with the quasilinear gyrokinetic transport model QuaLiKiz
journal, November 2017

  • Citrin, J.; Bourdelle, C.; Casson, F. J.
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Criteria for the importance of multi-scale interactions in turbulent transport simulations
journal, June 2019

  • Creely, A. J.; Rodriguez-Fernandez, P.; Conway, G. D.
  • Plasma Physics and Controlled Fusion, Vol. 61, Issue 8
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Comparison between measured and predicted turbulence frequency spectra in ITG and TEM regimes
journal, May 2017

  • Citrin, J.; Arnichand, H.; Bernardo, J.
  • Plasma Physics and Controlled Fusion, Vol. 59, Issue 6
  • DOI: 10.1088/1361-6587/aa6d1d

Validation study of GENE on ASDEX Upgrade using perturbative thermal diffusivity measured with partial sawtooth heat pulses
journal, September 2018


Propagation of input parameter uncertainties in transport models
journal, October 2018

  • Vaezi, P.; Holland, C.; Grierson, B. A.
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  • DOI: 10.1063/1.5053906

Optimal MSE polarisation angle and q-profile estimation using Kalman filters and the plasma simulator RAPTOR
journal, February 2019

  • Messmer, M. C. C.; Felici, F.; Sauter, O.
  • Plasma Physics and Controlled Fusion, Vol. 61, Issue 3
  • DOI: 10.1088/1361-6587/aaf7ed

Role of Microtearing Turbulence in DIII-D High Bootstrap Current Fraction Plasmas
journal, November 2019


Main-ion intrinsic toroidal rotation across the ITG/TEM boundary in DIII-D discharges during ohmic and electron cyclotron heating
journal, April 2019

  • Grierson, B. A.; Chrystal, C.; Haskey, S. R.
  • Physics of Plasmas, Vol. 26, Issue 4
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.5090505

Experimental trends of reflectometry frequency spectra emerging from a systematic analysis of the Tore Supra database
journal, March 2019

  • Sun, Y.; Sabot, R.; Heuraux, S.
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  • DOI: 10.1063/1.5082953